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(1)

Interventions 101:

Planning and Scheduling

Planning and Scheduling

Elizabeth Crawford, MS, CCC-SLP

,

,

Director of Interventions

(2)

Agenda

„ Reading First Plan for Success

„ Classroom Instruction Assessment „ Assessment „ Interventions (3 F’s and 1 S) „ Frequency F „ Focus „ Format „ Size Resources „ Resources

„ Kennewick, WA Success Story

„ Concluding Thoughts and Questions „ Concluding Thoughts and Questions

(3)

The

Reading First

Plan for

Success

„

Increase the quality, consistency, and

reach of classroom instruction

reach of classroom instruction

„

Administer timely and valid assessments

to identify students lagging behind and

monitor progress

„

Provide intensive interventions for

students who are lagging behind in

students who are lagging behind in

(4)

Why must we work at the school

level to provide effective

level to provide effective

interventions?

„ Children enter school with very diverse

instructional needs

„ Some children may require instruction that is

4 5 ti f l th th t f

4 or 5 times more powerful than the rest of the students

„ The classroom teacher, alone, may not be able

to provide sufficiently powerful instruction to p y p meet the needs of all students

(5)

Children have diverse needs

in 3 main areas:

„ Accurate and fluent word reading skills

„ Oral Language skills (vocabulary, linguistic

comprehension)

„ Extent of conceptual and factual knowledge

Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive strategies

„ Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive strategies

to improve comprehension or repair it when it breaks down

R i d i f ti l kill

„ Reasoning and inferential skills

„ Motivation to understand and interest in task

and materials and materials

(6)

We know that poor, and minority children

often come to school unprepared in these

often come to school unprepared in these

areas:

„ They have had less exposure to print and the

alphabet

They are behind in the development of

„ They are behind in the development of

phonemic sensitivity

„ Their vocabulary is usually less well y y

developed – ½ size in poor children

„ Their range of experience and conceptual

knowledge is often limited or different knowledge is often limited or different compared to other students

„ They sometimes do not have good models of

di t f d i i th i

reading or support for academics in their homes

(7)

c

hild

Language Experience

Language Experience

s sed to c Professional d s addre s W ki l tive wor d Working-class cumula t Welfare s timated E s

(8)

Hart and Risley Resources

Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American

Children (Hardcover)

by Betty Hart and Todd Risley - $ 23.07

The Social World of Children Learning to Talk (Paperback)

(9)

The

Reading First

Plan for

Success

„

Increase the quality, consistency, and

reach of classroom instruction

reach of classroom instruction

(10)

Increase the quality, consistency,

Increase the quality, consistency,

and reach of classroom instruction

„

Insuring teachers have excellent

professional development, including

p

p

,

g

strong training in use of core program to

guide instruction as well as how to use

data to drive instruction.

„

Monitor and support classroom instruction

pp

through principal walkthroughs

„

Effectively utilizing resources during

y

g

g

(11)

Explicit Instruction

Is Instruction Explicit Enough?

(Adapted from Arrasmith, 2003)

Characteristic Evaluation Question Well Met Somewhat Met

Not Met

Clear Instructional Are the purpose and outcomes of instruction Targets clearly evident in the lesson plans?

Clear Purpose for Learning

Does the student understand the purpose for learning the skills and strategies taught?

Clear and Are directions clear, straightforward, Understandable

Directions and Explanations

unequivocal without vagueness, need for implication, or ambiguity?

Adequate Modeling Are the skills and strategies included in instruction clearly demonstrated for the

instruction clearly demonstrated for the student?

Guided Practice and Corrective

Feedback

Do students have sufficient opportunities to practice new skills and strategies with corrective instruction offered as necessary?

Instructionally Embedded Assessments

Are instructionally embedded assessments used to monitor student’s mastery of skills and strategies and to pace student’s

learning?

(12)

Systematic Instruction

Is The Sequence Systematic Enough?

Is The Sequence Systematic Enough?

(Adapted from Arrasmith, 2003)

Characteristic Evaluation QuestionQ Well Met Somewhat Not Met Met

Instructional Scope Does the curriculum include all key

instructional content necessary to achieve the goals of instruction?

Instructional Sequence

Is the curriculum sequenced in a logical order that builds skills from prior skills and extends skills in order to move students to independent mastery?

y

Consistent

Instructional Format

Are the instructional strategies consistent from lesson to lesson?

Addresses Multimodality Instruction

Are a variety of instructional methods used to provide the student with auditory, visual, and hands-on learning activities?

(13)

Organization of a classroom

during small group instruction

Classroom teacher and group of 4

Are these students working productively on appropriate practice activities?

group of 4

Resource

Something that might be helpful: FCRR has practice activities? I d d t Resource teacher and group of 3 helpful: FCRR has

developed 240 ISA’s for K-2 and 170 for 2-3 – Independent Independent Learning Activity (4) Independent

This only works with a

(14)

A source for high quality independent

A source for high quality independent

A source for high quality independent

A source for high quality independent

student learning activities

student learning activities

„ To download over 400 independent student

learning activities for grades K-5, go to

www.fcrr.org and there is a link on the right hand column on the home page.

„ There is also a teacher resource manual

idi di i f l

providing directions for classroom

management during small group instruction and approximately 70 minutes of video

and approximately 70 minutes of video training.

(15)

A mistake we often make in education is to plan the

education is to plan the curriculum materials very carefully, arrange all the

instructional materials wall to wall, open the doors of the school, and then find to our school, and then find to our dismay that they’ve sent us the wrong kids.

(16)

The

Reading First

Plan for

Success

„

Increase the quality, consistency, and

reach of classroom instruction

reach of classroom instruction

„

Administer timely and valid assessments

to identify students lagging behind and

monitor progress

(17)

Administer timely and valid assessments to identify students lagging behind and monitor identify students lagging behind and monitor progress

„

Beginning of the year screening tests

„

Progress monitoring test through the

„

Progress monitoring test through the

year

Diagnostics tests

„

Diagnostics tests

„

End of year outcome tests

(18)
(19)

Guidance on how to establish a

comprehensive

assessment plan for assessment plan for grades K-3

Go www.fcrr.org and

then go to the section for g

administrators then look under assessment

programs programs

(20)

Assessment Plan

„ Identify ‘at risk’ students

„ Monitor ‘at risk’ students

C ll t i f ti t l i t ti

„ Collect information to plan instruction

„ Assess whether instruction was powerful

enough enough

„ Formative assessment – progress

i i k h ‘ id ’

monitoring – make changes ‘mid-course’

„ Summative assessment – outcome

measures measures

(21)

The

Reading First

Plan for

Success

„

Increase the quality, consistency, and

reach of classroom instruction

reach of classroom instruction

„

Administer timely and valid assessments

to identify students lagging behind and

monitor progress

„

Provide intensive interventions for

students who are lagging behind in

students who are lagging behind in

(22)

Provide intensive interventions for students who are lagging behind in development of critical

are lagging behind in development of critical reading skills

„ Some things

school leadership

can do:

„ Developing a school schedule that allows

sufficient time for intervention

„ Identifying or providing sufficient personnel to

deliver intervention instruction deliver intervention instruction

„ Providing appropriate programs and material to

support the intervention instruction pp

„ Oversight, energy, follow-up – use data

meetings to ask about students, make decisions to increase support etc

(23)

What do we know about the

characteristics of effective

characteristics of effective

interventions?

„ They always increase the intensity of

instruction - they accelerate learning

„ They always provide many more

t iti f i i d

opportunities for preview, review, and practice.

„ They are focused carefully on the most

(24)

Ways that instruction must be made more powerful for students “at-risk” for reading powerful for students at risk for reading difficulties.

More powerful instruction involves:

More instructional time

Smaller instructional groups

resources

Clearer and more detailed explanations

More precisely targeted at right level

skill

More systematic instructional sequences

More extensive opportunities for guided practice

(25)

Three F’s and One S to increase

intensity and reach of instruction

„ Frequency and duration of meeting in small

groups – every day, three times a week, etc.

„ Focus of instruction – work in phonemic

awareness, phonics, comprehension, etc.

„ Format of lesson – guided reading vs. skills

focused lesson

„ Size of instructional group – 3 students, 6

(26)

Focus Frequency Interventio Frequency InterventionInterventio n Intervention Format Size DATA Professional l Development

(27)

Powerful Instruction

„

Frequency - Resources

„

Focus – Skill (the WHAT)

„

Focus – Skill (the WHAT)

„

Format – Skill (the HOW)

„

Size – Resources

„

Use data to help determine these

characteristics

characteristics

(28)

Frequency and Size

„ Using personnel effectively „ Thinking ‘outside of the box’ „ Making reading a priority

„ Refer back to slide on organization of

l d i ll i i

classroom during small group instruction

„ Scheduling

The next few slides were scheduling ideas found

„ The next few slides were scheduling ideas found

in Reading First schools in Florida demonstrating effective intervention programs

(29)

Effective Scheduling

„ Teachers wanted, “More Time!”

An efficient schedule allows for: An efficient schedule allows for:

„ An uninterrupted period of time for reading

instruction (90 minutes or more)

Specific times when intensive reading interventions

„ Specific times when intensive reading interventions

will be provided

„ The most efficient use of support staff to help

provide intensive interventions provide intensive interventions

„ A common planning time to facilitate grade-level

(30)

Examples of Effective

Schedules

i i

Intensive Interventions

The 2 most popular ways of scheduling intensive interventions at the successful schools were:

1. A 90 minute reading block and then 30-45 minutes of

time scheduled outside of that block to deliver the interventions In almost all these cases the

interventions. In almost all these cases, the

interventions were provided by support personnel other than the regular classroom teacher.

2. An extended reading block of 105-120 minutes in which

2. An extended reading block of 105 120 minutes in which

intensive intervention was included in the block of time designated for reading instruction. In these schedules, the interventions were sometimes provided by the

regular classroom teacher and sometimes by regular classroom teacher, and sometimes by instructional support personnel.

(31)

One principal’s comments about

scheduling interventions during the

small-scheduling interventions during the small

group time of the reading block

„ reduced student travel time to intervention

classes

„ increased coordination between the regular

classroom and intervention teacher

„ provided additional learning opportunities for

the regular classroom teacher who is able to

i ll b h i i h

occasionally observe the intervention teacher working with a group of struggling readers (and vice versa)

(32)
(33)

Example of Staggered Reading

Example of Staggered Reading

Blocks with “Walk and Read”

T R di W iti M th S i S i l L h Team Reading Writing Math Science

/SS SpecialArea Lunch

K 8:45-10:30 10:30-11:30 1:35-2:35 12:15-12:50 12:50-1:35 11:30-12:15 10:30 11:30 2:35 12:50 1:35 12:15 1 8:45-10:30 12-1 1-2 2-2:30 1211:15- 10:30-11:15 2 10:30-12:15 9:45-10:30 8:45-9:45 1:15-1:40 1:40-2:25 12:30-1:15 3 10:30- 9:30- 1-2 2-2:30 8:45- 12:15-1 12:15 10:30 9:30 4 12:45-2:30 8:45-9:35 10:20-11:20 11:20-11:55 9:35-10:20 11:55-12:40 2:30 11:20 11:55 10:20 12:40

(34)

This document will

h l ith id t

help with ideas to increase FREQUENCY of groups and decrease SIZE of group group.

Obtain copy at:

f d www.fcrr.org under the Interventions page http://www.fcrr.org/Interventions/pdf/tea chingAllStudentsToReadComplete.pdf

(35)

Focus and Format

„

Focus – Skill (the WHAT)

„

Format – Skill (the HOW)

„

Format – Skill (the HOW)

d

h l d

h

„

Use data to help determine these

(36)

FOCUS – The WHAT

„

Remember to always use data to help

drive the question of

drive the question of

„ “WHAT will I teach in my intervention

group?”

(37)

FOCUS: Four good, books for instructional ideas

Making Sense of Phonics:The Hows and Whys Making Sense of Phonics:The Hows and Whys

Isabel Beck: Guilford (2006) Isabel Beck: Guilford (2006)

From Phonics To Fluency: Effective Teaching From Phonics To Fluency: Effective Teaching

of Decoding and Reading Fluency

of Decoding and Reading Fluencygg gg yy

in the Elementary School in the Elementary School

Rasinski and Padak: Prentice Hall (2008) Rasinski and Padak: Prentice Hall (2008)

Bringing Words to Life:Robust Vocabulary Bringing Words to Life:Robust Vocabulary Instruction

Instruction

Beck, McKeown, & Kucan: Guilford (2002) Beck, McKeown, & Kucan: Guilford (2002)

Comprehension Process Instruction: Comprehension Process Instruction:

ec , c eo , & uca Gu o d ( 00 ) ec , c eo , & uca Gu o d ( 00 )

(38)

A source for high quality independent

A source for high quality independent

A source for high quality independent

A source for high quality independent

student learning activities

student learning activities

„ To download over 400 independent student

learning activities for grades K-5, go to

www.fcrr.org and there is a link on the right hand column on the home page.

„ There is also a teacher resource manual

idi di i f l

providing directions for classroom

management during small group instruction and approximately 70 minutes of video

and approximately 70 minutes of video training.

(39)
(40)

Advanced Phonics

Advanced Phonics

(41)
(42)
(43)
(44)
(45)
(46)

Intervention Group Video

Intervention Group Video

(47)

Comprehension

Comprehension

(48)
(49)
(50)
(51)
(52)
(53)

Scientifically Based

y

Intervention Programs

„

Published Intervention Programs

„

Materials drawn from several sources

„

Materials drawn from several sources

(54)

Examples of Intervention

Programs

i bli h d i i

Using published intervention programs

„ Pros

h d d l

„ having ready made materials

„ professional development in the implementation of the

program

„ a predetermined scope and sequence

„ research to support the use of the program (in some

cases)

„ Cons

„ the cost

„ a single program may not meet every child’s needs

(55)

Examples of Intervention

Programs

Using a variety of sources for intervention materials

Pros

„ Pros

„ the ability to match the materials to the child

„ Cons „ Cons

„ takes a great deal of time to gather materials

„ teachers need to have a very solid understanding of

what the data means at the student level what the data means at the student level

„ not one set scope and sequence

(56)

Examples of Computer Based

Intervention Programs

„ Programs used in schools targeted:

„ One reading component (i.e. fluency)

„ Multiple reading components (i.e. phonemic

awareness and phonics) ESOL l ti

„ ESOL population

„ Were used during center rotation or

throughout the day on a rotating basis throughout the day on a rotating basis

„ Some programs generated reports daily or

weekly weekly

(57)

FORMAT – The HOW

„

Remember to always use data to help

drive the question of

drive the question of

(58)

For Guidance on For Guidance on the FORMAT of the lesson Download at: f www.fcrr.org Go to Curriculum and Instruction and Instruction and then look for the title of the

document.

http://www.fcrr.org/assessment/pdf/smallG roupAlternativeLessonStructures.pdf

(59)

The need for differentiated

reading instruction

„ Overall, the data suggest that students in Reading First

schools are consistently “losing ground” relative to grade level expectations in word-level reading skills (accuracy and fluency) between the beginning of first grade and the and fluency) between the beginning of first grade and the beginning of third grade.

„ In contrast the percentage of students that meet grade

„ In contrast, the percentage of students that meet grade

level expectations in oral language vocabulary actually increases from the end of kindergarten (39%) to the end of third grade (47%).

„ Information from student reading outcomes and observations of classroom

practices during the first two years of implementation of Florida’s Reading First program (2003-2004 & 2004-2005).

(60)

Guided Reading Format

„ As outlined in the work of Fountas and Pinnell, “Guided Reading is a

context in which a teacher supports each reader’s development of effective strategies for processing novel texts at increasingly

challenging levels of difficulty” (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996, p. 3). g g y ( p )

„ The structure of a typical Guided Reading lesson roughly follows the

following pattern:

„ Selecting the textg „ Introducing the text „ Reading the text „ Discussing the text

„ Teaching for strategic activitiesg g „ Extending meaning (optional) „ Word Work (optional)

„ Fountas I., & Pinnell G.S. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all

h ld h d l

(61)

Skills-focused Format

„ Skills-Focused Lessons are teacher-planned lessons that provide

the opportunity for more systematic and focused practice on a relatively small number of critical elements at a time (e.g.,

unknown consonant digraphs vowel teams r-controlled vowels unknown consonant digraphs, vowel teams, r controlled vowels, etc.).

„ They would also provide the opportunity for sustained, systematic,

d i t ti “ d k” ( B k 2006) i d t b ild and interesting “word work” (e.g., Beck, 2006) in order to build fluency and confidence in the application of these skills to reading words.

„ Skills-Focused Lessons will be successful to the extent that they are

fast-paced, interactive, and targeted appropriately on critical skills for each reading group.

(62)

Skills-focused Format

„ There is not one set format that a Skills Focused Lesson follows „ There is not one set format that a Skills-Focused Lesson follows.

„ These lessons could be closely aligned with results from the DIBELS®

progress monitoring measures (particularly for letter knowledge, phonemic awareness, phonemic decoding, and reading fluency) as well as other

assessment data.

„ Resources that may be utilized to implement Skills-Focused Lessons

include:

„ curriculum maps from University of Oregon website „ Core Reading Program activities

„ Just Read, Florida! K-3 Reading Academy Guide

„ activities drawn from Supplemental or Intervention reading programs „ K-3 Student Center Activities like the ones just seen on slides 40-53

„ Empowering Teachers

„ Empowering Teachers

„ Another source for developing Skills-Focused Lessons would be teacher

oriented books that provide examples of how to deliver explicit

instruction and practice in early reading skills such as the books shown instruction and practice in early reading skills such as the books shown on slide 38.

(63)
(64)
(65)
(66)
(67)
(68)
(69)

Add Image of Routine

Add Image of Routine

(70)
(71)

A few resources for teachers on

A few resources for teachers on

Differentiated Instruction

„ Differentiated

Instruction: Grouping for Success

Gibson and Hasbrouck:

McGraw-Hill Higher Education McGraw Hill Higher Education (2008)

(72)

How are you really spending

your teaching time?

„ BET observation for 20

minutes Behavior Environment Teaching

„ Are you spending your time

on behavior,

environment/materials or on environment/materials or on teaching?

„ Taken from the book „ Taken from the book

“Differentiated Instruction: Grouping for Success by Vicki Gibson, Ph.D. and Jan Hasbrouck, Ph.D.

(73)

Differentiated Reading Instruction: Strategies for the Primary Grades by Sharon Walpole and Michael

Primary Grades by Sharon Walpole and Michael McKenna: Guilford (2007)

The Differentiated Classroom : Responding to the Needs of All Learners

(74)

Guidance on Guidance on essential procedures for implementing ff ti i t ti effective interventions with young children

Download at www fcrr org go to the www.fcrr.org, go to the section for administrators, and th t th ti

then to the section on Interventions for

(75)
(76)
(77)
(78)
(79)

The Kennewick Success Story

The Kennewick Success Story

Kennewick, WA 1995 2006 1995-2006

Fielding, L., Kerr, N., & Rosier, P. (2007). Annual Growth for all students, Catch-UP Growth for Growth for all students, Catch UP Growth for those who are behind. Kennewick, WA: The New Foundation Press, Inc.

(80)

To Order:

Visit The National Children’s Foundation website:

http://www.readingfoundation.org/

Click on Publications and it is listed as one of the books

there.

Quantity Price

1-10 $17.95

11-50 $14.95$

(81)

The Kennewick Success Story

„

In Spring, 1995, the Kennewick, WA

school board set goal that 90% of third

graders would read at or above grade

level in 3 yrs. In 2006 they made it!

„

It took ELEVEN years – the next slides

share some of the lessons learned,

quotes from principals, and ideas of

how to increase both the

quantity

and

(82)

“In the United States, public schools deliver 85% or more of their curriculum by reading textbooks,

whiteboards, worksheets, and computer screens.

Students must read well to do well. It matters little Students must read well to do well. It matters little what else they learn in elementary school if they do not learn to read at grade level. Even math

depends on reading There are far more words than depends on reading. There are far more words than numbers in math books. As the math concepts become more complicated, the verbal descriptions become

more involved as well. As Kennewick has focused on reading, our math scores have improved at a rate similar to our reading scores. The reading problem similar to our reading scores. The reading problem becomes more obvious in middle school where

students who cannot read well struggle to absorb content in all other subjects ” P 49

(83)

In Kennewick, Reading

Improvement Requires:

„

Data: good assessments—benchmark and

normative—and expert use of the data

normative and expert use of the data

„

Increased direct instructional time;

additional time for those behind

additional time for those behind

„

Quality instruction in small, fluid, skill

groups

groups

„ TAG processes; knowledgeable reading „ TAG processes; knowledgeable reading

(84)

Targeted Accelerated Growth

(TAG) Loop

„

Diagnostic testing to determine

deficient sub-skills of those behind

„

Proportional increases in direct

instructional time

st uct o a t e

„

Teaching to the deficient sub-skill

Retesting to assure that adequate

„

Retesting to assure that adequate

catch-up growth actually occurred

(85)

C t h

G

th

Catch-up Growth

„ Catch-up growth is so difficult to achieve that it

can be the product only of quality p y q y instruction in great quantity.”

(86)

Example

Example

„ Roughly each unit of 13 %ile pts from the

50th %ile equals a year of growth:

„ State standard in percentiles: 50th %ile

S d X’ G2 i il 12th %il

„ Student X’s G2 status in percentiles: 12th %ile „ The difference (in %ile) is: 38 pts

l d ff d d d b

(87)

Daily Instructional Minutes

Daily Instructional Minutes

„ Daily min required for annual G3 growth: 80

Daily min required for annual G4 growth: 80

„ Daily min required for annual G4 growth: 80

„ Additional daily min to make 3 yrs of additional

growth: 240 growth: 240

Total G3 and G4 daily minutes: 400

So 200 min of direct reading instruction in G3 and So, 200 min of direct reading instruction in G3 and

in G4 is needed to reach the 50th %ile by the end

of G4 of G4.

(88)
(89)

Growth in % of 3rd grade students

Growth in % of 3 grade students meeting grade level standards

School Year School Year 95 95 9696 9797 9898 9999 0000 0101 0202 0303 0404 0505 0606 School Year School Year 57 57 7272 7272 6868 7878 9494 9696 9999 9494 9898 9999 9898

Percent at Grade level Percent at Grade level

Working harder and Working harder and

Began providing intensive interventions in Began providing intensive interventions in the afternoon to many students

the afternoon to many students g

g

more effectively at more effectively at 3

3rdrd gradegrade Result of improvement at both 2Result of improvement at both 2 nd nd and 3and 3rdrd Grade Grade B li B li ndnd Baseline year Baseline year

(90)

Teacher quality x time =

q

y

growth

“Quantity of instructional time can be

doubled or tripled in a semester Quality of

doubled or tripled in a semester. Quality of

instructional time cannot. Improving quality

occurs over extended periods of time at

occurs over extended periods of time, at

different rates for different teachers in the

same school as a constant process of

same school, as a constant process of

arduous, intelligent labor.”

(91)

e Level, c h R eading ns R eading o ns Reading o ns S h l at Grad e 0 03 % FR Lun c t Grade R o ck t Grade terventio n d Grade R o ck n d Grade n terventi o d Grade o ck rd Grade n terventi o School Canyon V. 38 90 195 25 135 24 150 32 Westgate 80 76 120 79 120 55 120 67 % 20 % st 1 Bl o 1 s t In t 2 n Bl o 2 n In rd 3 Bl o 3 r In Westgate 80 76 120 79 120 55 120 67 Cascade 35 96 120 51 120 55 120 55 Hawthorne 60 92 120 56 120 33 120 51 Amistad 76 65 120 25 140 27 125 33 Ridge View 23 90 120 51 120 34 90 42 Southgate 20 93 120 34 120 29 120 33 Southgate 20 93 120 34 120 29 120 33 Washington 54 94 120 24 120 28 120 43 Vista 50 95 120 10 120 25 120 40

(92)

Examples of

Reading First

Schools in Florida with

Schools in Florida with

successful intervention

(93)

Strong Leadership

„ Characterized by extensive knowledge of:

„ Children Reading programs „ Reading programs „ Data „ Schedules „ Teachers’ needs

„ Involved in every aspect of their school’s

reading program reading program

„ Leadership was provided by principals,

(94)

Examples of Strong

Leadership

„ “Our leader not only has a mission for our

school which is what we want to do, but she has a vision of how we are going to do it.” has a vision of how we are going to do it.

„ “This is no longer a desk job. We are their

instructional leaders.”

“Budget allocation reflects needs of students ”

„ “Budget allocation reflects needs of students.” „ High expectations of teachers and students and

accountability for meeting expectations y g p

„ Mutual respect between teachers and principal „ Principal seen as “Captain” of the team working

toward a common goal toward a common goal

(95)
(96)

Positive Belief and Teacher

Dedication

„ Despite… teachers at successful schools

believed ALL their students could read

„ language barriers

„ limited support at home „ low socioeconomic status „ low socioeconomic status

„ Teachers raised the bar, not lowered it

„ Teachers committed to extra hours (planning,Teachers committed to extra hours (planning,

workshops, after school programs, etc.) to meet the needs of ALL of their students

(97)

Examples of Positive Belief

and Teacher Dedication

„ “We expect a lot of our students and of

ourselves.”

“You need to let your children know that you

„ You need to let your children know that you

believe in them and believe in their success.”

„ “We speak success to them, we expect p , p

success from them and they rise to that.”

„ We have a saying, ‘Act, talk and walk like

scholars ’ The immediate message they scholars. The immediate message they receive is that they are scholars.

(98)

A new resource supporting “the

pp

g

power of believing in a child.”

Is Literacy Enough? Pathways to Academic Success f Ad l t for Adolescents By Catherine E. Snow, Ph.D., Michelle V. Porche, Ed.D., P tt O T b Ed D & Patton O. Tabors, Ed.D., & Stephanie R. Harris, M.A. (2007)

(99)
(100)

www.centeroninstruction.org R di Reading Special Education ELL Math Science Scammacca, N., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Wanzek, J., &

T J K (2007)

(101)

Summary of Research

„ No single intervention program was identified

as significantly more effective, but all of the effective interventions included training in

phonological awareness, decoding, and

d t d

id d

d i d

d t

word study; guided and independent

reading of progressively more difficult

texts; writing exercises; and engaging

texts; writing exercises; and engaging

students in practicing comprehension

strategies while reading text.

g

g

(102)

The very best teachers of children who

struggle in learning to read are

struggle in learning to read are

R l tl

Relentless

in their pursuit of every child

A d th

t

And they accept

NO EXCUSES!!

NO EXCUSES!!

(103)
(104)

R f

References

„

Elmore, R. (2004). School reform from the

inside out: Policy practice and performance

inside out: Policy, practice, and performance.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

ld

(

)

l

„

Fielding, L., Kerr, N., Rosier, P. (2007). Annual

Growth for all students

,

Catch-up Growth for

h

h

b h d

k

h

those who are behind. Kennewick, WA: The

New Foundation Press, Inc.

(105)

Remember…

„

“Improvement is a

process

, not an

event.” (Elmore, 2004, p.254)

event. (Elmore, 2004, p.254)

“It matters little what else they

„

“It matters little what else they

learn in elementary school if they

do not le n to e d t g de le el ”

do not learn to read at grade level.”

(Fielding et al., 2007, p.49)

(106)

PROCESS TO PLAN FOR FOLLOW-UP

FOCUS ROLES

School-based Non-school Based

Principal Reading Coach

Teachers District RFPD Coordinator

Grade-level Leader Classroom Teacher

Instructional Content Explicit Delivery Assessment Professional Development A) Resources 1.Human resources 2.Materials B) Time 1. Master schedule 2 Planning period 106 2. Planning period C) Services

(107)

Thank You!

Thank You!

Liz Crawford, MS, CCC-SLP Director of Interventions

Florida Center for Reading Research www.fcrr.org

www.fcrr.org

Ecrawford@fcrr.org

This presentation can be found on

www.fcrr.org under my name on the

References

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