Board of management members' views about their roles in enhancing the quality of education in primary schools - Busia County, Kenya

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BOARD OF MANAGEMENT

MEMBERS'

VIEWS ABOUT THEIR

ROLES IN ENHANCING

THE QUALITY

OF EDUCATION

IN

PRIMARY

SCHOOLS

- BUSIA COUNTY,

KENYA

ANYANG OSINYA LINET

E55/CE/24298/20 13

I'

A RESEARCH

PROJECT

SUBMITED

TO THE DEPARTMENT

OF

EDUCATIONAL

MANAGEMENT,

POLICY

AND CURRICULUM

STUDIES IN PARTIAL

FULFILMMENT

FOR THE AWARD OF A

MASTER

OF EDUCATION

DEGREE

KENYATTA

UNIVERSITY

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DECLARATION

BY STUDENT

This research project is my original work and has not been presented for any award of degree in any other University

~~.

____________________

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Anyang Osinya Linet Date

E55/CE/24 298/2013

SUPERVISOR'S DECLARATION

This research project has been submitted for review with our approval as University supervisors.

---~--~---~---. I' Prof. Grace W. Bunyi

Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies

Kenyatta University

.

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\_~_\?

.

Date

Dr. George A. Onyango

Department of Educational Management, Policy ~d Curriculum Studies

Kenyatta University

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DEDICATI

O

N

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It was a personal initiative to realize the need for a second degree. I took a bold move to walk through the large gate of Kenyatta University in order to quench my thirst for more knowledge in my profession as a teacher. It was a big task with many questions on how to go about it after successfully receiving an admission from the university. The walk started and became a successful journey due to the big support I got from individual lecturers in the Department of Educational management, policy and curriculum studies together with the entire community of Kenyatta University.

Special acknowledgement firstly go to my two supervisors; Prof. Grace W. Bunyi and Dr. George Onyango who continuously guided me through the development of the concept paper the research proposal writing following the 2013 revised proposal writing guidelines and in the conduct of the research and writing of this project report. May God Almighty bless them.

Secondly, to my family for their moral support during the period of my study and especially my sons and daughters who missed my motherly care during school ~holidays as I stayed away from home as an institution based student at Kenyatta

University.

Thirdly, to my staff members of Koruruma primary school for carrying out their duties even in my absence as the head teacher ofthe school.

Finally to the Education office, Teso orth Sub County headed by the Sub County education Officer Mrs. Genetrix Amatha, Sub County Staffing Officer Mr. Tom Akaal, DQAS officers, and Tac-tutors for their continued support during my research.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ii

DEDICATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS v

LIST OF TABLES ix

LIST OF FIGURES x

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS xi

ABSTRACT xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Background to the Study 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem : 10

1.3 Purpose of the Study 11

1.4 Objectives of the Study 11

1.5 Research Questions 12

1.6 Significance of the Study 12

1.6.1 Ministry of Education 12

1.6.2 Public Primary Schools , 13

1.6.3 School Sponsors 13

1.6.4 Community 13

1.6.5 Academia 14

1.7 Limitations of the Study 14

1.8 Assumptions of the Study 15

1.9 Theoretical Framework 15

1.10 Conceptual Framework 18

1.11 Operational Definition of Terms 19

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 20

2.1 Introduction 20

2.2 Role of School Board of Management 20

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2.4 Effectiveness of the roles of the Board of Management on the Quality of

Education in Public Primary Schools 24

2.5 Barriers Faced by School board of managements' in Enhancing the Quality

of Education 28

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 31

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Research Design 31

3.2.1 Study Variables 32

3.2.2 Research Methodology and Specific Data Collection Method 32

3.2.3 Location ofthe Study 32

3.3 Target Population 33

3.4 Sampling Technique and Sample Size 33

3.4.1 Sampling Technique 33

3.4.2 Sample Size 34

3.5 Research Instruments 35

3.6 Validity ofthe Instruments 36

3.7 Reliability of the Instruments 37

3.8 Piloting Study 37

3.9 Data Collection Technique 38

3.10 Data Analysis : 38

3.11 Logistical and Ethical Considerations 39

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 41

4.1 Introduction 41

4.2 Distribution of Respondents byDemographic Characteristics .42 4.2.l Zonal Distribution of Respondents inTeso North Sub-County .42 4.2.2 Distribution of BoM members by gender in Teso North

Sub-County 43

4.2.3 Distribution by Age .44

4.2.4 Distribution by Role ..: .45

4.2.5 Distribution by work duration .46

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4.3 Board of Management Members opinions about their roles in Enhancing Quality of Education in Public Primary Schools , 51 4.3.1 BoM members' views on how their roles affect quality teaching and

learning inpublic primary schools 53

4.3.2 Education Officials rating of the BoM on discharge of their roles in enhancing quality teaching and learning 56 4.4 BoM members opinions ?n their Roles in the Management of Schools

Human Resources in Public Primary Schools 58

4.5 Education officials' opinions on the BoM and their roles in the management of human Resource management inthe school 61 4.6 BoM members' opinions on their role in the management of financial

resources in the school. 64

4.7 Education Officials' rating of the Performance of BoMs with respect to Financial Management in Teso North Sub-County 66

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS 71

5.0 Summary 71

5.1 Introduction 71

5.2 Distribution ofthe Respondents by Demographic Characteristics 72 5.3 Effectiveness ofBoM Roles in Enhancing Quality Teaching and Learning in

Public Primary Schools 72

Effectiveness of BoM Roles on Management of Human Resources in Public

Primary Schools .- 73

Effectiveness of BoM Roles on Management of Financial Resources in

Public Primary Schools 73

Conclusions 74

Recommendations 74

Suggestions for Further Studies 75

I' 5.4

5.5

5.6 5.7

5.8

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APPENDICES

8S

APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE 85

APPENDIX II: EDUCATION OFFICIALS QUESTIONNAIRE 90

APPENDIX III: WORKPLAN '" 94

APPENDIX IV: BUDGET 95

APPENDIX V: NCOSTI RESEARCH AUTHORIZATION LETTER 96 APPENDIX VI: RESEARCH AUTHORIZATION FROM COUNTY

DIRECTOR OF EDUCATION 97

APPENDIX VII: RESEARCH AUTHORIZATION FROM DEPUTY COUNTY

COMMISSIONER 98

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Table 1.1:

Table 3.1:

Table 4.1:

Table 4.2:

Table 4.3:

Table 4.4:

Table 4.5:

Table 4.7:

Table 4.8:

Table 4.9:

Table 4.10:

Table 4.11:

Table 4.12:

LIST

OF TABLES

Subject Performance of Primary Schools in Teso North Sub-County. 7

Sample Size 35

Age of Respondents in Zones .45

BOM Roles in Zones 46

Work Duration ofBOM Members in Zones ~ .47

Level of Education in Zones .49

BoM member's views on how their roles affected the quality of

teaching and learning in public primary schools 54

BoM's members' views on how their roles affected management of

human resources in public primary schools 60

Education Officials rating of the Performance of BoM with regards to

Human Resource Management in Teso North Sub-County 62

Views of BoM members of their Roles in financial management in

public primary schools 65

Education Officials rating of the Performance of BoM with respect to

Financial Management in Teso North Sub-County 67

Analysis of Variance 69

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Structure of School Management Boards 10

Figure 1.2: Diagrammatic representation of the conceptual framework 18

Figure 4.1: Zonal Distribution of Respondents in Teso North Sub-County .42 Figure 4.2: Distribution ofBoM members by age in Teso north Sub-County .44 Figure 4.3: BoM's Response on the work duration as School Board of

Management members 46

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ANOVA:

BoM:

BOMC:

NACOSTI

NECO-SSCE:

PTA:

SPSS:

SSCE:

USA:

WASSCE:

ABBREVIATIONS

AND

ACRONYMS

Analysis of Variance Board of Management

School Based Management Committee

National Council of Science, Technology and Innovation National Examination Council Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination

Parents Teacher Association

Scientific Packages for Social Sciences

Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination

United States of America

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the Board of Management Members' on their roles in enhancing the quality of education in Teso North Sub-County, Busia County. The specific objectives were to; examine the views of board of management member's opinions about their roles in enhancing quality teaching and learning, analyze the views of Board of Management of human resources, assess the opinions of board of management members about their roles in management of financial resources. The study utilized a descriptive research design. Data were gathered in selected public primary schools in three educational zones, Amagoro, Angurai and Kolanya. There were 106 public primary schools in the three zones that formed the population of the study thus leading to utilization of different technique based on the three educational zones (strata). Second stage of sampling utilized purposive sampling in which 32 schools were selected. Four respondents were selected from each of the sampled schools and 3 educational officials were used leading to a total of 131 respondents. Data for the study was collected using questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS vs. 20 and Excel Worksheets. Analyses were done for frequency distributions, means, modes and standard deviations. The major findings of this study were that boards of Management members are key to enhancing the quality of education in public primary schools. Board of management activities such as supervision of teachers, supervision of curriculum implementation and provision of teaching and learning resources, infrastructural development, promotion and facilitating of co-curriculum activities, creation of conducive and secured teaching and learning environment, facilitation of capacity building for human resource and improving safety of resources were key in enhancing the quality of education in public primary schools. Secondly, the study found that Board of Management roles were the most important followed by human study concluded that the Board of Management s key in discharging its duties in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning in public primary schools in Teso north sub-county. This study concluded that the provision of administrative roles such as supervision of teaching methods and system, infrastructural development, provisions and ensuring the security of learning and teaching materials were key in enhancing access to quality education. "The study recommended that the government should undertake training of BoM

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction

This chapter focuses on the background to the study, statement of the problem,

purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, and significance of the study, to the various stakeholders, limitations of the study, theoretical

framework, conceptual framework and operational definition of terms.

1.1 Background to the Study

Across the globe there have been intense studies, debate and research on the role, need and characteristics of school management for effective school management and

enhancement of education quality (Ibrahim & Orodho, 2014). Debate has raged on

the qualifications, composition, skills, level of training, experience and characteristics that are most suited for quality education delivery across schools.

This is apparent in the various cadres of education such as tertiary education,

secondary and primary education. Questions have ranged on the skills and training

,.necessary for Headteachers, Boards of Management and teachers in institutions of learning (Oketch &Ngware, 2012: Orodho, 2014).

According to Ford (2013) most schools across the globe are led and managed by

boards that are democratically elected. This is common across most nations in the

world though major differences arise in the names, compositions, terms of operation

and references of the boards. Nevertheless, major questions arise as posed by Ford

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education performance and quality of education? What are their roles and what

effects do the roles have on education performance and quality?

School Boards of Management can be traced to 1789 in the American School

System when a law was passed that every school should be open and supported. The

law was implemented to oversee the management and supervision of schools

through the use of Boards (Callahan, 1975). Nevertheless, the law was amended in

1975 to make it mandatory for schools to have boards of management. The major

roles of boards of management as presented in the Act of Parliament were: Adapt to

the distinctive characteristics of an academic environment and act so as to exemplify

and reinforce the institution's core values and ethos and oversee all opinion of the

School, including its control and accountability systems, and approve the

expenditure and capital budgets.

In addition, the Independent Schools of Victoria noted that other roles of the Board

included: appointment, review and remove the Principal and provide ongoing

support and supervision, Develop and maintain healthy relationships with key I'

stakeholders and develop effective communication channels, Ensure a strategic

approach to the school's future by setting major goals, policy frameworks and

strategies, Set the tone and the ethical standards of the school and monitor adherence

to them, Review plans and budgets established by school management, Approve all

material expenditure outside the budget, Anticipate problems as much as possible

and act to diffuse issues, Be attentive to the matter of succession, Establish

committees where appropriate. Other roles of the board of management included

review and monitor adherence to systems of risk management, governance

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annual review of the Board's own performance (i.e. Board Appraisal), Conduct an

annual review of the School's progress in meeting its objectives and Maintain the

solvency of the school.

In 2000, the international education community met In Dakar, Senegal, and

committed itself to achieving universal primary education or 'Education for All'

(EFA) by 2015. However, the 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report suggested that

large numbers of countries were still not in a position to achieve the EF A goals. Out

of 149 countries with available data, some were at serious risk of failing to achieve

the basic EF A targets of universal primary education and reducing illiteracy

(UNESCO 2007). Improved governance of education has been identified as one way

through which levels of access, quality and participation in education can be

improved (UNESCO, 2009) and which can reduce various problems related to

inequality which accentuates exclusion (Govinda &Bandyopadhyay, 2010).

School-Based Management is the process of devolution of power and authority to

significant stakeholders to perform statutory responsibilities in the administration,

,-monitoring, evaluation and review of education policy issues for sustainable g

oal-oriented governance and effective teaching and learning activities to achieve set

standards and quality learning outcomes in schools (Ayeni & Ibukun, 2013).

Parental involvement in schools through Board of Management and PTA has been

widely acknowledged in both developing and developed countries (Brain & Reid,

2003 &Kamba, 2010). The BOM involvement in school management is associated

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held by Clase (2007) who observes that the BOM involvement IS an essential component for successful education and teaching at school level.

According to Allemano (2003) the notion of BOM involvement is critical to sustained educational quality. Lin (201 Oa) reported that BOMs support is a critical factor in the success of the school and that co-operation between teachers and parents enhances the pupils' performance. Kamba (201 Ob) also observed that involving stakeholders in governance and management of schools improves the quality of education system. BoM and PT A constitute part of the formal structures

of governance through which parents and the community are enabled to participate in the education of their children. It is assumed that through such structures educational provision is enhanced, and school governance and educational quality is improved. According to Azeem (2010) school governance generally becomes weak

due to poor parental involvement in school financial management and key decision

making areas.

Board of Management contributes to educational development in various ways and

,-because of its nature and status it is meant to perform different but complementary roles with PT A in the school. James (2010) argued that school governors give an enormous amount to the education system in England, yet their contribution is

largely hidden from public view. However, in a number of cases evidence suggests

that their roles occasionally overlap resulting in tensions and conflicts (World Bank,

2008).

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(2010) role conflict involves real differences in role definitions, expectations or

responsibilities between individuals who are interdependent in social systems. If

there are ambiguities in role definitions in an organization or unclear boundaries of

responsibilities, then the stage is set for interpersonal frictions between the

stakeholders.

In Pakistan PT A/BoM School board of managements were created in the light of

National Educational Policy 1998. It is assumed that it was set up to raise extra

funds for school development, however, later on there seems to be a growing feeling

that BoMs are politically elected and therefore are not the right forum to address the

interest and needs of parents and the community in general (World Bank, 2008). In

Punjab Province, Pakistan in public schools, management committees (BoMs and

Parent Teachers Association PTAs) are responsible for the management and

provision of learning and teaching materials. Besides undertaking management

roles, they also playa significant role in monitoring funds. Their umbrella body is

District Education Board, which was introduced in 2001. Their aim is to enhance

participation of parents in the leadership and management of public educational ~

affairs (ibid).

According to Leu & Price-Rom, (2006), educational quality in developing countries

has become a topic of intense interest, primarily because of countries' efforts to

maintain quality in the context of quantitative expansion of educational provision. In

Ghana, the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) programme

introduced in 1996, sought, among other things, to promote quality teaching and

learning for all children and enhance school level management capacity. Similarly,

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Free Primary education (FPE) policy both aim to ensure that all children,

particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances, and those belonging to ethnic

minorities, have access to and complete free compulsory primary education of good

quality (Swai &Ndidde, 2006).

According to the Basic Education Act 2013, number 14 of 2013, School Board of

Management in Kenyan primary schools is expected to among others promote the

best interests of the institution and ensure its development, promote quality

education for all pupils in accordance with the standards set under the Act or any

other written law, ensure and assure the provision of proper and adequate physical

facilities for the institution and manage the institution's affairs in accordance with

the rules and regulations governing the occupational safety and health.

Primary school heads in Kenya are part of the BoMs and have an influence on the

appointment of members of the BoM. Kindiki, (2009), indicated that many school

head teachers often emphasize the selection of less educated BoM members who

will rarely question their ineptitude in running of school. Thus, rather than selecting I'

more qualified BoM members they end up selecting close relatives or less qualified

members of the BoM. This anomaly confirms the Kenyan report of task force of

pupil unrest in schools which pointed out the poor educational background of BoMs

as a factor towards the unrest (MOEST, 2001). Age and experience is also

mentioned as another challenge considered alongside academic qualifications that

face members of the BoMs (Kindiki, 2009). Another challenge that is facing the

BoMs in their daily management of schools is the issue of school sponsor (Republic

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In Busia County academic performance in KCPE in public pnmary schools is average and during ranking of schools, though abolished in 2014, Teso North Sub

-County has always taken the last position in the seven sub-counties inthe County. In Teso north Sub-County most public primary schools have a mean score below average according to the results analysis by the Teso north sub County examination council. KCPE analysis for four years from 2009-2013 indicated that. Find the same analysis on the next page on table 1.1.

The performance of schools in Teso north Sub-County per subject in KCPE per year is as shown in Table 1.1 that follows.

Table 1.1: Subject Performance of Primary Schools in Teso North Sub-County SUBJECT Mean Score Mean Score Mean Scores Mean Scores

2009 2010 2011 2013

English 45.32 45.97 47.86 48.91

Kiswahili 48.41 47.26 49.31 51.45

Mathematics 43.92 46.49 46.84 48.36

Science 46.48 48.096 49.7 52.18

SSTR 46.34 47.56 49.2 51.86

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Total 230.47 235.37 242.91 252.76

Source: Teso North Sub-County Examination Council

From Table 1.1 adopted from KCPE analysis for the Teso North Sub-County it is evidenced that out of the four years it is only in one year that the district mean-score

was average. The presence of the board of management and FPE funding should be

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quality education in public primary schools cannot be underscored. Though they exist, no current study addresses how school board of managements are influencing quality education in Kenyan public primary schools especially in Teso North Sub-County of Busia Sub-County, hence the need for this study.

Background of Primary Schools in Kenya

Since 1963 primary School in Kenya have had a tremendous growth. The number of

public primary schools has continuously increased to cater for the population growth in the country. Education systems have also taken different dimensions changes in education system have grown from the 7-4-2-3 that is seven years of primary education, four years of secondary education, two years of A-level education and three years of university education to the current 8-4-4 system of education with the

eight years of primary education, four years of secondary education and four years of university education. This has been coupled with several curriculum reviews to fit

the socio-economic needs of the country.

Education in Kenya has played a very big and crucial role in pushing the country I'towards attainment of Vision 2030. Consequently, the Kenya Government has

continued to invested huge sums of its budgetary allocation on the education sector

and evidenced in the 2015 through the increased FPE funding and introduction of a

new vote head titled Board of Management Meetings to cater for the functions of

the Board of Managements in all the public primary schools.

In Kenya, the Education Act (1968), Cap 211 laws of Kenya, section 10,gave rise to

the establishment of School Management Committees (SMCs) currently known as

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than a private primary school and maintained by a local authority. This Act paved

the way for the establishment of school boards for primary school, secondary

schools, teacher colleges, polytechnics, institutions of technology, except

universities. BoMs were established to manage public schools on behalf of the

government. The Gachathi Committee Report (1976) endorsed that primary schools be run by BoM and given a larger degree of delegation in order to enhance effective

management of schools, especially the need to maintain discipline. Ali, (2005) and

Opot, (2006) both observed that members of Board of management and school

committee are appointed from among persons who have qualities of commitment,

competence and experience which would enhance the management and development

of educational institutions. The head teacher of every school is a member and a

secretary of the board. He/she reports and is accountable to the board (World Bank,

2008).

According to the education act which spells out the rules and regulations of the

management of management of public schools, the Board of Management is an

entity recognized by the Government as responsible for the management of public

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schools in the country. It provides for the interaction of sponsors of schools, parents

associations, teachers, students, special groups and the government in the

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The structure of the management of the primary schools in Kenya is as shown in the Figure below:

National Education Board (NEB)

~

County Education Board (CEB)

~

School Board of Management (BoM)

Figure 1.1: Structure of School Management Boards

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Around the world every level of education or academic institution has a Board of Management. These committees are put in place in order to help manage the school activities. However, their main responsibility lies in ensuring that academic

activities take place as required and the desired results among learners is achieved.

However, despite the existence of school Board of Management in public primary schools in Teso north Sub-County, most of the pupils in these schools continuously

underperform academically, some teachers quit, others slack off while the schools

themselves are in a poor state lacking various learning and teaching resources as

well as have inadequate learning spaces for pupils due to the free primary education policy that has increased learners enrolment in primary schools. These variables

have been blamed on a number of factors all over the world. However, in this study

it is necessary for the researcher to assess the extent to which school Board of

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towards enhancing quality teaching and learning in public primary schools in Teso north Sub-County Busia County in Kenya.

Being the overall management and supervisory board in public primary schools, Boards of Management are very important. This is especially in the enhancement of academic performance and quality of education. Nevertheless, despite the increased number of members of the boards (14 per school) the education standards had continued to be below average generally especially in Teso North Sub County (as

measured by the pupils getting marks below the average mean score in national examinations). This therefore raised questions that the study sought to answer: What effects did board of management play in enhancing quality of education in public primary schools. Secondly, how effective had school boards of management been in

enhancing quality of teaching and learning?

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate Board of Management members'

opinions on their roles in enhancing the quality of education in Teso North

Sub-/'

County, Busia County.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

1. To examine the views of Board of Management members on their roles in enhancing quality teaching and learning in public primary schools inTeso North

Sub-County.

2. To analyze the views of Board of Management members about their roles on

management of human resources in public primary schools in Teso North

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3. To assess the OpInIOnS of Board of Management members on their roles in

management of financial resources in public primary schools in Teso North

Sub-County.

1.5 Research Questions

1. What were the views of Board of Management members about their roles in

enhancing quality teaching and learning in public primary schools in Teso North

Sub-County?

2. What were the VIews of Board of Management members on their roles in

management of Schools Human resources in public primary schools in Teso

North Sub-County?

3. What was the impact of the Board of Management members' roles in

management of financial resources in public primary schools in Teso North

Sub-County?

Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between school's Board of Management

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opinions on their roles and the quality of education in public primary schools in

TesoNorth Sub-County, Busia County Kenya.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study might be useful to a number of stakeholders:

1.6.1 Ministry of Education

This study may be useful to the Ministry of Education.

It

provides data validating

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this study, the Ministry of Education could form the policy framework for the

operations and constitution of BoM's in public primary schools. Furthermore, the

Ministry becomes cognizant of the effects of BoM on various opinions of public

primary schools. Finally, for the purpose of future funding of schools.

1.6.2 Public Primary Schools

Public primary schools may find this study very useful in forming their choices of

members of BoM. The administrators of Public primary schools may become aware

of what roles the BoMs have in school operations and make necessary strategies to

enhance the interaction of BoM and the school.

1.6.3 School Sponsors

Most public primary schools are sponsored by institutions especially religious

institutions. The sponsors may become aware of the effects of BoM's role on the

quality of education in schools. Consequently, they may make informed decisions

when nominating BoM members from their congregation.

1'1.6.4 Community

The community may find this study useful as it may be informed of the role played

by the BoM in the management of schools and consequently the education standards

in the community. Consequently, the community may be aware on how to select

members of BoM to enhance the effectiveness of the board in improving education

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1.6.5 Academia

This study contributes to existing knowledge on BoM and their role on quality

academic performance in Schools. Enhancement of this existing knowledge is seen

in the findings of this study and in the resulting research report. In addition, future

researchers may use this study as basis for further or new studies as well as a source

for literature review.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

The study was limited to public primary schools within Teso North Sub-County as

only respondents from these schools were allowed to participate. This sub county is

located within Busia County in Trans-Nzoia region.

The research faced time constraint as the sub county was quite expansive not to

mention the academic nature of this study which places a deadline on its completion

and submission. Extreme weather conditions did not affect the timely completion of

the study. The researcher carried out the research during the period without much

adverse weather conditions. Weather conditions were conducive and good planning

was done. The accuracy of the results may not be guaranteed as the researcher had

no control over the respondents' answers. Accessibility of the respondents also

proved a challenge as respondents had the right to refuse participation in this study.

Lastly, some of the instruments had been misplaced by the respondents while others

returned unfilled reducing the number of instruments and research participants. To

mitigate the above challenges the researcher prepared more questionnaires and

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least four members were able to complete the questionnaire and all were collected

and included in the analysis.

1.8 Assumptions of the Study

This study was based on the following assumptions

1. That all the public primary schools within Teso North Sub-County had a school Board of Management.

2. That School Board of Management members played a role in enhancing the quality of education in the public primary schools.

3. That the Board of Management members had the authority in enhancing quality

teaching and learning in public primary schools.

4. That respondents provided adequate and reliable information

1.9 Theoretical Framework

This study was guided by Fayolism theory or management theory as advanced by Henry Fayol in 1900 (Fayol, 1954). This theory analyzed and synthesized the role of management in organizations, developed around 1900 by the French management. ~

Fayol was regarded by many as the father of the modem operational management theory, and his ideas have become a fundamental part of modem management concepts (Brunsson, 2008). In his theory, Fayol developed 14 principles of management in order to help managers manage their affairs more effectively. The fourteen principles are division of work, delegation of authority, discipline, chain of command, congenial workplace, interrelation between individual interests and common organizational goals, compensation package, centralization, scalar chains,

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to Fayol, observations of these 14 principles were capable of ensuring efficiency and

success in any organizational duties (Brunsson, 2008).

Again within his theory, Fayol further outlined five elements of management that

depict the kinds of behaviors managers should engage in so that the goals and

objectives of an organization are effectively and successfully met (Fayol, 1976;

McLean, 2011). The five elements of management involved:

1. Planning: creating a plan of action for the future, determining the stages of

the plan and the technology necessary to implement it. Deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, and who should do it. It maps the path from where the organization is to where it wants to be. The planning

function involves establishing goals and arranging them in a logical order.

Administrators engage in both short-range and long-range planning.

2. Organizing: Once a plan of action is designed, managers need to provide

everything necessary to carry it out; including raw materials, tools, capital

and human resources. Identifying responsibilities, grouping them into

departments or divisions, and specifying organizational relationships.

3. Command: Managers need to implement the plan. They must have an

understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of their personnel. Leading people in a manner that achieves the goals of the organization requires

proper allocation of resources and an effective support system. Directing

requires exceptional interpersonal skills and the ability to motivate people.

One of the crucial issues in directing is the correct balance between staff

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4. Coordination: High-level managers must work to "harmonize" all the activities to facilitate organizational success. Communication is the prime

coordinating mechanism. Synchronizes the elements of the organization and

must take into account delegation of authority and responsibility and span of

control within units.

5. Control: The final element of management involves the comparison of the activities of the personnel to the plan of action; it is the evaluation

component of management. Monitoring function that evaluates quality in all areas and detects potential or actual deviations from the organization's plan,

ensuring high-quality performance and satisfactory results while maintaining

an orderly and problem-free environment. Controlling includes information management, measurement of performance, and institution of corrective

actions.

Fayol believed that managerial practices were the key to predictability and

efficiency in organizations (McLean, 2011). This theory is relevant to this study in

that it shows ways in which the school board of management's engagement in

I'

running schools can help in yielding the desired results of better academic outcomes

among pupils in public primary schools. The theory clearly shows that appropriate

management can assist in improving efficiency and outcomes in any institution. By

adopting this theory, it is possible for school board of management in Teso north

Sub-County to help in improving the quality of education within public primary

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1.10 Conceptual Framework

The ability of a school's Board of Management to enhance the quality of education

within public primary schools should not and cannot be underscored.

Figure 1.2: Diagrammatic representation of the conceptual framework

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

I

l

Quality teaching and learning

~ Procurement of quality teaching and

learning resources

Quality teaching human resource

Quality educa

ti

on

in

~ Effective hiring practices

---

.

public p

rimary

~ Treatment of teaching and non-teaching

staffs

schools

Prudent management of school financial

resources

~ Sourcing for funds

~ Effective procurement process

~ Adequate management of all opinion of

school and learning activities

~ Monitoring of performance of both

teachers and learners

Source: Anyang O. Linet (author) 2015

The dependent variable, quality education in public education n primary school

depends on the independent variables for its achievement. Quality of education depends on many factors including quality teaching and learning, quality teaching

human resource and prudent management of school financial resources. Therefore

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practices, treatment of teaching and non-teaching staffs, procurement of teaching

and learning resources, sourcing for funds, adequate management of all school

resources and learning activities, monitoring of performance of both teachers and

learners, the school board of managements are capable of enhancing the quality of

education. This responsibility therefore provide the school management with the

most important responsibilities which if well undertaken can improve the quality of

education and if not can negatively affect the same quality of education in public

primary schools. The conceptual relationship of these variables was as presented in

figure one.

1.11 Operational Definition of Terms

Quality education: This is the provision of appropriate level of education capable

of ensuring good learning conditions and outcomes necessary to improve the

learners' progress through every level of education and eventually producing

productive individuals of the society.

Quality teaching and learning:

I'

School Board of Management: This is an appointed body in public primary schools

made up of individuals capable of making rational decisions needed to ensure every

aspect of education is being fulfilled by the academic institution

Teaching and Learning Resources: These are materials needed by teachers and

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CHAPTER TWO

R

EVIEW

O

F RELATED LITE

R

ATU

R

E

2.1 Introduction

This chapter presents a review of literature by the researcher based on studies carried out by various authors on the roles of schools Boards of Management on the quality of education. The review is as follows.

2.2 Role of School Board of Management

School board of management at primary school level has a role to play in the daily running of the institution. The Basic Education Act 2013 Number 14 of 2013 outlines the functions of the Board of Management of a basic education institution is

to promote the best interests of the institution and ensure its development, promote quality education for all pupils in accordance with the standards set under this Act or any other written law, ensure and assure the provision of proper and adequate

physical facilities for the institution. Manage the institution's affairs in accordance

with the rules and regulations governing the occupational safety and health, advise

I'the County Education Board on the staffing needs of the institution, determine cases

of pupils' discipline and make reports to the County Education Board, prepare a comprehensive termly report on all areas of its mandate and submit the report to the

County Education Board.

Another crucial role of the Board of Management is to facilitate and ensure the

provision of guidance and counseling to all learners, provide for the welfare and

observe the human rights and ensure safety of the pupils, teachers and non-teaching

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governance at the institution, promote the spirit of cohesion, integration, peace,

tolerance, inclusion, elimination of hate speech, and elimination of tribalism at the

institution, encourage the learners, teachers and non-teaching staff and other, parents

and the community, and other stakeholders to render voluntary services to the

institution.

The board of management allow reasonable use of the facilities of the institution for

community, social and other lawful purposes, subject to such reasonable and

equitable conditions as it may determine including the charging of a fee, administer

and manage the resources of the institution, receive, collect and account for any

funds accruing to the institution, recruit, employ and remunerate such number of

non-teaching staff as may be required by the institution in accordance with this Act

and perform any other function to facilitate the implementation of its functions

under this Act or any other written law.

2.3 Quality Education

In realization of the important role which education plays as an agent of National

"development and globalization, there has been agitation for more functional and

qualitative education all over the world. This agitation and concern for quality

education is reflected in the inauguration of Education for All (EF A) in Jomtien

(Thailand) in 1995 and Dakar in 2000. This was followed by a meeting called by the

ss"

General Assembly of the United Nations to discuss the implementation of the

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It has been argued in India that if quality

improvements are to happen, much depends on the ability of the system to

(34)

their professional competence, for 'the quality, competence and character of

teachers' (Education Commission 1970) are the most significant factors influencing

the quality of education.

The effort at ensuring quality was not left to these bodies alone, other societies like

Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE), Association for

the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) and the Infonomics Society

also sponsored and organized international conferences and workshops aimed at

ensuring quality and access to education. However, at the global level the United

Nations came up with a target that all member states should achieve. They include

ensuring that by the year 2015 all children particularly girls, children in difficult

circumstances and those belonging to the ethnic minorities have access to a

complete free compulsory and good quality primary education, ensuring that the

learning needs of all young people and adults are in line with the MDGs, and

achieving universal primary education by 2015 (UNESCO, 2001).

Nigeria as one ofthe signatory countries was compelled to implement this UNESCO

I'

2001 mandate to provide high standard and good quality primary education for

every child.

In

1999 president Obasanjo launched the Universal Basic Education

(UBE) as strategy to bring quality education to every child. Omotayo, Ihebereme &

Maduewesi (2008) identify poor implementation strategy, management and lack of

quality assurance as responsible factors for the failure to realize the goals of UBE.

According to Egwu (2009), other problems facing primary education are: wide

disparity between the expected school enrolment and the actual enrolment. Poor

(35)

primary schools. One source put it at 54,434 public primary schools another source

from school census put the number at 87,941 and an enrolment Figure of

24,422,918. Out of which males are 13,302,262 ((55%)) while female Figure is

11,120,649 (45%), indicating gender imbalance of (83.6%). The above statistics

revealed that there is a shortfall of 10.5 million from the expected target of 34.92

million set. The inability of the country to meet the target set, according the late

Professor Fafunwa as quoted by Omotayo (2008), include: financial problems,

incompetent teachers, overcrowded classrooms, narrow curriculum content, high

rate of drop-outs and lack of quality control. These problems then led to the decline

in standard at all levels of Education. The reason for the above is that Nigeria still

operates the old model of inspection practices that were inherited from the colonial

government (Omotayo, Ihebereme, & Maduewesi, 2008). Evidence today has shown

that this old model is ineffective, weak and out dated (Egwu, 2009).

In Kenya, it has been shown that despite the introduction of Free Primary Education

[FPE] , there still exists a gender gap between boys and girls in access and

completion of primary school education. A study by Lucas & Mbiti (2011) showed

that more boys than girls completed primary school in response to the FPE. Some

regions of the country have fewer schools than others which affect government's

efforts of providing universal quality education for every child. For example

northeastern province has 250 public primary schools compared to 4000 in eastern

province (Ministry of Education, 2009). FPE also saw to a myriad of problems

facing the provision of quality education in the country. With the advent of FPE,

enrolment increased in the classes in the lower grades were often are very large, and

(36)

heterogeneous classes have continuously challenged pedagogy. For example, at the

beginning of 2005, the average first-grade class in some areas in Western Province

was 83 students, and in 28 percent of the classes it was more than 100. FPE also has

resulted to reduced learning in public schools. Large and heterogeneous classes,

possibly driven by the influx of poorly prepared first-generation learners, have lead

to a slight decline in test scores (Lucas & Mbiti, 2010). The low levels of reading

proficiency found in the Uwezo survey suggest that learning has been compromised

in primary schools (Uwezo 2010).

2.4 Effectiveness of the roles of the Board of Management on the Quality of Education in Public Primary Schools.

OEeD, (2002) and Spencer (2001) argue that a skilled and well-supported

leadership team in schools can help foster a sense of ownership and purpose in the

way that teachers approach their job and conferring professional autonomy to

teachers enhances the attractiveness of the profession as a career choice and

improves the quality of the classroom teaching practice. Research on decision

making in Australian primary (Mulford et al., 2000) found that the more positively

I'

teachers viewed the decision making processes of the BoM in the school the higher

their performance in classrooms. Day et al., (2000) conclude that, findings from

diverse countries and different school contexts had revealed the powerful impact of

BoMs' leadership processes on school effectiveness and improvement. The authors

further observed that schools that are effective and have the capacity to improve are

led by leaders who make a significant and measurable contribution to the

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In USA Goddard et al., (2000), Heck (2000) and Sweetland & Hoy (2000) found

close links between school environments and improved student learning. Goddard et

al., (2000) found that collective teacher efficacy is a significant predictor of student

achievement. Sweetland & Hoy (2000) in a study of 86 middle schools showed that

teacher empowerment was related to higher levels of teacher self-report as well as

student proficiency tests of effectiveness. However these authors often fall short in

indicating how school board of managements influence these outcomes despite the

fact that they exist in all the levels of education studied.

Students' academic performance hinges on effective operation of the school

management. In the BoMs' operations were found to be deficient in the performance

of their tasks which led to ineffective school management, while the students'

academic achievement remained low. This shows a negative effect of BoMs on

education quality education. The Federal Ministry of Education (2006) reported that

students' academic performance in the Senior Secondary School Certificate

Examination (SSCE) conducted between 2000 and 2006 was below fifty percent.

Bello-Osagie & Olugbamila (2009) also reported that III the 2009 I'

November/December Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination conducted

by the National Examination Council (NECO-SSCE), out of the total number of

234,682 Nigerian candidates who sat for the examination, only 4,223 obtained credit

level passes and above in five subjects which is a 98.2% failure rate. Owadiae

(2010) reported that in 2009 May/June Senior Secondary Certificate Examination

conducted by the West African Examinations Council, only 25.99 percent of the

candidates obtained credit passes and above in five subjects, while in the 2010

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only 337,071 (24.9(4%» candidates obtained five credit level passes and above in

five subjects (Owadiae, 2011; Owadiae, 2012). These show ineffectiveness of BoMs

in the countries despite the fact that the authors failed to provide clearly link on how

BoMs influence these outcomes per se.

Federal Ministry of Education, (2011) in Nigeria opined that the abysmal

performance of students could be a reflection of gap in resource inputs, quality of

curriculum management and poor academic standard of students, which has perhaps

been attributed to the gap in the input-pro cess-output system, and the systemic

mal-functioning in the school management procedures being practiced in secondary

schools, which often leads to steady decline in students' academic performance and

depicts non realization of quality assurance in education system which is the

responsibility of BOMCs in the nation. Ayeni (2012) and Ayeni & Ibukun, (2013)

on the other hand observed that strong BOMC may enable stakeholders to evaluate

their school programs and to establish result- oriented procedures that would help

those teachers and students that do not perform well to achieve optimum

productivity and quality learning outcome. This according to Ayeni (ibid) will

I'

provide principals, teachers and members of the community with relevant

information on the effects and efficacy of teaching and learning activities on

students' performance and stimulate them to find realistic solutions to problems of

quality in secondary education; so that academic norms are not undermined at the

expense of social norms, but both would complement each other. Ayeni's study is however not hinged on actual facts or backed by statistical findings making it

(39)

Ayeni & Ibukun, (2013) holds that the quality of the transformational process and

outputs from the school is further enhanced by the school-based management

committee through a comprehensive analytical review of the school academic

activities and programmes according to the educational policy goals and procedures.

The involvement of the school-based management committee in the school

governance ensures sustainable inter-dependent relationship between the school and

the community, by promoting good value system and recognizing the cooperation,

participation and support of significant and relevant stakeholders in the setting of

standards and ensuring quality in the management of school resources (ibid).

Effective school-based management committee (BoM) is a building block for school

and community partnership in school governance. Ayeni, (2012) showed that

effective BoMs enables key stakeholders in education to receive firsthand

information on the quality and quantity of resource inputs; strengths and weaknesses

inherent in teachers' instructional task performance and the leadership behavior of

principals; staff and students welfare; and stimulate government and other

stakeholders to see the need for adequate provision of learning facilities and capacity

building of principals and teachers in order to improve institutional management and

I'

curriculum delivery for better learning outcomes in schools. The study further

showed that school-based management committee will encourage school principals

and members of the community to pay special attention to resource inputs, efficient

and transparent use of resources, and increased participation of stakeholders in

decision making process for better institutional management and improved outcomes

(40)

The reviewed literature shows extensive areas where BoMs influence education

qualities. However, there is not recent studies Done in East Africa Kenya included

on the roles of BoM on quality of education in public primary schools since the

change of the structure from school management committee Board of Management.

Most of the reviewed literatures have however focused on secondary level of

education rather than primary schools making generalization of their findings not

feasible for this study. Quality education covers retention, dropout rates,

indiscipline, financial management, resource management and availability as well as

pupil teacher ratio all areas that the reviewed studies have failed to look at in

relations to BoM. These are some of the issues the current study intended to address

in Teso north Sub-County Busia County Kenya within public primary schools.

2.5 Barriers Faced by School board of managements' in Enhancing the

Quality of Education

Every responsibility has its own obstacles, where as some are personal other

obstacles are from the external environment and all inhibit one's ability to

successfully complete a task. School boards of managements also do experience

certain obstacles and or barriers while trying to carry out their duties. A study

carried out in Iraq showed that one of the barriers relates to lack of training (Ijaz, &

Muhammad, 2011). The study showed that just under half of the Board of

Management Members who took part in the study had received training. Those with

training indicated that it made their work easier while the majority who lacked

training struggled with responsibilities assigned to them (ibid). The issue of lack of

training was also identified in the study by head teachers thirty head teachers which

(41)

receive training in relation to their roles. Lack of adequate funding, lack of parental

support and Lack of recognition in the Education Act were other challenges

indicated to be affecting BoMs members while discharging their responsibilities.

Challenges on roles between PT A and BoM, against Head Teachers and Parents

were also found to affect the effectiveness of BoMs in the Middle East.

Pushpanadham, (2000) in a study conducted in India also observed that the operation

of the school board management committee (BoM) is faced with a number of

problems. These include the fact that many of the BoM members have limited

knowledge of school budget, physical plant, personnel policy issues, conflict

resolution and other statutory matters in which they are expected to offer

professional and technical inputs in decision making and performance evaluation for

sustainable improvement in the school system. Another challenge/barrier is the

politicization of school policy issues such as selection of textbooks and disciplinary

problems often caused by little knowledge and inadequate experience of some BoM

members constitute encumbrance to school administration (ibid).

I"'In Nigeria, the findings by the Federal Ministry of Education (2011) revealed that a

significant proportion of 60% of schools are without functional BoMs. This situation

has been attributed to problems such as inadequate sensitization and advocacy for

the communities to understand the enormous benefits to be derived from their

genuine participation in school governance, particularly in raising teaching and

learning standards, and quality of outputs in schools. According to Ayeni & Ibukun

(2013), the operation of the BoM is also faced with the challenges of low

administrative capacity of key members of the BoMs; poor attendance of members

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lack of cooperation from the school managers; teachers' misconception of the role of

the BoM as an interference on their profession; PT A's role conflict and resistance to the BoM initiatives, due to misconception of the BoMs functions which is believed

to be mere duplication of the PTA's roles; politicization of the selection of school uniform and release of school facilities for usage by members of the community.

Consequently, many of the problems inhibiting effective teaching and learning from achieving the desired outcomes have not been adequately addressed.

Despite the existence of several studies addressing the roles school board of

managements face around the world while carrying out their duties, there is lack of literature in East Africa and in Kenya addressing the same with regards to barriers

facing school board of managements while trying to enhance the quality of

education especially in public primary schools an area the current study is interested in addressing in Teso north Sub-County, Busia County - Kenya. Through the study

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CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter helped to describe the procedure that was followed in

conducting the study. It began with research design, study population, sampling

techniques and sample size, research instruments, pilot study, validity and reliability

of the instruments, data collection procedures, data analysis procedures and ethical

considerations.

3.2 Research Design

The research design that was adopted in this study was a descriptive survey.

Descriptive survey studies are concerned primarily with determining "what is"

(Mutai, 2000). Therefore, descriptive survey while simple in design and execution

was able to yield important information about a phenomenon. Surveys are excellent

vehicles for collecting original data for the purpose of studying the determinants of a

phenomenon in a very large population (Mutai, 2000). Using descriptive survey

.design, a researcher is able to study a large population with only a portion of that

population being used to provide the required data. Descriptive survey design isthe

most appropriate when the purpose of the study is to create a detailed description of

a phenomenon (Wiersma & Jurs, 2005). This design was therefore appropriate as it

helped the researcher gather original data on how BoM members in their duties

influence quality education within Teso North Sub-County public primary schools

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3.2.1 Study Variables

Independent Variables

The independent variables investigated were roles of BoM on provision of quality

teaching and learning resources, quality teaching human resource and prudent

management of school financial resources by sourcing for funds and ensuring

prudent procurement processes.

Dependent variable

The dependent variable here was quality education in public primary schools which

would be achieved from the above independent variables.

3.2.2 Research Methodology and Specific Data Collection Method

The research method that was used was a written questionnaire with objectives,

which the respondents ticked the box with the appropriate response to the question

asked.

3.2.3 Location of the Study

,

-This study was carried out within public day primary schools in Teso North

Sub-County, Busia County. The schools were located in three zones being Amagoro

Zone, Angurai Zone and Kolanya Zone. The sub-county was chosen as it had a

mixture of public day schools from urban and rural areas as well as for the fact that

the quality of education within public day primary schools differed despite the fact

that they all had BoM members and Teso north sub-county was selected due to it is

under performance by candidates especially in KCPE. Candidates who score above

400 marks are minimal less than 5 per year and the majority score below 200 marks.

(45)

full time teacher and an administrator in the school. Hence, chose to carry out the

research in Teso North Sub-County.

3.3 Target Population

A population can be defined as a total of all cases with similar characteristics of

interest to a researcher (Mugenda & Mugenda, 1998). The characteristics of interest

to the researcher were public primary schools in Teso North Sub-County of Busia

County. There were 106 public primary schools that formed the population of the

study. The following groups of individuals were targeted by the researcher, fourteen

(14) Board of Management Members in each public primary school and five (5)

education officials from Teso North sub-county, Busia County Kenya. Therefore,

the total target population was 1,489.

3.4 Sampling Technique and Sample Size 3.4.1 Sampling Technique

This researcher used different sampling techniques at different stages of the study.

This was justified due to the multiplicity of respondents in the study and high

I'

number of respondents in the sampling frame.

The first stage utilized stratified random sampling technique where the sub- county

of Teso North had three educational zones (stratus). BoM members and education

officials were classified based on the three zones (stratus). From the three zones,

Amagoro zone had the highest number of public primary schools hence more

schools were sampled while an equal number of schools were sampled in Angurai

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After stratified random sampling, the researcher utilized purposive sampling.

Purposive sampling is where the researcher selects certain respondents with specific

characteristics. In this study, the board of management who were legally elected

from the Parents and Teachers Association were the only ones given the

questionnaires. Out of the fourteen Board of Management members of the schools in

each school priority was given to the Board of Management chairman, the board of

management treasurer, the board of management secretary who is the secretary to

the Board and head teacher of the school and more so the custodian of all the records

in the school. One other member with literacy skills was to be included as the

questionnaire was written and the interviewee was to read the questions, understand

them before selecting an appropriate response. The first three BoM Members

especially the chairman and the treasurer were elected into the positions after

consideration oftheir academic qualifications.

In the selection of educational officials, purposive sampling technique was used.

Each of the 5 education officers was included in the study that was so because there

are only 3 zones each with one TACTUTOR and 2 quality assurance officers in the

I'

Teso North Sub-County.

The sampling frame of the study was 1,489.

3.4.2 Sample Size

According to Mugenda and Mugenda (1998) a descriptive research design should

include at least 10 % to 30% of the target population. Given these guidelines, this

study used 30% of the population. Therefore, the sample size was 32 public primary

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Treasurer to the board, the head teacher (secretary to the Board) and one other

independent board members with appropriate academic qualifications. The

respondents were chosen because the first three respondents are the members of the

executive committee of the board and they hold those position because of their

academic qualifications while the 4th member to be included had to have similar

educational merits.

Additionally, the questionnaire used for sampling was detailed and needed one to

understand it before responding to the same. In total there were 131 respondents in

this study as shown in table 3.2.

Table 3.1: Sample Size

Details Target Population Sample Size

Board Members (4 per school) 1,484 128

Education Officials 5 3

Total 1,489 131

3.5 Research Instruments

A questionnaire was the primary data collection instrument in the study. A

questionnaire was justified for use in this study due to its various benefits and

advantages. These include; it was cheap to administer, very convenient, it is a

scientific data collection tool, can collect qualitative and quantitative data and that it

is a very cost effective data collection instrument (Mugenda &Mugenda, 1999).

The research utilized two questionnaires: Questionnaire one collected data from

Board of Management members and Questionnaire two collected data from the

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Each Questionnaire had four sections. Section A was used to collect background

information about the respondents. Section B collected data on the opinions of the

Board of Management and its roles on enhancing quality teaching and learning in

public primary schools in Teso North sub - county. Section C collected data on the

views of Board of Management on their roles on human resource management in

public primary schools in the Teso North Sub-County and finally Section D

collected data on the opinions of Board of Management on their roles in the

financial management in the public primary schools.

In the collection of data, the study utilized a mixture of open ended, closed ended

and likert scale questions. Open ended questions were used to collect qualitative data

and further information from the respondents. Closed ended questions were used to

collect specific and pre-coded data while likert scale questions were used to measure

the opinions of the respondents, especially the educational officials.

3.6

Validity of

the

Instruments

Content validity of the instruments was determined by expert judgments. The

",

instruments were scrutinized by the peer reviews and project supervisors to judge

the items on their appropriateness of content, and need modification so as to achieve

the objectives of the study. The supervisors determined whether the items in the

research instruments adequately represented all the areas that needed to be

investigated. In addition, the researcher also ensured validity of the data to be

collected by making samples of the instruments and presented to the supervisors

Figure

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