SCATTERING OF MONOCHROMATIC ELECTROMAG-NETIC WAVES ON 3D-DIELECTRIC BODIES OF ARBI-TRARY SHAPES

S. Kanaun

Mechanical Engineering Department, ITESM-CEM Carretera Lago de Guadalupe 4 km

Atizapan, Edo de M´exico 52926, M´exico

Abstract—The work is devoted to the problem of scattering of monochromatic electromagnetic waves on heterogeneous dielectric inclusions of arbitrary shapes. For the numerical solution of the problem, the volume integral equation for the electric field in the region occupied by the inclusion is used. Discretization of this equation is carried out by Gaussian approximating functions. For such functions, the elements of the matrix of the discretized problem are calculated in explicit analytical forms. For a regular grid of approximating nodes, the matrix of the discretized problem proves to have the Toeplitz structure, and the matrix-vector product with such matrices can be carried out by the Fast Fourier Transform technique. The latter strongly accelerates the process of the iterative solution of the discretized problem. Electric fields inside a spherical inclusion and its differential cross-sections are calculated and compared with the exact (Mie) solution for various wave lengths of the incident field. Internal electric fields and the differential cross-sections of a cylindrical inclusion are calculated for the incident fields of various directions and wave lengths.

1. INTRODUCTION

The problem of scattering of electromagnetic waves on dielectric inclusions of arbitrary shapes has many important applications (see, e.g., [1]). That is why it has been in the focus of interest of many researches for several decades. Surveys of the numerical methods of the solution of this problem may be found in [2–4]. Some more recent

methods are described in [5, 6]. Among these methods, the methods based on the volume integral equation of electromagnetics have a number of advantages. This equation reduces the scattering problem to the calculation of the electromagnetic field inside the inclusion only. The scattered field in the medium is expressed through the inside field with the help of a known integral operator. Existence and uniqueness of the solution of the volume integral equation of electromagnetics were proved in [4]. In [3, 4], a method of the numerical solution of this equation was also outlined. In this method, discretization of the volume integral equation is proposed to carry out by a set of identical approximating functions centered at the nodes of a regular grid. As a result, the matrix of the discretized problem obtains the Toeplitz properties, and the matrix-vector product with such a matrix may be carried out by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. The latter accelerates essentially the process of iterative solution of the discretized problem.

In the present work, the discretization on the 3D-integral equation of the scattering problem is carried out by Gaussian approximating functions. The theory of approximation by the Gaussian and similar functions was developed in [7]. The main advantage of these functions is that the elements of the matrix of the discretized problem are calculated in explicit analytical forms, and numerical integration is not involved in the process of construction of this matrix. The Gaussian functions were used for the numerical analysis of static electric fields in a medium with a heterogeneous inclusion in [8].

2. INTEGRAL EQUATION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN A HOMOGENEOUS MEDIUM WITH AN ISOLATED INCLUSION

Consider an infinite homogeneous medium with dielectric properties
described by a two-rank symmetric tensor*C*0

*ij.*The medium contains an

isolated inclusion that occupies a region*V*, and the dielectric properties
inside*V* are defined by the tensor*Cij*(x),*x(x*1*, x*2*, x*3) is a point of the

medium, and xis the vector of this point. The tensor of the dielectric properties of the medium with the inclusion is presented in the form

*Cij*(x) =*Cij*0 +*Cij*1(x)V(x), C*ij*1(x) =*Cij*(x)*−Cij*0*,* (1)

where*V*(x) is the characteristic function of the region occupied by the
inclusion:

*V*(x) = 1 if *x∈V*, *V*(x) = 0 if *x /∈V.* (2)
Let an incident electric fieldE0(x, t)

E0(x, t) =U0(x)e*iωt,* U0(x) =A0*e−ik0(*n0*·*x) (3)
propagate in the medium and be scattered on the inclusion *V*. Here
*ω* is frequency, *t* is time, *k*0 is the wave number of the incident field,

n0 _{is its wave normal, and} _{n}0_{·}_{x} _{is the scalar product of the vectors}

n0 _{and} _{x.} _{A}0 _{is the polarization vector of the incident field. In this}

case, the electric fieldE(x, t) in the medium with the inclusion has the
formE(x, t) =U(x)e*iωt*_{, and its amplitude}_{U(x) satisfies the following}
integral equation (see e.g., [3, 4])

*Ui*(x)*−*

Z

*Gij*(x*−x0*)C*jk*1 (x*0*)U*k*(x*0*)V(x*0*)dx*0* =*Ui*0(x). (4)
Here and farther, vectors and tensors are denoted by bold letters, for
the components of vectors and tensors, the corresponding non-bold
letters with low indices are used, summation with respect to repeating
indices is implied.

Equation (4) serves for a set of inclusions as well as for an
isolated inclusion in an infinite homogeneous medium. For an isotropic
medium, *C*0

*ij* =*c*0*δij* (c0 is a scalar, *δij* is the Kronecker symbol) and

the kernel *Gij*(x) of the integral operator in this equation takes the

form

*Gij*(x) = *k*20*g(x)δij* +*∂i∂jg(x), ∂i*= _{∂x}∂

*i,* (5)
*g(x) =* *e−ik0|x|*

4πc_{0}*|x|,* *k*
2

Thus, the kernelG(x) is the second derivative of the function*g(x) that*
has a weak singularity.

Equation (4) was considered by many authors and is in essence the
equation for the fieldU(x) inside the inclusion (in the region*V*). The
field outside *V* may be reconstructed from the same Eq. (4) if U(x)
inside *V* is known. Note that integration in Eq. (4) may be formally
spread over any region *W* that includes*V*. For instance in Section 3,
the numerical solution of this equation is constructed in a minimal
cuboid*W* that includes *V*.

Note that Eq. (4) may be rewritten in the form
U(x) =U0(x)+U*s*(x), U*s*(x) =

Z

*V*

G(x*−x0*)*·*C1(x*0*)*·*U(x*0*)dx*0,* (7)

where U*s*_{(x) is the electric field scattered on the inclusion. In the far}
zone (*|*x*| ÀL,L*is a characteristic size of the inclusion) the following
asymptotic representations hold:

*|x−x0| ≈ |*x*| −*n*·*x*0,* n= x

*|*x*|,* (8)

*g(x−x0*) *≈* *e*
*−ik0|x|*

4πc0*|x|e*

*ik0*(n*·*x*0*_{)}

*,* (9)

*∂i∂jg(x−x0*) *≈ −k*20*ninje*

*−ik0|x|*

4πc0*|x|e*

*ik0*(n*·*x*0*_{)}

*,* (10)

and the fieldU*s*_{(x) takes the form}
*U _{i}s*(x)

*≈*

*e*

*−ik0|x|*

4πc0*|x|Fi*(n), (11)

*Fi*(n) = *k*02(δ*ij* *−ninj*)

Z

*V*

*C _{jk}*1 (x

*0*)U

*(x*

_{k}*0*)e

*ik0*(n

*·*x

*0*)

*dx0.*(12)

HereF(n) is called the amplitude of the scattered field. If the direction
n coincides with n0 _{(the direction of the incident field propagation),}

F(n0) is the forward scattered amplitude. The square of the module

*|*F(n)*|*2 of the complex vector F(n) in Eq. (12) is proportional to the
so-called differential scattering cross-section of the inclusion [1], and
according to (12)*|*F(n)*|*2 takes the form

*|*F(n)*|*2 = *k*4_{0}

·¯ ¯ ¯ bU

¯
¯
¯2*−*

¯
¯
¯n*·*Ub

¯ ¯ ¯2

¸

*,* (13)

b

U =

Z

*V*

Farther, we define the normalized differential scattering cross-section
*q(n) of an inclusion by the following equation*

*q(n) =* *|*F(n)*|*

2

*|*F(n0)*|*2*.* (15)

3. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE INTEGRAL EQUATIONS (4)

3.1. Gaussian Approximating Functions

For the numerical solution of Eq. (4), this integral equation should be
firstly discretized using an appropriate class of approximating functions
(see, e.g., [9]). In this work, the Gaussian approximation functions are
used for this purpose. According to [7], a bounded smooth function
*u(x) defined on 3D-space can be presented in the form of the following*
series:

*u(x)≈uh*(x) =

X

*r*
*u*(*r*)*ϕ*

³

*x−x*(*r*)

´

*, ϕ(x) =* 1

(πH)3*/*2 exp
µ

*−|x|*2

*Hh*2
¶

*.*

(16)
Here *x*(*r*) _{(r} _{= 1,}_{2, . . .) are the nodes of a regular node grid. The}

vectorx(*r*) _{of the node}* _{x}*(

*r*)

_{has the components (hm, hn, hp), where}

*m, n, p* are integers (connection between the indices*r* and *m, n, p*is
indicated below), *h* is the step of the node grid, *u*(*r*) =*u(x*(*r*)) is the
value of function *u(x) in the node* *x*(*r*)_{, and} _{H}_{is a non-dimensional}

parameter of the order 1. In [7], Eq. (16) is called the “approximate
approximation” because its error does not vanish when*h→*0.But the
non-reducing part of the error has the order of exp(*−π*2_{H) and may}

be neglected in practical calculations.

3.2. Discretization of the Integral Equation (4)

Let us take a cuboid *W* that contains the region *V* occupied by the
inclusion and cover *W* by a regular grid of approximating nodes at
points *x*(*r*) _{(r} _{= 1,}_{2, . . . , N) (see Fig. 1). The solution of Eq. (4) in}

*W* is approximated by the series (16), where the Gaussian functions*ϕ*
are centered at the node points*x*(*r*)

*U _{i}*(x)

*≈*

*N*

X

*r*=1

*U _{i}*(

*r*)

*ϕ*

³

*x−x*(*r*)

´

*.* (17)

W V

Figure 1. An inclusion *V* inside a cuboid *W* covered with a regular
grid of approximating nodes.

Eq. (4) we obtain:
*Ui*(x)*−*

*N*

X

*s*=1

Γ*ij*
³

*x−x*(*r*)

´

*C _{jk}*1(

*r*)

*U*(

_{k}*r*)=

*U*0(x), (18) where

_{i}Γ*ij*(x) =
Z

*Gij*(x*−x0*)ϕ(x*0*)dx*0, Cij*1(*r*)=*Cij*1
³

*x*(*r*)

´

*.* (19)
It follows from Eq. (5) for G(x) that the tensor Γ(x) is presented in
the form

Γ* _{ij}*(x) =

*k*

_{0}2

*γ*

_{0}(x)δ

*+*

_{ij}*∂*

_{i}∂_{j}γ_{0}(x), (20)

*γ*

_{0}(x) =

Z

*g(x−x0*)ϕ(x*0*)dx*0,* (21)
where the function *g(x) has form (6). The integralγ*0(x) has a weak

(integrable) singularity, and its direct calculation leads to the following
equation (ς =*|x|/h, κ*0 =*k*0*h)*

*γ*_{0}(x) = *h*2
8πc0*ς*

exp

·

*−Hκ*20+ 4iςκ0

4

¸

·

Erfc

µ

*iHκ*0*−*2ς

2*√H*

¶

*−e*2*iκ0ς*Erfc

µ

*iHκ*0+ 2ς

2*√H*

¶¸

Here Erfc (z) is the complimentary error function of a complex argument

Erfc (z) = 1*−*Erf(z), Erf(z) = *√*2

*π*
*z*

Z

0

*e−t*2*dt.* (23)

After calculating two derivatives of the integral*γ*_{0}(x) and substituting
the result into Eq. (20) the integral Γ* _{ij}*(x) takes the form

Γ*ij*(x) = * _{c}*1

0 (γ1(ς)δ*ij* +*γ*2(ς)n*inj*)*,* *ni*=

*xi*

*|*x*|.* (24)

Here two scalar functions *γ*_{1}*, γ*_{2} are as follows
*γ*_{1}(ς) = 1

8 (πH)3*/*2*ς*3
½

4ςexp

µ
*−ς*2

*H*

¶

*−√πH*exp

µ
*−Hκ*20

4

¶

·

exp (*−iκ*0*ς) (1 +κ*0*ς(i−κ*0*ς))Erfc*
µ

*iHκ*0*−*2ς

2*√H*

¶

+ exp(iκ0*ς*)(1*−κ*0*ς(i*+*κ*0*ς))Erfc*
µ

*iHκ*0+ 2ς

2*√H*

¶¸¾

*,* (25)

*γ*_{2}(ς) = 1
8 (πH)3*/*2*ς*3

½

*−*4ςexp

µ
*−ς*2

*H*

¶

(3H+2ς2)+H*√πH*exp

µ
*−Hκ*20

4

¶

·

exp(*−iκ*0*ς) (3 +κ*0*ς(3i−κ*0*ς))Erfc*
µ

*iHκ*0*−*2ς

2*√H*

¶

*−*exp(iκ0*ς*)(3*−κ*0*ς(3i*+*κ*0*ς))Erfc*
µ

*iHκ*0+ 2ς

2*√H*

¶¸¾

*.* (26)
Asymptotics *γ*_{1}(ς), *γ*_{2}(ς) of these functions for large values of the
argument*ς* have the forms

*γ*_{1}(ς) = 1
4πς3exp

·
*−*1

4

¡

*Hκ*2_{0}+ 4iςκ0
¢¸ h

(κ0*ς)*2*−*1*−iκ*0*ς*
i

*,* (27)
*γ*_{2}(ς) =*−* 1

4πς3 exp ·

*−*1

4

¡

*Hκ*2_{0}+ 4iςκ0
¢¸ h

(κ0*ς)*2*−*3*−*3iκ0*ς*
i

*.*(28)
The graphs of the real and imaginary parts of the functions*γ*1(ς) and

*γ*2(ς) (solid lines) and their asymptotic expressions *γ*1(ς) and *γ*2(ς)

(dashed lines) are presented in Figs. 2 and 3 for *κ*0 = 0.5,1,2. It

is seen that the real parts of these functions and their asymptotics
coincide when *ς >* 4. Meanwhile, their imaginary parts practically
coincide for all values of *ς. Thus, for large values ofς*, the asymptotic
Equations (27), (28) for the functions*γ*1,*γ*2 can be used instead of the

-0.12 -0.08 -0.04 0 0.04

0

Re[γ (ζ)]

κ =0.5

ζ -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1

1 Im[γ (ζ)1 ]

0

κ =10

κ =20

κ =0.50

κ =10

κ =20

1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 ζ

Figure 2. Real and imaginary parts of the function *γ*1(ς) in Eq. (25)

for various values of the parameter *κ*0 = *k*0*h* (solid lines), and the

long-distance asymptotic *γ*_{1}(ς) of this function in Eq. (27) (dashed
lines).

-0.05 0 0.05

0 ζ

κ =20

1 2 3 4

Re[γ (ζ)_{2} ] Im[γ (ζ)_{2} ]

κ =0.50

κ =10 κ =0.50

κ =10

κ =20 -0.04

0 0.04

0 1 2 3 4 ζ

-0.08

Figure 3. Real and imaginary parts of the function *γ*2(ς) in Eq. (26)

for various values of the parameter *κ*0 = *k*0*h* (solid lines), and the

long-distance asymptotic *γ*_{2}(ς) of this function in Eq. (28) (dashed
lines).

The system of linear algebraic equations for the unknowns *U _{i}*(

*r*) in Eq. (17) follows from Eq. (18) if the latter is satisfied at all the nodes

*x*(

*r*)

_{(the Collocation Method [9]).}

_{Note that if the nodes}

corresponding nodes (U* _{i}*(

*r*) =

*Ui*(x(

*r*)), r = 1,2, . . . , N) (see [7]). As a result, we obtain the following system of linear algebraic equations for the coefficients

*U*(

_{i}*r*)

*U _{i}*(

*r*)

*−*

*N*

X

*s*=1

Γ* _{ij}*(

*r,s*)

*C*1(

_{jk}*s*)

*U*(

_{k}*s*)=

*U*0(

_{i}*r*)

*, r*= 1,2, . . . , N; (29)

Γ(* _{ij}r,s*) = Γ

*ij*³

*x*(*r*)*−x*(*s*)

´

*, U _{i}*0(

*r*) =

*U*0

_{i}³

*x*(*r*)

´

*,* (30)

where Γ*ij*(x) is defined in Eq. (24). The matrix form of these equations

is

(I*−*B)X=F, (31)

where I is the unit matrix of the dimensions 3N *×*3N, the vector of
unknownsX and of the right hand sideFhave the dimensions 3N

X=¯¯*X*1*, X*2*, . . . , X*3*N*¯¯*T,* F=¯¯*F*1*, F*2*, . . . , F*3*N*¯¯*T* *,* (32)

*Xr*=

*U*_{1}(*r*)*,*
*U*_{2}(*r−N*)*,*
*U*_{3}(*r−2N*)*,*

*r≤N*
*N < r≤*2N
2N < r*≤*3N *,*

*Fr*=

*U*_{1}0(*r*)*,*
*U*_{2}0(*r−N*)*,*
*U*_{3}0(*r−2N*)*,*

*r≤N*
*N < r≤*2N
2N < r*≤*3N

*,*

(33)

*|. . .|T* _{is the transposition operation. The matrix} _{B} _{in Eq. (31) has}
the dimensions 3N *×*3N and consists of 9 sub-matrices b* _{ij}* of the
dimensions

*N×N*,

B= ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯

b11, b_{12}*,* b_{13}
b21, b22*,* b_{23}
b_{31}*,* b_{32}*,* b_{33}

¯ ¯ ¯ ¯

¯ (34)

with elements*brs _{ij}* given by

*b _{ij}rs*= Γ(

*)*

_{ik}rs*C*1(

_{kj}*s*)

*, i, j*= 1,2,3;

*r, s*= 1,2, . . . , N. (35) 3.3. Iterative Solution of the System (31)

is used, the*n-th iteration*X(*n*) _{of the solution of Eq. (31) is calculated}

as follows:

X(*n*)=X(*n−1)−αY*(*n−1), α*= Y

(*n−1) _{·}*h

_{(I}

_{−}_{B)Y}(

*n−1)*i h

(I*−*B)Y(*n−1)*

i
*·*

h

(I*−*B)Y(*n−1)*

i*,* (36)

Y(*n*)=Y(*n−1)−α(I−*B)Y(*n−1),* (37)
with the initial valuesX(0)_{,}_{Y}(0) _{of the vectors}_{X} _{and} _{Y}

X(0)=F, Y(0)=*−*BF. (38)
In these equations

Y*·*Z=
*N*

X

*r*=1

*YrZ*e*r,*

where Y and Z are *N*-dimensional vectors with the complex
components *Yr*and *Zr*, and *Z*e*r* is the complex conjugate number
with respect to *Zr*_{.} _{Convergence of this method in the case of}
electromagnetic wave scattering problem is proved in [4].

It is seen from Eqs. (36), (37) that the vectorY(*n−1)*_{is multiplied}

by the matrix I*−*B at every step of the iteration process. For
non-sparse matrices of large dimensions, calculation of such a product is
an expensive computational operation. If, however, a regular grid of
approximating nodes is used, the volume of the calculations is reduced
substantially. Let us consider the product BY in the case of an
isotropic inclusion. This product is a combination of the following
sums

*P _{ij}*(

*r*)=

*N*

X

*s*=1

Γ*ij*(x(*r*)*−x*(*s*))Z*s, Zs*=*c*(_{1}*s*)*Y*(*s*+(*j−1)N*)*,* (39)

*c*(_{1}*s*)=*c(x*(*s*))*−c*_{0}; *r, s*= 1,2, . . . , N; *i, j*= 1,2,3,

where the tensor Γ*ij*(x) is defined in Eq. (24), and*c(x) is the dielectric*

permittivity of the medium with the inclusion. For a regular node grid
with a step *h, the coordinates of every node* *x*(*r*) _{can be presented in}

the form

*x*(*r*) =

³

*x*(_{1}*m*)*, x*(_{2}*n*)*, x*(_{3}*p*)

´

*,* (40)

*x*(_{1}*m*) = *L*1+*hm, x*(_{2}*n*)=*L*2+*hn, x*(_{3}*p*)=*L*3+*hp.* (41)

Here*m, n, p*= 0,1,2, . . . are integers,*L*1*, L*2*, L*3 are minimal values

the axes*x*_{1}*, x*_{2}*, x*_{3}. Thus, the position of every node may be defined
by 3 indices (m, n, p). Connection between the one and three-index
numerations of the nodes may be introduced by the equation

*r(m, n, p) =m*+*N*_{1}(n*−*1) +*N*_{1}*N*_{2}(p*−*1), (42)
1*≤m≤N*1*,* 1*≤n≤N*2*,* 1*≤p≤N*3*.*

Here*N*1*, N*2*, N*3 are the number of the nodes along the corresponding

sides of *W*. In the three-index numeration, the sum (39) is presented
in the form

*P _{ij}r*(

*m,n,p*)=

*N1*

X

*l*=1

*N2*

X

*q*=1

*N3*

X

*t*=1

Γ*ij*
³

*x*(_{1}*m*)*−x*(_{1}*l*)*, x*(_{2}*n*)*−x*(_{2}*q*)*, x*(_{3}*p*)*−x*(_{3}*t*)

´

*Z*(*l,q,t*)*,*

*Z*(*l,q,t*)=*Zr*(*l,q,t*)*,*

(43)

where

Γ*ij*
³

*x*(_{1}*m*)*−x*(_{1}*l*)*, x*(_{2}*n*)*−x*(_{2}*q*)*, x*(_{3}*p*)*−x*(_{3}*t*)

´

= Γ*ij*(h(m*−l), h(n−q), h(p−t)).* (44)

It is seen from the last equation that the object Γ*ij*(x(1*m*)*−x*1(*p*)*, x*(2*n*)*−*

*x*_{2}(*q*)*, x*_{3}(*p*)*−x*(_{3}*t*)) has the Toeplitz structure: it depends on the differences
of the indices: *m* *−p, n−q,* and *p* *−t. As a result, the Fourier*
transform technique can be used for the calculation of the triple sums in
Eq. (43) and therefore, for the matrix-vector products. Application of
the FFT algorithms for calculation of these sums essentially accelerates
the iterative process (36)–(38). In addition, one has to keep in
the computer memory not all the matrices Γ(* _{ij}r,s*) of the dimensions
(N1

*N*2

*N*3)

*×*(N1

*N*2

*N*3) but only one column and one row of these

matrices: the objects that have the dimensions (2N1 *×*2N2 *×*2N3)

and are calculated once for all the iteration process. The details of the FFT algorithm for the calculation of the matrix-vector products are described in [10, 11].

4. NUMERICAL RESULTS

Let us start with a spherical inclusion of the radius*a*and consider the
electric field inside it in the Cartesian coordinate system with the origin
in the center of the inclusion and the axes *x*1 and *x*3 directed along

the polarization vectorU0 _{and the wave normal}_{n}0 _{of the incident field}

(Fig. 4). The medium and the inclusion are isotropic with the dielectric
permittivities *c*0 and *c, correspondingly. In the calculations, we take*

0 X3

X2

X1

n°

U θ

ϕ

Figure 4. A spherical inclusion and the directions of the wave normal
n0 _{and the polarization vector} _{U}0 _{of the incident field.}

-0.5

Re[U (0,0,x )]1 3 _{1} k =0.50

Re[U (0,0,x )]1 3

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /a1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /a_{3}

Re[U (x ,0,0)]_{1} _{1} _{0.9}

Im[U (x ,0,0)]1 1 0.6

0.3

0

-0.3

0.5

0

k =0.50a _{a}

Figure 5. Real and imaginary parts of the component *U*_{1} of the
electric field inside a spherical inclusion of the radius *a* for the wave
number of the incident field *k*0*a* = 0.5 (c/c0 = 2); the function

*U*1(x1*,*0,0) is in the left figure, the function*U*1(0,0, x3) is in the right

figure. Solid lines correspond to the exact (Mie) solutions, lines with
white dots are numerical solutions for a cubic node grid with the step
*h*= 0.02.

the radius of the inclusion becomes equal to 1, and the integral Eq. (4)
keeps its form if the wave number*k*0is replaced by the non-dimensional

wave number *k*0*a. The distribution of the real (ReU*1) and imaginary

(ImU1) parts of the component *U*1(ς1*, ς*2*, ς*3) of the vector U along

0 0.3

x1 k =0.50 q(0,θ)

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 x3

a

Figure 6. The diagram of the normalized differential cross-section
*q(φ, θ) of a spherical inclusion of the radius* *a*for the wave number of
the incident field*k*0*a*= 0.5. Solid line corresponds to the exact diagram

(Mie’s solution), line with white dots is the numerical solution for a
cubic node grid with the step*h*= 0.02.

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /a1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /a
Re[U (x ,0,0)]_{1} _{1}

1

Re[U (0,0,x )]1 3 _{1}

k =10 k =10

Im[U (x ,0,0)]1 1 Im[U (0,0,x )]1 3 0.5

0

-0.5

0.5

0

-0.5

a a

3 -1

Figure 7. The same as in Fig. 5 for*k*0*a*= 1.

and lines with white dots to the numerical solution described in the
previous section for the grid step *h* = 0.02 (the total number of the
nodes *N* = 1030301). For the mentioned values of *k*0*a, the graphs of*

the normalized differential cross-section*q(φ, θ) defined in Eq. (15) are*
in Figs. 6, 8, 10, and 12. (Here *φ*and*θ* are the angels of the spherical
coordinate system with the polar axis*x*3 (Fig. 4). These angles define

0

k =10 x1

q(0,θ_{)}

-0.5 0 0.5 1x3

0.1 0.2 0.3

a

Figure 8. The same as in Fig. 6 for*k*0*a*= 1.

-0.5 0 0.5 1

-1 0 1 2

,

-1 -2

k =20 k =20

Re[U (x ,0,0)]_{1} _{1}

Im[U (x ,0,0)]1 1

Im[U (0,0,x )]1 3 Re[U (0,0,x )]1 3

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /a1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /a3

a a

Figure 9. The same as in Fig. 5 for*k*0*a*= 2.

0

x1 _{q(0,}θ_{)} _{k =2}_{0}

0.1 0.2 0.3

-0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 x3 a

3

-1.5 -0.5 0 0.5 1

0 1 2 3

-1

-3 -2 -1

-4

k =5_{0}a k =50a

Re[U (x ,0,0)]_{1} _{1}

Re[U (x ,0,0)]_{2} _{1}

Im[U (0,0,x )]1 3

Re[U (0,0,x )]1 3

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /a1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /a3

Figure 11. The same as in Fig. 5 for*k*0*a*= 5.

0

k =5_{0}

q(0,θ_{)} _{a}

x1

0.05 0.1 0.15

-0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1x3

Figure 12. The same as in Fig. 6
for*k*0*a*= 5.

Figure 13. A cylindrical
inclu-sion and the directions of the wave
normal n0 _{and the polarization}

vectorU0 _{of the incident field.}

The integral relative error ∆ of the numerical solution may be introduced by the following equation

∆ =

Z

*V*

*|*E*e*(x)*|dx*

*−1*_{Z}

*V*

¯ ¯

¯E*h*(x)*−*E*e*(x)

¯ ¯

¯*dx.* (45)

Here E*h*_{(x) is the numerical solution that corresponds to the step}
*h* of the node grid, E*e*(x) is the exact solution. The function ∆(h)
monotonically decreases if *h* decreases. For *k*0*a* of the order 1, ∆

0

0.2 0.4

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 x3

x1 k0L=0.5 k0L=1 k0L=3 k0L=5

q(0,θ) α=0

Figure 14. The diagram of the normalized differential cross-section
*q(φ, θ) of a cylindrical inclusion of the lengthL*and radius*a*(L/a= 2,
*c/c*0 = 2) for various wave numbers of the incident field *k*0*L* =

0.5,1,3,5. The direction of the wave normal n0 _{coincides with the}

cylinder axis *x*_{3} (α= 0)

-0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75

Re[U1(0,0,x3)]

k L=0.5, α=π/4

Im[U1(0,0,x3)]

-0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

Im[U1(x1,0,0)]

Re[U1(x1,0,0)] _{k L=0.5, }_{0} α=π_{/4} _{0}

-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 x /L_{1} -1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /L_{3}

Figure 15. Real and imaginary parts of the component *U*1 of the

electric field inside a cylindrical inclusion of the length *L* and radius
*a* (L/a = 2) for the wave number of the incident field *k*0*L* = 0.5

(c/c0= 2) and the angle between the wave normal*n*0 and the cylinder

axis*α*=*π/4; the functionU*1(x1*,*0,0) is in the left figure, the function

*U*1(0,0, x3) is in the right figure. Lines with white dots correspond to

the numerical solution for a cubic node grid with the step*h*= 0.02.

For larger values of the wave numbers*k*0*a*as well as for higher contrasts

-0.8 -0.4 0

-0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25

Re[U3(x1,0,0)]

Im [U3(x1,0,0)]

Re[U3(0,0,x3)]

Im[U3(0,0,x3)]

k L=0.5, 0 α=π/4 k L=0.5, 0 α=π/4

-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 x /L1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /L3

Figure 16. Real and imaginary parts of the component *U*3 of the

electric field inside a cylindrical inclusion of the length *L* and radius
*a* (L/a = 2) for the wave number of the incident field *k*0*L* = 1

(c/c0= 2) and the angle between its wave normaln0 and the cylinder

axis*α*=*π/4; the functionU*3(x1*,*0,0) is in the left figure, the function

*U*3(0,0, x3) is in the right figure. Lines with white dots correspond to

the numerical solution for a cubic node grid with the step*h*= 0.02.

-1 -0.5 0 0.5

-0.8 -0.4 0.4 0.8

q(φ,θ) x1 k0L=0.5, α=π/4

x3

Figure 17. The diagram of the normalized differential cross-section
*q(φ, θ) of a cylindrical inclusion of the lengthL*and radius*a*(L/a= 2)
for the wave number of the incident field *k*0*L* = 0.5 and the angle of

its wave normaln0 _{with the cylinder axis}_{α}_{=}_{π/4.}

-0.4 0 0.4 0.8

Re[U1(x1,0,0)]

Im[U1(x1,0,0)]

-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75

Re[U1(0,0,x3)]

Im[U1(0,0,x3)]

k0L=1, α=π_{/4} k0L=1, α=π/4

-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 x /L1 -1 -0.5 0 0.25 x /L3

Figure 18. The same as in Fig. 15 for*k*0*L*= 1.

-0.8 -0.4 0 0.4

Re[U3(x1,0,0)]

Im [U3(x1,0,0)]

-0.5 0 0.5

Re[U3(0,0,x3)]

Im [U3(0,0,x3)]

-1

k L=1, 0 α=π/4
k L=1, _{0} α=π_{/4}

-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 x /L1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /L3

Figure 19. The same as in Fig. 16 for*k*0*L*= 1.

The convergence of the proposed numerical methods depends on
the contrast in the properties of the inclusion and the medium as well
as on the value of the wave number of the incident field. For*|c/c*0*|<*3

and *k*0*a <* 3, the tolerance *ε* = 0.001 (ε = *|*X(*n*)*−*X(*n−1)|/|*X(*n*)*|*) is

achieved in 5 iterations. But the number of iterations may increase till
several hundreds for large property contrasts or/and very short waves.
Let a monochromatic incident field be scattered on a dielectric
cylindrical inclusion which length *L* is twice of its radius *a. The*
dielectric permittivities of the medium and the cylinder are*c*_{0} and *c,*
and *c/c*_{0} = 2. The angle between the wave normal n0 _{of the incident}

-0.75 -0.25 0.25 0.75

0.4 0.8 x1

x3

k L=1, 0 α=π/4

-0.4 0 q(φ,θ)

Figure 20. The same as in Fig. 17 for*k*0*L*= 1.

-2 -1.5 -0.5

0 0.5

Re[U1(x1,0,0)]

Im[U1(x1,0,0)]

1

Re[U1(0,0,x3)]

Im[U1(0,0,x3)] -1

-0.5 0 0.5

-1

-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 x /L1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /L3

k0L=5, α=π_{/4} _{k}

0L=5, α=π/4

Figure 21. The same as in Fig. 15 for*k*0*L*= 5.

fieldU0(x1*, x*2*, x*3) is defined by the equation

U0(x1*, x*2*, x*3) =
¡

cos (α)e1*−*sin(α)e3¢exp[*−ik*0(sin(α)x1+cos(α)x3)]*.*

(46)
Here e1 _{and} _{e}3 _{are unit vectors of the axes} _{x}

1 and *x*3. If *α* = 0,

the normalized differential cross-section *q(φ, θ) of the inclusion does*
not depend on the angle *φ. The parametric graphs of the function*
*q(0, θ) for various values of the non-dimensional wave numberk*0*L* of

the incident field are presented in Fig. 14.

The numerical results for the angle*α*=*π/4 are in Figs. 15–23 for*
the wave numbers of the incident field*k*0*L*= 0.5,1,5.The graphs of the

real and imaginary parts of the components*U*1 and *U*3 of the electric

1

Re[U3(x1,0,0)]

Im[U3(x1,0,0)]

2

Re[U3(0,0,x3)]

Im[U3(0,0,x3)]

-1.5 -0.5 0 0.5

-1

-1.5 -0.5

0 0.5

-1 1.5

1

-0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 x /L1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 x /L3

k0L=5, α=π_{/4}
k0L=5, α=π_{/4}

Figure 22. The same as in Fig. 16 for*k*0*L*= 5.

-0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

-0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 q(φ,θ)

x1

x

k0L=5, α=π/4

0

3

Figure 23. The same as in Fig. 17 for*k*0*L*= 5.

22 (U3). The diagrams of the corresponding differential cross-sections

are in Figs. 17, 20 and 23. For*x*1 *>*0, these graphs are parametrically

defined by the equations: *x*1 =*q(0, θ) sin(θ),* *x*3 = *q(0, θ) cos(θ),* and

for*x*1 *<*0, by the equations: *x*1 =*−q(π, θ) sin(θ), x*3 =*q(π, θ) cos(θ).*

5. CONCLUSION

The method can be applied to the numerical solution of other problems of mathematical physics that can be reduced to volume integral equations (elastic wave diffraction problems, diffusion in the medium with inclusions, static fields in a homogeneous medium with inclusions, etc.). For discretization of the corresponding integral equations, the Gaussian approximating functions may be used. The advantage of these functions is that the elements of the matrix of the discretized problems are calculated in explicit analytical forms. For some problems of mathematical physics, these elements may not be calculated explicitly but are expressed via a finite number of standard one-dimensional integrals (see [7]).

For regular grids of approximating nodes, the matrix of the discretized problem has the Toeplitz structure, and the FFT algorithms may be used for calculation of matrix-vector products by the iterative solution of the discretized problem. Note that the Toeplitz structure holds for any type of identical approximating functions and regular grids of approximating nodes.

There exist various ways of improvement of the numerical
solution. As shown in [7], the Gaussian functions multiplied by
special polynomials increase the accuracy of the approximation. If
such functions are used in the framework of the method, the algorithm
remains the same but the functions *γ*1*, γ*2 in Eqs. (25) and (26) will

change. Note that there is a possibility to consider node grids with
different steps*h*1*, h*2*, h*3in the directions*x*1*, x*2*, x*3, and approximate

the solution by “anisotropic” Gaussian functions. The action of the
integral operator of the scattering problem on such functions (the
analogy of the integral Γ*ij*(x) in Eq. (24)) is not calculated explicitly

but is reduced to a finite number of standard one-dimensional integrals that can be tabulated.

Yet another advantage of the method is that it is well suited for parallel computations. For instance, the elements of the block-matrices in Eq. (34) and products of these block-matrices with vectors may be calculated independently and at the same time. This is another advantage of the method and a source of accelerating the computational process.

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