Theories of Personality Notes

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Theories of Personality

8/28/2013 5:32:00 AM 8/28/13

Chapter 1A

I am introverted, agreeable, conscientious, studious, loyal, motivated, caring, devoted, open-minded, stubborn, independent

What is personality?

 Origin of “personality”

o Latin “persona” (mask) o Typical nature

 Technical definition: “Psychological qualities that contribute to an individual‟s enduring and distinctive patterns of feeling, thinking and behaving”

o Enduing: somewhat consistent across time and situations o Distinctive- different individuals from each other

Issues addressed in the field

 Human universals vs. cultural differences o Ex: basic emotions

 Individual differences and uniqueness

 Investigation based on personality theories Topics to be covered:

 Scientific study of people

 Personality studied and analyzed through numerous viewpoints o Psychodynamic, humanistic, trait, biological, behaviorism,

personal construct theory, social cognitive theory 9/9/13

What is a theory?

 Related assumptions used by scientists for logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypothesis

 Theories are not hypothesis

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 Reliable, coherent and parsimonious

 Leads to hypothesis

 1. Organize info

o Keep track of what we know

 2. New knowledge

o Help scientists create new knowledge about field

 3. New issues to study

o New areas that otherwise would not have been studied (Hypotheses- statements about predicted relationships between variables, should be clear and testable )

Theory Hypothesis Research Data reshape/build theory Theory (gives meaning to data)

Theory (general), Hypothesis (Specific) Why different theories?

 Theory comes from o Scientific evidence o Theorist‟s perspective

 Psychology of science- scientists‟ personality traits influence their theories

Theories as toolkits

 No one complete, comprehensive theory

o Each separate theory provides unique insights  Multiple theories not necessarily bad o Not question of right vs. wrong

 Elements of different theories as different tools to help in understanding of personality

o Individual differences o Human motivation

o Development of self-concept o Causes of emotions

o Performance in work settings Five goals of personality theory

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 1. Scientific observation

o Systematic descriptions of people o 3 requirements

 Large, diverse sample  Objective observations  Use of specialized tools

 2. Systematic nature

o Provide understanding of people o Logical, coherent description

 3. Testability

o Testable through objective scientific evidence

 4. Comprehensiveness

o Significant factors related to human functioning  Behaviors, cognitions, emotions

 5. Applications

o Conversion of theoretical ideas to real world applications  Clinical, educational, developmental, i/o psychology Understanding Personality

 3 Questions about personality o 1. What?  People‟s characteristics  Organization o 2. How?  Influences on development o 3. Why?

 Reasons for behavior Important aspects of personality

 Structure

o Building blocks o Stable and enduring

 Body parts

o 5 factor model (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism- we all have these 5 to varying degrees)

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o Hierarchical nature

 Analogous to organizations

 Process

o Dynamic aspects of personality  Motivation, emotion, action

o Emphasis on different motivational processes  Biology, future, conscious vs. unconscious

 Growth and development

o Patterns of development common across people  Developmental stages

 Individual differences o Nature vs. nurture

 Psychopathology and behavior change o Change

 How people change  Resistance to change o Theorists as therapists

 Systematic lessons from therapy

o Importance of applicability, practicality of theory Related issues in personality

 1. Internal and external determinants o Internal

 Temperament

 Emotional, behavioral tendencies

 Fearfulness

 Evolutionary psychology

 Predisposition toward certain behaviors

 Human universals o External

 Culture

 Behaviors, rituals, beliefs  Social class

 Status, roles, duties, privileges  Family

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 Role models

 Shape behavior  Peers

 Varying levels of emphasis on internal vs. external  Freud vs. Skinner

 Now: both as essential aspects of behavior

 2. Consistency

o Consistency vs. inconsistency in behaviors o Time and consistency

 3. States of awareness and the unconscious

o Mental activities outside of conscious awareness  Aspects of personality

 Motivation  Emotions

 4. Influence of past, present and future

o Agreement regarding influence of present factors o Influence of past on present

o Influence of future on present

 5. Personality as a science

o Other sciences mostly reductionist o Should personality be reductionist? Conclusion

 Theories in personality o What is a theory?

o Key functions of theories o Theories as toolkits

o Goals of personality theory

 Understanding personality

o Important aspects (personality structure)

 Issues to consider

5-6 questions based on reading or assign own article to the class but it must be approved 2 weeks before presentation and include brief summary of article on how it relates to topic +3 bonus points

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 Do you demonstrate that you understand the reading?

 How well the group facilitates class discussion- ask interesting follow up questions

 How well prepared the group is? 9/11/13

Theory and Research

 Theory without research o Speculation

 Research without theory o Aimless fact gathering LOTS data

 Life history or life record

o School records (test scores, report cards), Court records

 Observed data

o Information from observers (teachers, parents, friends), Questionnaires

 Tests and experiments

o Intelligence tests, Standardized tests, Experimental

manipulation (disgust makes judgment harsher, mood makes problem solving better, rejection and aggression)

 Ayduk, Gyurak & Luerssen

 Influence of rejection sensitivity (anticipate rejection) on participants after rejection

 Anxious about rejection

 Ambiguous situations- more likely to see rejection

 Participants told they were involved in study about partner selection on dating websites

 Wrote short bio sketches

 Were told bio sketches would be sent to member of opposite sex

 Waited at computer to see if other “participant” selected them

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 Control condition

 “Technical difficulties”

 Internet access cut off- no one rejected or liked you

 Rejected condition

 Email from “Beth” (actually experimenter) regarding rejection

 Then- asked helped set up for second stage of experiment for Beth

 Beth hates spicy food

 Participant left alone with hot sauce  Rejection increased aggression (hot sauce

placed on Beth‟s food) only in high RS participants

 High rejection sensitivity more aggression after rejection

 Self-report

o Questionnaires o Advantages

 Convenient

 Sometimes only way to get at topic  Self-monitoring scale

 Limitations

 Response distortion

 Social desirability/ faking  Self-knowledge  Match.com article  Context  Time of day  Order of questions  Wording  Retrieval  Schwarz

o How you phrase questions with scales can shape the answers

 Attempts to get around limitations  Situational judgment tests

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 Conditional tests (eye for an eye meaning)  More than one method

 Implicit measures  Diary methods

 Fixed vs. flexible measures  Fixed

 Same measures given to all participants

 Advantages o Simple o Objective

 Limitations

o Irrelevant to some o Not sufficient for some

 Nomothetic approach o Scientific laws

o Fixed personality variables  Flexible

 Unstructured personality tests

 Idiographic approach

o Tailored to individual participants o Unique individual

 Assessment type and data  Guided by theory  Unit of analysis

 Theory needed to collect, interpret data Conclusion

 Theory and Research o LOTS data

 Types  Limitations

 Fixed vs. flexible measures 9/16/13

Goals of research

 Reliability

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o Replicability, stability

 Test- retest (you‟ll get the same scores if you take it twice)

o Factors affecting reliability  Test takers (age...)

 Aspects of test (wording...)

 Validity

o Are you accurately describing/ measuring the psychological phenomenon you are interested in?

o Problems with pervious methods  E.g. phrenology

 Different parts of brain responsible for different functions, characteristics

 Some parts underdeveloped, while other developed

 Validity and Reliability

o Must be reliable to be valid

o Both necessary aspects of sound measures

 Personality measurement now o Recent examples

 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)  Extraversion- Introversion  Intuition- Sensing

 Thinking- Feeling  Judging- Perceiving  NEO Personality Inventory

 Openness to experience  Conscientiousness  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism  Ethical behavior

o APA‟s Ethical Principles

 Treatment of participants  Informed consent  Confidentiality

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 Interpretation, presentation of results o Institutional Review Board

 Risks/ benefits 3 Approaches to research

 Case studies and clinical research o In-depth analysis of each case

 Focus on:

 Structures  Processes

o More common in clinical psychology o Matthew- dependent personality disorder o Advantages

 More in-depth

 May be only way to study certain psychological variables

 Takes individuals into account o Limitations

 Not always generalizable  No definite causal explanation  High level of subjectivity

 Verbal reports not always accurate

 Correlational research

o Relationships among variables  Positive vs. negative o Use of personality measures

 How certain variables are correlated

 E.g. tendency to experience positive emotions and life expectancy

o Correlation coefficient

 Degree to which variables related  -1 to 1

o Advantages

 No need for manipulation

 More info about variables that are impossible or unethical to manipulate

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 Childhood abuse and adult aggression o Limitations

 Ambiguous interpretation of cause and effect  Correlation does not equal causation

o Questionnaires  Advantages

 Large sample sizes can be studied relatively easy  Reliability, validity

 Limitations

 Narrow range of info

 Self-report not always accurate  Response style

 Acquiescence (more likely to check true)

 Social desirability

 Experimental studies

o Participants assigned randomly to conditions o Variables manipulated  Alcohol consumption  Rejection o Causal effects  Random assignment  Effect of manipulation o Advantages

 More info regarding cause-effect o Limitations

 Artificiality of lab setting

 Applicability of finding to real world settings  Extraneous influences

 Demand characteristics  Experimenter expectancy

 Some things cannot be studied in a lab 9/18/13

Freud: Early history

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 7 siblings, 2 step-siblings o Mother‟s favorite

 So felt like a conqueror and had confidence

 1873: University of Vienna med student o Met Josef Breuer

 Josef met Anna O

 1880: Symptoms after father‟s death

 Headaches

 Paralysis of certain body parts

 Multiple personalities

 Visual disturbances

 Difficulties with speech

 Hallucinations

 Inability to drink

o Woman with dog at a party (led to fear of drinking)

 Treatment o Hypnosis

o Talking seemed to reduce symptoms o Catharsis method

 Release of pent-up emotions

 Ultimately recovered

 True identity

o Bertha Pappenheim o Feminist, social worker  Implications of catharsis for Freud

 Mind as energy system o Release of energy

 Energy of mental content that people are not aware of

o Different parts of mind “unconscious”  Catalyst for psychoanalysis

 Disagreement between Breuer and Freud

 Freud- role of sexual interpretation

 Considered cornerstone case for psychoanalysis  Beginning of use of “talking treatment”

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o 1885: Went to France to study with Jean-Martin Charcot  Charcot known for :

 Hypnosis

 Hysteria treatment

 Studies regarding traumatic paralysis  Hysteria and genitals

 Freud‟s subsequent theory regarding sexual issues and neurosis

o 1897: Father dies leading to depression  Self-analysis

o 1900: The Interpretation of Dreams (Book) o Late 1900‟s: Gains recognition

o 1939: Dies in London Freud‟s view of the person

 Architecture of mental life

 Biological, mechanistic point of view o Mind and body are connected o Energy system

 Active nature of mental contents o Instinctual drives

o Forces on mind

 Limited amount of energy

o Energy used for one purpose less available for others

 Energy doesn‟t simply disappear

 Desire for state of balance, calmness

o Tension from bodily needs behavior balance/calmness  E.g. no food hunger search for food satiation o Goal of all behavior

 Common view in this time: tabula rasa

 Freud‟s view

o Sex, aggression innate o Pleasure principle

 Society to restrain natural tendencies  Taboos

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Freud‟s Personality theory

 Reliance on case study evidence o No labs, no tests

o Importance of details

 Structure of the mind

o 2 models of the mind

 Levels of consciousness  Conscious

 Aware of at any moment  Preconscious

 Not currently conscious of but can be if asked to be

 Unconscious

 Drives, urges, instincts, not in awareness

 Still motivate behaviors, thoughts

 Anxiety- provoking

 Influence on unconscious on conscious

 “Freudian slip”

 Manifest content (dreams)

 Storyline  Latent content

 Unconscious ideas, emotions, instinct

 High levels of symbolism

 Unconscious wishes  3 Reasons we dream  Wish fulfillment  Release of tension  Sleep protection  Functional systems  Id

 Oldest, most primitive

 Present in everyone

o Stays same over time

 Pleasure principle

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o Non-moral

 Drive energy

o Life instincts+ death instincts

 Completely unconscious  Ego

 Reality principle o Rational

o Mediator between id and external world

 3 masters

o Desires of ID

o Constraints of external environment o Morals on superego

 Changes over time  Superego

 Changes over time

o Life experiences, parents, culture

 Moral compass

o Ideals, ethical standards o Control over behavior 9/23/13

Development of thinking

 Primary vs. secondary

o How the mind processes information

 Primary process- language of unconscious  Unconscious

 Illogical

 No distinction between reality, fantasy  Young children

 Dreams

 Secondary process- language of conscious  Conscious

 Logical

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Personality process

 Motivation

o Instincts, drives  Energy

 Questions to be addressed

o Basic human instinctual drives  Life and death instincts

 Part of id

 Energy driving human lives  Life instinct (eros)

 Preserve self

 Reproduce

 Libido

 Primarily sexual in motivation  Death instinct (thanatos)

 Death

 Self-destruction

 Aggression

 Search for calmness  Expression of instincts  Blocked  Modified expression  Expressed directly  Object of gratification  Change  Displacement

 Anxiety in psychodynamic theory o Painful emotional experience

 Information regarding potential threat  Signal of danger to ego

 Previous trauma

 Conflict between id‟s desires and threat of punishment o Defense mechanisms

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 Repression- avoiding anxiety by not allowing painful or dangerous thoughts to become conscious

 Isolation of affect/ Intellectualization- Avoiding painful feelings by focusing only on ideas, separate emotions from thoughts

 Projection- Attributing own unacceptable impulses, motives, desires to others  Undoing- Person tries to make up for

unacceptable desires or acts through “magical” ritualistic behavior

 Displacement- Feelings toward dangerous object switched onto safer substitute

 Reaction formation- Express opposite of unacceptable impulse

 Sublimation- Expression of impulse or desire in socially acceptable manner, funneling energy into higher order goal

Growth and Development

 All people develop in stages

o Significant events and development of personality styles  Influence on personality

o Development of instinct

 Erogenous zones through development  Psychosexual stages

 Oral (infancy)- oral pleasures oral fixation

 Anal (2-3 yrs)- pleasure from excretion, retention of feces anal fixation; first conflict between individual (pleasure principle)and society

 Phallic (4-5 yrs)- pleasure from genitals, castration anxiety in boys, penis envy in girls, oedipal complex/ electra complex

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 Latency (6-puberty)- sex drive dormant, repression of desires, energy funneled to other pursuits

 Genital (puberty-adult)- refocus on genitals, “normal” heterosexual relationship, energy focused on opposite sex

 “Maturity”- never fully conceptualized, ultimately psychologically healthy person (rare)

o Erikson- personality develops throughout life, personality determined by psychosocial development

 Trust vs. mistrust (1 yr) (Oral)- Trust, optimism or mistrust, pessimism

 Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (2-2 yrs) (Anal)- Self control, can make choices or rigid, doubtful, self conscious

 Initiative vs. guilt (4-5 yrs) (Phallic)- happy with

accomplishments, purpose or guilt about goal-directed behaviors

 Industry vs. Inferiority (6- adolescence) (Latency)- productivity, pride in completed work vs. cannot work  Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence) (Genital)-

Confidence in consistent personality or unsure of self, no consistent standards

 Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adolescence)- sharing of thoughts, feelings work or avoid intimacy, superficial relationships

 Generativity vs. stagnation (adulthood)- can lose

oneself in work, relationships or loss of interest in work, relationships

 Integrity vs. Despair- order and meaning, content with self or fear of death, bitterness

o Marcia

 Identity achievement- exploration then sense of identity, high functioning, independent thought and

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resistance to group pressure, intimacy in relationships, moral reasoning

 Identity moratorium- identity crisis, can be high functioning, struggle with “who they are”

 Identity foreclosure- commitment to identity without exploration, rigidity, conforming, conventional, reject deviation from norm

 Identity diffusion- no strong sense of identity, self-esteem very sensitive, problems with intimacy Cultural differences

 Self and group o Individualist

 The self should be independent of the group o Collectivist

 The self should be dependent on the group

 Self- concept o Individualist

 Self-concept primarily defined by internal attributes o Collectivist

 Self- concept primarily defined by social roles and relationships

 Socialization

o Individualistic

 People socialized to be unique, to validate internal attributes

o Collectivists

 People socialized to belong occupy their proper place

 Self- esteem

o Individualistic

 Based on ability to engage in self- expression and ability to validate internal attributes

o Collectivists

 Based on ability to adjust to the group, restrain his or her own desires, and maintain social harmony

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Assessment in psychoanalysis

 Should be: o Valid o Efficient

 Problem with assessment in psychoanalysis o Unconscious content o Client‟s hesitation o Free association  Projective tests o Ambiguous items o Client‟s interpretation

o Personality, unconscious content revealed in indirect ways

 Rorschach Test

o Symmetrical inkblots on paper o Shown to hospital patients o 10 cards selected

 Based on responses from different psychiatric groups o Patients asked:  Interpretation of inkblot  Reasons o Interpretation  Response formation  Match to inkblot  Content

 Interpretation based on content details  Behavior during session

 Hypothesis formed

 Thematic Apperception Test

o Cards with ambiguous scenes o Patient creates story

o Unconscious content thought to be exposed in story

 Sentence Completion tests o “I regret...”

 Word completion test o CH_ _R

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 Draw a person test

 Evaluation

o Are these tests valid?  Multiple outcomes

 Different scoring procedures, testing systems  Test scope

 Long term research, scholars suggest no o Are these tests reliable?

 Interrater reliability Psychoanalysis and psychopathology

 Freud: Neuroses found in everyone

 Personality types

o Influence on developmental stages

o Psychopathology based on fixations from development o Stages of psychosexual development

 Too little, too much gratification

 Seeking similar satisfaction later in life o 3 types:

 Oral

 Narcissistic

 View of others related to what they might provide  Envious, jealous

 Quick to anger  Depressed

 Always asking for something  Success= “I get”

 Anal

 Struggle with power  Anal triad

 Cleanliness

 Stinginess

 Obstinacy (stubborn)  Seek power, control

 Concern with duty, responsible  Avoid waste, loss of control

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 Conflict between submitting and rebelling  Success= “I control”

 Phallic

 Gender differences

 Men

o Hyper masculine

o Excessively demonstrates masculinity  Convince others that he has not

been castrated o Competitive

o Success= “I am a man”

 Women

o Overly feminine

o Seductive, flirtatious but deny sexuality

o Naïve

o Idealization of partners, love o Conflict and defense

 Fixation at developmental stages  Problem  Want gratification  Past trauma  Conflict  Anxiety  Defense mechanisms

 Successful: anxiety reduced

 Less successful: pathological symptoms

 Repressed impulse being expressed o Therapeutic process

 Psychopathology: fixation, conflict, anxiety  Freud‟s therapeutic process

 Free association

 Dream interpretation

 Patient must gain insight regarding wishes, anxiety  Transference

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 Attitudes, conflicts towards parental figures directed toward therapist

 Oral patients: concern with “feeding” and receiving

 Anal patients: control

 Phallic patients: competition  Transferences encouraged

 Patient on couch

 Frequent appointments

 Therapist as blank screen  Transference neurosis

 Play out old conflicts

o Understand nature of conflicts

o Gain satisfaction that was previously denied

 Freedom to gratify desires in more healthy manner

 Deal with conflicts in safe environment  “Corrective emotional experience” from:

 Less intense conflict

 Analyst does not behave like parents

 Patients more mature (ego more developed) 9/30/13

Evolution of psychoanalysis

 Freud devoted entire life to psychoanalysis

 Had numerous “disciples”

 Authoritarian nature

o Cut off those who strayed from his ideas  Alfred Adler

 1870: Born in Vienna  Sickly child

 Desire to prove doctor wrong

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 Read Interpretation of Dreams and went into psychiatry

 First to break from Freud

 Libido as more general life force

 Influence of inferiority complex and compensation

o Inherent inferiority of infants/ obstacles from environment

 Emphasis on social factors

 Role of conscious planning for the future  Presented ideas to Vienna Psychoanalytic society

 Hostile response

 Left with 8 members  Individual psychology

 Society for individual psychology

 Emphasis on social urges, conscious thoughts

 Compared to Freud‟s focus on sexual instincts, unconscious

 Striving for future (rather than result of past)  Feelings of inferiority compensation

 Will to power

 Striving for superiority o Neurotic form o Healthy from  Carl Jung

 1875: Born in Switzerland  Religious and troubled family

 In childhood, noticed Personality 1 and 2

 1: school boy

 2: man in touch with past  1900: Medical degree

 1906: Published article get‟s Freud‟s attention

 Very close to Freud: “crown prince” of psychoanalysis

 1909: Deterioration begins

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 Resigns as president of APA  Disagreement with Freud:

 Libido as life energy

o Jung‟s vs. Freud‟s reason for breakup (Jung was going through oedipal complex)

 Emphasis on reasons for current behavior o Instinctual urges vs. meaning in life  Evolutionary foundations of mind

 Unconscious

 Collective unconscious

o Experience from past generations o Universal

o Shared by everyone o Archetypes

 Across cultures

 E.g. “mother” archetypes  Opposing forces in humans

 Face (private self) vs. mask (persona)

 Masculine (animus) vs. feminine (anima) o Man rejecting feminine

o Woman rejecting masculine  The self= most important archetype

 Fundamental goal of people: find unity  Introversion vs. extraversion

 Introvert: inward orientation o Hesitant, reflective

 Extravert: outward orientation o Active, adventuresome  Additional theories

 Mid 1900s: Motivational forces and personality

 Role on interpersonal interactions  Freud:

 Biological urges personality structures social relationships

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 Social relationships personality structures  Karen Horney

 Cultural influences on individual development

 Culture and gender identity

 European vs. American culture

 1922: Presentation at psychoanalytic congress in Berlin

o Womb envy

 Explanation for consistent discrimination against women  Feelings on inferiority

 Basic anxiety

 Influence of social factors

 Feeling of being lonely, helpless in hostile world

 Coping with basic anxiety in neurotic form

 Move toward

o Want to be accepted, approved of o Dependent

o Unselfish, undemanding

 Moving against

o Assumption that world is hostile o Struggle against others

o Deny need for others

 Moving away

o Detachment, including emotional detachment

 Object Relations theory

 Developmental processes before oedipal period  Object= person

 Drive toward object that can reduce tension

 E.g. object= mother

 Influence of early relationships on:

 Self

 Relationship with others

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 Attachment theory  John Bowlby

 Influence of separation from parents

 Attachment Behavior System (ABS) o Present from birth

o Motivation

 Formation of mental representations o Self

o Parents  Mary Ainsworth

 Strange situation

 Role in interpersonal relationship o Secure

 Feel comfortable in relationships  From secure attachment to

caregiver o Anxious

 Want to be close to others, but others do not reciprocate

 Seek approval

 From insecure attachment to caregiver

o Avoidant

 Little to no desire to for close relationships with others  Wish to remain independent  From insecure attachment to

caregiver

 Relationship Rating From o Viability  Acceptance  Respect  Trust o Intimacy  Confiding o Understanding

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o Passion  Fascination  Exclusiveness  Sexual intimacy o Care  Giving  Assistance o Global satisfaction  Success  Enjoyment  Reciprocity  Esteem o Commitment  Time 1

o Avoidant men- lowest levels of:

 Commitment, satisfaction, trust, acceptance, intimacy, caring, commitment

o Women with avoidant men- less negative ratings

o Anxious and avoidant women

 Less satisfaction, intimacy and caring

o Men with anxious partner

 More conflict, less commitment, less satisfaction and intimacy o Thus: men and women both less

satisfied when a woman is anxious

 Time 2

o Stability

 Anxious men- lowest

 Time 3

o Stability

 Anxious women- highest

 Highest stability o Avoidant men

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o Anxious women

 Expectations for romantic partner based on attachment style

o Problems with

 Avoidant- avoidant  Anxious- anxious

 Lowest stability for: o Anxious men o Avoidant women

 Not set in stone o Time

o Relationships

 Limitations of studying relying on self-report Psychodynamic theory: evaluation

 5 criteria

o 1. Basis in scientific observations  No objective data

 Freud and free- association  Limitations

 Lack of diversity in patients  Subjectivity

 Suggestion in therapy o 2. Systematic

 Logical, interconnected nature of theory  Connection of process and structure

 Id, ego, superego (structure)  Gratification of instincts (process) o 3. Testability

 Impossible to prove wrong  Can explain any outcome o 4. Comprehensive

 Extremely comprehensive  Issues addressed

 Mind

(30)

 Dreams  Sexuality  Development  Therapies o 5. Applications

 Therapy for clients who need change  Other therapies also beneficial

 No emphasis on underlying drives TEST #1 10/9/13 Carl Rogers  4th of 6 children  Close to mother  Religious household

o Early focus on moral, ethical issues o Hard work

 Studied agriculture, seminary, then clinical psychology

 1931: PhD from Columbia

 View of the individual

o Subjectivity of experience  Perceptions of “reality”  Phenomenal field  Subjective construction  Make up “reality”  Influenced by  Outer world  Inner world

 Subjective needs, goals, beliefs o Authenticity vs. alienation

 Psychological distress from psychological detachment  Approval vs. adhering to one‟s own values  Path to alienation

(31)

 Society vs. adhering to one‟s own values  Well adjusted individual

o Human nature

 Fundamentally positive  Desire for growth

 Destructive, evil behaviors result of:  Fear

 Defensiveness  Freedom= positivity o Phenomenological perspective

 Emphasis on conscious, subjective experiences  How does individual experience the world? o Humanistic

 Person as whole  Self-perceptions  Potential for growth o Structure

 The self

 Part of phenomenological experience

 Conscious

 Organized pattern that is pervasive  Idea of “me” or „I”

 Actual self vs. ideal self o Measuring self-concept

 Two methods used  Q- Sort Technique

 Set of cards with personality characteristics on each

o “Has high aspiration level for self” o Expresses hostile feelings directly” o Values own independence and

autonomy”

 Cards sorted

o 7- “Most descriptive of _me/idea self__ “

(32)

 Forced distribution  Semantic Differential

 Rate concepts on each polar opposite adjective scale (bad-good, clean-dirty, beautiful-ugly, strong-weak, active-passive, cruel-kind)

o “My self” o “My ideal self” o “Father”

o “My college” o Personality Process

 Self-actualization

 Fundamental motivational principle  Simplicity to complexity

 Dependence to independence  Self consistency and Congruence

 Maintain consistent notion of self

 Value system

 Organization of values, behaviors

 Consistency of behaviors

 Congruence vs. incongruence o Congruence

 Self and experience  Values and behaviors o Incongruence  Untrue to self  Distress  Anxiety  Defensive processes  Denial

 Distortion- “I am a bad student” self-concept and good grade

 Need for positive regard

(33)

 Own values, own actualization vs. other‟s acceptance  Detachment  Alienation  In childhood  Unconditional love  Conditions of worth

o Natural tendencies vs. parents‟ positive regard

o Denying aspects of self o Growth and Development

 Is the child free to self-actualize?

 Self actualization process throughout the life  Developmental factors

 Parent-child relationships

 Unconditional positive regard

 Acceptant, democratic attitudes  Internal psychological structures

 Congruence vs. incongruence and defense  Healthy development  Unconditional acceptance o Self-esteem  Self-evaluation  Influencing factors  Parental:

 Acceptance, affection, interest, warmth, permissiveness and punishment, style (democratic vs. dictatorial)

 Roger‟s view of the client o Power of client

 Capable agent (rather than dependent patient) o Inborn drive toward health, growth

o No differentiation between pathology types o Pathological functioning

 Discrepancy between self and experiences  Defense against incongruent experiences

(34)

 Distress from ideal self vs. actual self discrepancy o Healthy functioning

 Congruence between self and experience  Incorporate experiences into self-concept o Psychological change

 Main focus psychotherapy

 Conditions necessary for change  1. Reflection of feeling

 Therapist as a mirror  2. Client-centered therapy

 Actively understanding client  3. Therapeutic climate

 Nature of relationship, interactions between therapist and client

o Conditions

 1. Genuineness

 Comfortable relationship between therapist and client

 2. Unconditional positive regard  Caring, respect for client  3. Empathic understanding

 Active listening, understanding o Efficacy of client-centered therapy

 Distress from incongruence, feelings of inadequacy  Evidence for therapeutic change from Roger‟s methods

 1. Reflection of felling  2. Client-centered therapy  3. Therapeutic change  Types of changes

 Decrease in defensiveness  More congruent self

 More positive feelings toward others Human potential movement

(35)

 Emphasis on self-growth

 Self-actualization

 Maslow

o Focus of positive factors

o Individuals fundamentally good  Desire for good

o Psychopathology  Frustration

 Stifling of potential

o Improvement from freedom to express oneself o Motivation

 Biological vs. psychological needs (physiological, safety, love/belongingness. Esteem, actualization)

 Higher level motivational processes o Focus on self-actualizing individuals

 Einstein, Mother Teresa, Nelson Mandela  Common characteristics

 Acceptance of self, others  Care for self, others

 Intimate relationships  Resist conformity  Remain realistic Positive psychology movement

 Other schools of thought

o Overemphasis on psychopathology, problems with human condition

 E.g. Freud

o Classification of human strengths  Criteria used

 Enduring

 Beneficial across numerous domains

 Encouraged by parents, society as a whole  Seligman and Peterson

 Six categories of qualities

 Wisdom, Courage, Love, Justice, Temperance, Transcendence

(36)

 Importance of listing qualities

 Different focus of positive psychology Shimai Et Al

 Kindness, love, humor, gratitude, open-mindedness, fairness Evaluation of humanistic theories

 5 criteria

o Scientific observation

 Objectivity in data collection  Objective methods  Q sort  Limitations  Explicit measures  Lack of diversity o Systematic nature

 Integrated propositions regarding individual personality  Parent-child interactions

 Types of self-concept

 Psychological distress vs. well-bring  Limitation

 Not enough information in theory o Testability

 Certain elements testable, while others now  Testable elements

 Actual self vs. ideal self

 Q sort

 Conditions of therapeutic change  Limitations

 No evidence of universal nature of self actualization motive

 No clear construct

 No objective assessment tool o Comprehensiveness

 Not enough info regarding the influence of:

(37)

o Applications

 Importance of client-therapist relationships  Techniques for building relationships  Client as person

 Capable of improving selves 10/15/13

Overview: Freud, Rogers Vs. Trait Theorists

 Freud

o No objective collection o Case studies

 Rogers

o More focused on measurement

o Still no way of measuring some key concepts

 Trait theorists

o Emphasis on measurement

o Approach personality much like a physical science Trait Concept

 Personality trait o Colloquial use

o Definition: consistent patterns in how people  Behave, feel, think

o Connotations of “traits”  Consistency

 Across roles, time  Distinctiveness

 View of personality

o Focus on measurement  Reliable and valid

o Theory based on collected data (not speculation)  Contrast to Freud and Rogers

o Purpose of trait constructs  Description

(38)

 Basic descriptive facts  Taxonomy

 Personality scheme

 Aid in classification based on traits  Prediction

 Predict everyday behavior  Important applications

 E.g. selection for job o Myers-Briggs type o OCEAN

 Explanation

 Scientific understanding of causes

 NOT the same as prediction

 Not pursued by all trait theorists  Includes:

 Traits explaining behavior

 Figuring out possible biological factors o Shared assumptions across theories

 People have predispositions to behave in certain ways  There exists a relationship between having a certain

trait and trait-related behaviors  Direct relationship

 Extraverted behaviors related to higher levels of extraversion

 Contrast to psychoanalysis  Behavior, personality in hierarchy Trait theorists

 Allport, Cattell, Eysenck o Allport

 Youngest of 4 children  Protestant upbringing

 Strict

 Purity of thoughts, behaviors  1919: Graduated from Harvard

(39)

 Emphasis on healthy, organized parts of human behavior

 Criticism of psychoanalysis

 Too much focus on unconscious  Traits as building blocks of personality  Three properties of traits

 Frequency  Intensity

 Range of situations  Personality structure

 Focus on traits as units

 Consistent, stable tendencies

 Separate from temporary states, activities  Types of traits

 Cardinal traits

o Extremely influential in every behavior o Rare

 Central traits

o More limited in influence o More common

 Secondary dispositions

o Least generalized, least consistent (across situations)

 Influence of situation

 Traits not expressed in all situations

o E.g. extraversion at party vs. first day at job

o Trait: general tendencies across many sitautions

 Limitations to Allport‟s theory

 Not enough research conducted

 “Trait” idea

 No research on influence of heredity  No model to explain psychological processes behind

behavior

(40)

 Problem with use of case studies, idiographic methods

Traits: factor analysis

 How do we know that certain behaviors are related to a certain underlying trait?

 Intuitive correlation- sea monsters

o By looking at the correlations between all the parts we can see (observable behaviors), we can infer something about their underlying nature (theoretical constructs)

o Factor analysis- statistical method that looks at how lots of different observations correlate and determines how many theoretical constructs could most simply explain what you see

 Patterns in correlations

 Set of factors that summarize how different variables are inter-correlated

 Factor analytic study

 Test items given to participants

 Certain items will correlate with others

 E.g. Do you often go to loud and noisy parties? And Do you enjoy spending time with large groups of people?

 Clusters of correlated items may be influenced by underlying factors

 Relatively objective

 Can only show patterns of co-variation  No explanation of why

 Different explanations from different psychologists  Some subjectivity

 Number, nature of factors 10/16/13

Trait theorists

 Cattell

(41)

o Extremely prolific  200 articles  15 books

o Huge influence on 20th century psychology o Need for taxonomy of traits

o Use of factor analysis o Personality structure

 Surface traits

 Observable behavioral tendencies  Source traits

 Underlying structures

 Responsible for relationship between surface traits o Cattell‟s 16 personality traits

o Behavior: stability vs. variability  People not same all the time  Behavior depends on traits and:

 State

 Emotion at a particular point in time

 E.g. anxiety, fatigue, arousal  Role

 Social roles one has to play o Influence of setting o Strengths and limitations

 Strengths

 Systematic approach

 Foundation for future trait based research  Development of 16 PF measure

 Limitations

 16 PF not parsimonious

 Structure based solely on factor analysis

 May not cover all of personality

 Hans J. Eysenck

o Fled to England to escape Nazis o Work influenced by

 Factor Analysis

(42)

 Research on heredity and psychology  Pavlov‟s work on classical conditioning

o Founded journal- Personality and Individual Differences  Personality traits

 Temperament

 Biological foundations

o Measures of individual differences  Importance of underlying biology o Personality structure

 Superfactors

 Higher order factors than initial factors  Continuous dimensions

 Initially two:

 Introversion-extraversion (sociability, liveliness, excitability)

 Neuroticism (anxiety, feelings of guilt, shyness)

 Used Ancient Greek‟s chart  Later added third superfactor

 Psychoticism

o “Abnormal” traits (aggressive, cold, egocentric, antisocial, unsympathetic)  More objective measures

 Lemon drop test

 Lemon juice placed on tongue

 Difference in amount of saliva produced

 Introverts vs. extraverts: who produced more? Introverts

o Biological bases- introversion vs. extraversion

 Differences in arousal level in brain

 Introverts

 Over- aroused by intense environmental stimuli  Extraverts

(43)

 Less aroused by

environmental stimuli  Need more stimulus from

environment  Necker cube experiment

 Extraverts switched viewing of cube more than introverts

 Research in brain activity

 Support for Eysenck‟s ideas  Twin studies

 Support notion of hereditary influence  Other biological functions

o Social context  Introverts

 Higher pain sensitivity  More easily fatigued

 Performance inhibited by excitement  More careful, slower

 Higher school performance  Seek solitary jobs

 Lower need for novelty  Intellectual humor  Study habits

 Quiet, solitary locations  Extraverts

 Performance enhanced by excitement  Seek jobs that involve working with others  Like diversion from routine

 Enjoy more explicit, sexual humor  Study habits

 Library

 Frequent study breaks o Neuroticism

 Influence of autonomic nervous system

 High neuroticism had overly active autonomic nervous system

(44)

o Psychoticism

 Much less known compared to others  Genetic influence

 Gender

 Testosterone o Psychopathology

 Psychopathology related to traits (and other biological roots) + environmental factors

 Neurotic patients

 High neuroticism, low extraversion  Criminals, antisocial people

 High neuroticism, high extraversion, high psychoticism

 Limitations to Eysenck‟s theory

o Alternate models provide better fit  Influence of impulsivity, anxiety

o Lack of consistent support for biological bases

o Personality and Individual Differences as isolating factor o Model not comprehensive enough

 Honesty, reliability, creativity 10/21/13

Five factor model

 Need for taxonomy

 Individual differences into 5 dimensions o The “big five”

 Factor analytic trait approach

 Supported by research evidence

 Description vs. explanation

 Each factor present in everyone

 Biological basis on factors o Genetic influence

o Downplay influence of “nurture” o Causal influence on development

(45)

 Research evidence for the “big five” o Three sets of data

 1. Traits described in natural, everyday language  Traits selected from dictionary

 Big five

 Openness- curious, broad interests, creative, original, imaginative

o Conventional, down to earth, inartistic  Conscientiousness- organized, reliable, hard

working, self disciplined, punctual, neat, ambitious

 Aimless, unreliable, lazy, careless, negligent  Extraversion- sociable, active, talkative, person

oriented, affectionate

 Reserved, sober, aloof, task oriented, quiet  Agreeable- soft hearted, good natured, trusting,

helpful, forgiving, gullible

 Cynical, rude, suspicious, uncooperative, vengeful

 Neuroticism- worrying, nervous, emotional, hypochondriac

 Calm, relaxed, unemotional, secure

 2. Cross-cultural

o Search for personality factors in different countries, languages  “Big 3” in Italy

 Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness o Research across 11 languages

o “Big 3” found across cultures o Biological basis

o Uniqueness in expression o Gender differences

 Women- neuroticism, agreeableness (more in modern cultures than traditional cultures)

 . Individuals rate selves

o Factor analysis to see which go together

(46)

o High reliability, high validity

o Relative stability throughout adulthood

 3. Relationship to other questions o NEO-PI-R

 Five factors

 Six narrower facets  Format  Self report  Observer report  Relationship with:  Eysenck‟s inventories  E & N

 P: low agreeableness, low conscientiousness  Cattell‟s 16 factors

 Temperament

 Big five facets

o Hierarchical organization  Extraversion

 Gregariousness, activity level, assertiveness, excitement seeking, positive emotions, warmth

 Bill Clinton  Agreeableness

 Straightforwardness, trust, altruism, modesty, tender mindedness, compliance

 Conscientiousness

 Self-discipline, dutifulness, competence, order, deliberation, achievement striving

 Neuroticism

 Anxiety, self consciousness, depression, vulnerability, impulsiveness, angry hostility  Openness to experience

 Fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, ideas, actions, values

o Stronger relationship with  School performance

(47)

 Job performance and attitudes

 Organizational citizenship behaviors

 Growth and development

o Over time, people become less neurotic, extraverted and openness

 More agreeable, conscientious

 Personality in childhood

o More complex in childhood o 7 personality factors in children o Instead of extraversion:  Sociability  Activity o Instead of neuroticism:  Fearfulness  Irritability o Merging in adolescence

 Five factor limitations o Main problems:

 1. Link between personality structures and processes  Not enough info on processes

 No clear link between psychological  2. (Lack of) influence of social factors

 Traits said to be unaffected by external factors  Twenge

 Changes in US in 20th century

o Increase in anxiety, extraversion 10/23/13

A 6th factor

 Person A vs. Person B o Person B-honesty

 HEXACO model

 Research suggests there may be one more factor o Honesty/humility

(48)

o Genuineness

 Findings from 7 languages

 Relation to type of religious orientation

o Intrinsic orientation: truly believe in religious teachings and live life according to religious beliefs

 Significantly correlated with honesty-humility, conscientiousness

o Extrinsic-personal orientation: focused on what religion can give you (ex: comfort during difficult times)

 Significantly correlated with agreeableness, conscientiousness

o Extrinsic- social orientation: religiousness based on forming social connections

 Not strongly correlated with any Big Five or HEXACO traits

Applications of 5 factor model

 Conscientiousness and life expectancy o Sample followed for 70 years o Conscientious children

 Significantly longer lives

 30% less likely to die each year o Reasons:

 Less likely to:

 Face violent death  Less likely to smoke

 Less likely to drink heavily  More likely to:

 Exercise regularly  Eat well

 Have physicals

 Follow medication schedule  Avoid toxins

 Predicting job performance

(49)

o Openness to experience- artistic, investigative (e.g. filmmaking)

o Conscientiousness- various roles

 Predicting academic performance  Conscientiousness (higher)  Neuroticism (lower)

 Personality type and therapy options o High openness to experience

 Exploration (free association) o Low openness

 Directive  Medication

o No one specific therapy for all patients

 Related trait measures o MMPI

 567 True/False questions  General pattern of responding  10 clinical scales

 Paranoia, psychasthenia (Ocd), hypomania, social introversion

 Validity scales o 16 PF

 16 primary personality traits  Personality profile is created Person-situation controversy

 How much consistency do people demonstrate in their behaviors? o Enough consistency to support the notion of traits?

 Walter Mischel

o Behavior varies based on situation o Ability to examine situations and adapt

o May explain why people do not always act in accordance with their traits

 Consistency over time vs. situations

o Skepticism about cross-situational consistency

 Evidence for trait consistency

(50)

 Research on conscientiousness

o Measures twice in one semester

o Highest for class-related behaviors and lower for other domains

Trait theories evaluation

 Scientific observation

o Strong foundation of data  Emphasis on:

 Statistical analyses of objective personality tests  Diversity of subjects

 Age, ethnicity, sociocultural factors  Different sources of data

 Self reports, observer reports, life data, physiological measures

o Limitations

 Lack of in-depth methods

 Focus on traits, general qualities  Surface characteristics

 Not enough focus on individual uniqueness

 Systematic nature o Cattell

 Systematic theorizing about:

 Traits, states, roles, motivation  Problem: not enough influence

o Eysenck

 Relationship between trait and biological factors  Structures (traits) and processes (nervous

system)  Problem

 Other than extraversion-introversion, not much evidence

o McCrae and Costa (5 traits)

 No explanations of dynamic processes that influence behavior

(51)

 Not enough systematic explanation regarding personality

 Testability

o Testable through objective methods o Many aspects that can be tested

 Comprehensiveness o Strengths

 Incorporations of important individual differences  Factor analysis methods

o Limitations

 Focused primarily on taxonomy of traits and influence of traits on behaviors, leading to deficits in other areas  Not enough info regarding:

 Interaction between conscious and unconscious  Influence of sexuality

 Dreams

 Relationship between therapist and client  Role of parents

 Not enough focus of personality processes

 Theories more about structures  Not enough focus on individual

 Traits across populations

 Cannot conclude that identified traits exist in everyone

 Applications

o Helpful in prediction

 Accepted set of traits  Used to predict behaviors o Limitations

 Not very useful in clinical setting

 No therapy for psychological change TEST #2

(52)

Phineas Gage

 Construction foreman

o Accident involving explosion o Iron bar shot through his face

 Left check, front of brain, top of head o Results

 Damage to left frontal lobe

 Maintained ability to walk, speak, remember  Changes in:

 Disposition, preferences, goals, personality  Implications:

 Frontal brain and personality Temperament

 Individual differences

o Mood, emotional response, activity level

 Inherited (for the most part)

 Biologically based

 Early views (from ancient Greeks) o Melancholic

o Phlegmatic o Choleric

o Sanguine- outgoing, sociable

 19th century o Darwin

 The Origin of Species

 The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals  Emotional expression in humans and other

mammals are similar  Contribution to

 Study of temperament, evolutionary psychology

o Gregor Mendel

 Experiments on plant hybrids

 Modern genetics on personality development o Ernst Kretschmer

(53)

 Physique and character  Pyknic

 Plum, rounder body

 Extraversion  Athletic  Muscular  Vigorous  Aesthenic  Frail  Introversion

 Temperament longitudinal studies o NY Longitudinal study

 Over 100 subjects followed from birth to adolescence  Parental reports regarding infants:

 Activity level, mood, attention span, persistence  Infant temperament types

 Easy

 Playful, adaptable  Difficult

 Negative, unadaptable  Slow to warm up

 Low reactivity, mild responding o Buss and Plomin: 4 Dimensions of temperament

 Emotionality- arousal in upsetting situations, level of general distress

 Activity- vigor of movement, fidgety nature

 Sociability- responsiveness to other people, ease of making friends

 Impulsivity- ability to control behavior, later dropped o Kagan

 Neural bases of differences in:  Emotions

 Behavioral tendencies  Research

 Observe behaviors in lab settings Infants (4 months)

(54)

 Presented infants with novel stimuli o Voice of stranger talking o Balloon popping

 Results

o Low reactivity: calm, laid back o High reactivity: strong negative

reactions to novel stimuli  Children (4.5, 8 yrs old)

 Presented with novel stimuli

o Flashing lights, stranger in costume  High reactive infants greater

fear responses at ages 4.5 & 8  Some changes: role of

environment  Temperament profiles

 Inhibited temperament (high reactive)- react to novel stimuli with

 Restraint, avoidance, distress

 More time needed to relax in new situations

 More unusual fears

 Timid, cautious

 Uninhibited temperament (low reactivity)

 Likes unfamiliar situations

 Responds with laughter, smiling to novelty  Temperament in adulthood

 Adults categorized as inhibited vs. uninhibited children

 Presented with novel stimuli

 fMRI to note active brain activity (amgydala)

 Inhibited children have much more active amygdala compared to uninhibited

Evolutionary psychology

 Need to belong

(55)

 Chances for survival, reproduction o Social ostracism

 Akin to physical pain  Evolutionary alarm

 Evolved psychological mechanisms

o Help solve problems important to reproductive success  Social behaviors

o Domain specific

 Fear for certain stimuli

 Specific adaptive emotions (jealousy)

 Participants asked to predict distress from sexual vs. emotional infidelity

 60% of male sample: greater distress from sexual infidelity

 83% of female sample: greater distress from emotional infidelity

 Proposed evolutionary explanations

 Woman‟s “mate value” o Reproductive capacity

 Youth

 Markers of fertility  Chastity

 Paternal probability

 Man‟s “mate value” o Resources

 Earning capacity  Ambition

o Causes of jealousy: counterevidence  Question format unrealistic

 Participants asked to rate reaction to:  Sexual infidelity

 Not at all upset.... Extremely upset  Emotional infidelity

 Sex differences no longer present

(56)

Evolutionary theory and the big five

 Goldberg: Lexical hypothesis

o “OCEAN” from desire to categorize important behaviors o Value of recognizing people who are

 Responsive, dependable (vs. unreliable)  Agreeable (vs. disagreeable)

 Emotionally stable (vs. unstable)

o Consistent focus on certain traits Trait terms in lexicon

 Sex differences in the big five

o Big five traits in men and women across 55 nations  More and less developed, egalitarian

o Findings

 Women higher on: neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness

 Male-female differences greater in:

 More developed countries, more egalitarian countries Evolutionary theory  Strengths o Explanation for:  Behaviors  Social structures  Culture  Limitations

o Humans not bound by evolutionary influences o Not enough focus on environment

11/4/13 Genetics

 Behavioral genetics

o Influence on genes on:

 Cognitive ability, personality, interests o Interaction between genes and environment o Cognitive ability

(57)

 Most inherited  Males in Denmark

 Correlations for full siblings

 Reared apart: .47

 Reared together: .52

 Correlations for adoptive siblings

 Reared together: .02

 Strong influence of environment in children o Specific mental abilities

 Evidence for less influence of heredity for:

 Verbal ability, spatial ability, perceptual speed, memory

o Interests

 Occupational interests

 Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional

 Somewhat weaker genetic influence and stronger environmental influence compared to personality o Gene- Environment interactions

 Shared vs. non-shared environments  Shared environment

 Shared by siblings in the same family  Non-shared environments

 Unique experiences not shared by members in the same family

 Differential treatment from parents  Which is more important in personality

development? Non-shared

 Indications that non-shared environmental influences much stronger than shared  Variance explained

 Genetic factors 40%

 Non-shared environments 35%

 Shared environments 5%

 Does not mean within family experiences unimportant

(58)

 Focus on experience of individual  Environmental effects

 Significant differential treatment of siblings o Much of this due to genetic

characteristics of child

 Again, importance of unique experiences of child

o Phenomenological experience rather than objective events

 Difficulty in measurement o Measurement error  Three nature-nurture interactions

 1. Environment affects individuals differently based on genetic makeup (passive)

 E.g. conscientious vs. lazy child and intelligent parents

 2. People with certain genetic makeup bring forth different responses from environment (evocative)

 E.g. “difficult” baby may cause different reactions in parent compared to “easy” baby  3. People choose, create different environments

based on genetic makeup

 E.g. extravert‟s choice of hobbies, friends compared to introvert‟s

 Research methods

 3 main research methods in genetics

 1. Selective breeding studies

o Animals with desired trait mated  Create separate strain

 Study behavior  Manipulate environmental experiences  Separate genetic vs. environmental influences on behavior  2. Twin studies

(59)

o Monozygotic (MZ0 vs. Dizygotic (DZ) twins

 MZ twins genetically identical  DZ twins share 50% of genes o Genetic influence

 High: MZ twins more similar than DZ twins

 Low: MZ and DZ twins similar o MZ twins reared apart

 Evidence of genetic influence  MZ twins raised together

not more similar with regard to personality traits

 3. Adoption studies

o Individual raised by adoptive parents o Genetic influence

 Biological siblings

 Neuroscience o Influence of

 Specific parts of the brain  Neurotransmitters

 Hormones

o Hemispheric dominance

 Depressed people: decreased left brain activity

 Inhibited children: greater activity in right hemisphere  Uninhibited children: greater activity in left hemisphere o Role of neurotransmitter

 Dopamine

 “Feel good” chemical  Associated with pleasure  Cocaine as imitation  Serotonin

 SSRIs and depression o Neurotransmitters and emotionality

(60)

 1. Negative emotionality

 High NE individuals

o Higher levels of negative emotions o Environment seen as:

 Threatening, problematic, distressing

o Report feelings of:

 Fear, sadness, anger, guilt, disgust

 Low NE individuals

o Calm, emotionally stable, self-satisfied

 Neurobiology

o Low levels of serotonin in high NE  Depression, anxiety, OCD

behaviors, negative view of environment

 2. Positive Emotionality

 High PE individuals

o Higher levels of positive emotions, sociable, energetic, cheerful,

enthusiastic

o Report feelings of

 Joy, interest, attentiveness, excitement, pride

 Low PE individuals

o Reserved, low energy, low confidence

 Neurobiology

o Association with dopamine o Relationship to left hemispheric

dominance

 3. Disinhibition vs. Constraint

 Manner of regulating emotions

 High DvC individuals

o Impulsive, reckless, focus on feelings in the moment

Figure

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References

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