10h15 - The finite element method (FEM) and biomechanical models. Augusta Neto ( Fac. de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra )

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17th May- Monday

Dental Biomechanics

Biomechanics is a science that uses the principles of mechanics to explore biological problems. This includes bioengineering, the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms and the application of engineering principles to and from biological systems. Analytical, as well as experimental research in Dental Biomechanics is a trend in the current literature, many journals accept and publish original articles, surveys and perspective articles on dental biomechanics: design and analysis of dental tissues and prostheses; mechanics of chewing and temporomandibular joint simulation; mechanics of implants (geometry) and implant osseointegration.

Analytical research with the finite element method (FEM) when coupled with clinical data, for ex: computed tomography (CT) is a powerful tool in Dental biomechanics. However, substantial data is required for patient-specific modelling, therefore experimental methods can also supply data and validation to the FEM.

The aim of this module is to provide an overview on Dental Biomechanics. The topics addressed in this four hour PhD module programme are expected to provide the background needed to integrate this knowledge in a research project.

9h30 - Mechanical principles of stress and strain on dental implants and

prosthesis.

Pedro Nicolau (Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra)

10h15 - The finite element method (FEM) and biomechanical models. Augusta Neto ( Fac. de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra )

11h00 - Experimental methods in biodental engineering.

Mário Augusto Pires Vaz (Fac. de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto)

12h15 - Methods of generating clinical data for FEM studies. Pedro Nicolau (Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra)

References:

- Natali A. Dental Biomechanics, publ. Taylor & Francis, 2003 pp 1-17; 35-50.

- Nicolau P. Implantes Endoósseos com Carga Imediata- Avaliação Clínica e Biomecânica. Tese de Doutoramento apresentada à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Ed. Autor, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Dentária, Universidade de Coimbra. 2007, pp 17-27.

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17th May- Monday

Clinical Research in Dental Biomaterials

Clinical research and randomized clinical trials (RCT) in particular are generators of a high level of evidence in the field of dental biomaterials, but have to follow strict rules in order to: bridge the gap between research and dental practice. The overwhelming number of new materials on the market in recent years bring more uncertainty to the dentist with less time to judge what material serves better in his practice. Therefore more RCTs are needed for this purpose. However, these type of clinical studies, impose ethical issues, that follow the declaration of Helsinkia, and seek to gain ethic commissions approval. Study designs must follow tight protocols from patient recruitment to study termination. Reports should be performed accordingly to the guidelines in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. Adequate reporting of clinical trials improves transparency, enables the interpretation and replication of studies and reduces the risk of bias. For this reason, many journals now require trials conformed to the guidelines in CONSORT statement.

The aim of this module is to provide an overview on clinical research on dental Biomaterials and how to design RCTs. The topics addressed in this Five hour PhD module programme are expected to provide the background needed to integrate this knowledge in a research project.

14h00 - Study design and ethical commission approval.

Pedro Nicolau (Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra)

14h45 - Evidence based research in RCTs in the literature.

António Mata (Faculdade de Medicina Dentária da Universidade de Lisboa)

16h00 - Expertise background in multicenter RCTs with bone graft materials and

dental implants

Fernando Guerra (Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra)

16h45 - Reporting clinical data according to CONSORT guidelines. Pedro Nicolau (Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra)

References:

- Juni P, Altman DG, Egger M. Systematic reviews in health care: Assessing the quality of controlled trials. BMJ 2001;323:42-6.

- Campbell MK, Elbourne DR, Altman DG; CONSORT group. CONSORT statement: extension to cluster randomised trials. BMJ. 2004;328(7441):702-8.

- Mata AD, Marques D, Silveira J, Marques J. Medicina Dentária Baseada na Evidência: Novas Opções para Velhas Práticas. Rev Port Estomatol Cir Maxilofac 2008;49:31-37.

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18

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May - Tuesday

Biomaterials in Operative Dentistry

The aims of this course are:

1. Presenting the most important biomaterials and research lines in Operative Dentistry

2. Presenting the microscopic techniques for ultramorphological evaluations of tooth tissues, restorative materials and respective interfaces.

3. Making a workshop with laboratory evaluations of tooth/restorations interfaces, namely with some adhesion tests and and electronic microscopic observations.

Seminars

9.00 – Adhesive interfaces evaluation in Operative Dentistry - João Carlos Ramos 9.45 – Scanning electronic microscopy techniques – Augusto Barros Lopes 10.30 -Transmission electronic microscopy techniques –Vanda Lopes

Practical workshops

11.30-12.30 – Workshop with laboratory demonstrations of tooth/materials interface adhesion tests

14.30 – 17.30 - Workshop with laboratory demonstrations of electronic microscopy observations of tooth tissues, dental materials and tooth/restorative materials interfaces.

João Carlos Ramos – Assistant Professor, Coimbra Medical School, University of Coimbra

Augusto Barros Lopes – Assistant Professor, Dep. of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, University of Aveiro Vanda Lopes – IBILI – Investigator, IBILI, Coimbra Medical School, University of Coimbra

References

- Bitter K, Paris S, Mueller J, Neumann K, Kielbassa AM. Correlation of scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses for visualization of dentin/adhesive interfaces in the root canal. J Adhes Dent. 2009 Feb;11(1):7-14

- Bayne SC. Dental restorations for oral rehabilitation - testing of laboratory properties versus clinical performance for clinical decision making. J Oral Rehabil. 2007 Dec;34(12):921-32. Review.

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19

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May - Wednesday

Biomaterials in periodontal regeneration

9h00 - Characterization of pre-clinical periodontal lesions

Isabel Poiares Baptista - Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra University

10h00 - Enamel Matrix Derivative – from biological principals to systematic reviews Isabel Poiares Baptista - Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra University

11h30 - Tissue engineering in periodontal regeneration – new perspectives

Carlos Viegas - Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro University

14h00 – 16h00 Apresentação e discussão de artigos

References:

- Pellegrini G, Seol YJ, Gruber R, Giannobile WV. Pre-clinical models for oral and periodontal reconstructive therapies. J Dent Res 2009;88(12):1065-76.

- Polimeni G, Xiropaidis AV, Wikesjö UME. Biology and principles of periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Periodontology 2000 2006;41:30-47.

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20

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May - Thursday

Experimental Models in Dentistry

Experimental Models in Bone Regeneration

9h00 – Characteristics of Bone Tissue

Maria Helena Figueiredo, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra University

10h00 – Bone Graft Characterization (morphology, particle size, porosity, surface area) Margarida Figueiredo, Chemical Engineering Department, FCTUC

11h00 - Bone grafts and bone substitutes

Sérgio Matos, Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra University

References:

- Figueiredo M, Henriques J, Martins G, Guerra F, Judas F, Figueiredo H. Physicochemical characterization of biomaterials commonly used in dentistry as bone substitutes – comparison with human bone. J Biomed Mater Res. Part B:Appl Biomater 2010;92B:409-19.

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21

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May – Friday

Biocompatibility tests for evaluation of dental materials

10h00 - Initial tests (cytotoxicity, mutagenicity) – Helena Raposo Fernandes

11h00 – Usage tests in animal model for pulpdentinal complex – João Carlos Ramos 11.45 - Practical workshop

Workshop with laboratory demonstrations of tissue histological processing.

In this concept, newly developed materials should be subjected to the three steps in the given sequence from the simple to the more complex test methods, from in vitro to in vivo animal tests, and from preclinical to clinical testing in humans.

Helena Raposo Fernandes – Faculty of Dental Medicine, Oporto University João Carlos Ramos – Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra University

References:

- Biocompatibility of Dental Materials. Gottfried Schmalz e Dorthe Arenholt-bindslev. Ed Springer Verlag, 2008. ISBN 9783540777816

- Protecções pulpares directas – avaliação histopatológica; João Carlos Ramos; dissertação de tese de Doutoramento

Experimental models in Endodontics

14h00 - In vitro microleakage with dies and microbial tracers – João Miguel Santos 15h00 - Secondary tests and usage tests to evaluate endodontic materials - João

Miguel Santos

João Miguel Santos – Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra University

References:

- Shemesh H, Souza EM, Wu MK, Wesselink PR. (2008).“Glucose reactivity with filling materials as a limitation for using the glucose leakage model.”Int Endod J;4(10):869-72.

- Garcia LF, Marques AA, Roselino LM, Souza FC, Consani S (2010). “Biocompatibility

evaluation of Epiphany/Resilon root canal filling system in subcutaneous tissue of rats.” J Endod ;36(1):110-4.

- Friedman S, Torneck CD, et al. (1997). "In vivo model for assessing the functional

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