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You Should Be Able to Explain…

• How the new emphasis on reason challenged traditional thinking at times and reinforced it at others… (Key Concept 2.3)

1. “Scientific” philosophes on human nature and government


The Enlightenment, pp. 19-20

I will grade based upon depth and breadth

List evidence for/against, circling the side


“Popular Culture”: Rituals and Festivals


Enlightenment Culture


I. The Later Enlightenment: Outspoken Logic

A. Government flaws

– Fixable: Locke,

Montesquieu, Beccaria

– Rousseau

• “Man is born free, yet

everywhere is in chains.”: institutions corrupting


B. Intellectual flaws

– Kant: cannot be objective, since we organize material with our own minds

– Hume: we think inductively, and morality is emotional rather than objective

C. Religious flaws

– “Crush the infamous thing”: Voltaire and religious toleration

– Kant: cannot be sure of God’s existence OR non-existence, will act better and treat people better if we accept


II. Tension: Reason vs.(?) Spirituality

A. Absolutist Catholic monarchies move against Jesuit order

B. The “Jewish question”

1. Enlightened toleration but dismissive 2. Pogroms throughout Eastern Europe C. New bursts of religious enthusiasm arose:

spiritual mysticism, not intellect

1. German Pietists in the Lutheran movement 2. Polish-Lithuanian Jewish Hasidism

3. English Dissenters, but Wesleyan


III. Culture

A. “High” vs. “Popular”

• Access: Diderot’s Encyclopedie

• Magazines and newspapers • Coffeehouses and taverns

• Catholic festivals such as Carnivale



IV. Rococo 1700-1800

• Designed for the salon, not the palace.

• The colors are muted and pastels are used


• It is graceful, light,

playful and entertaining in its depiction of nobles at play.





Francois Boucher (1703-1770)

Venus Consoling Love



Jean-Honore Fragonard (1732-1806)



V. Neoclassical 1750s-1815

• Dignified, a reaction to the frivolity of Rococo. • It reflects the

Enlightenment interests in classical studies and was given a further

boost by the discovery and excavation of

ancient Pompeii and Herculaneum.

• Neoclassical

architecture is found in our capitol building.

Portrait of Madame Recamier



The Oath of the Horatii, 1785





The Death of Marat

(1793) by




You Should Be Able to Explain…

(Key Concept 2.3)

1. How the new emphasis on reason challenged traditional thinking at times and reinforced it at others…

2. How Enlightenment concepts were popularized…


Dare to Know!

• In the next ten minutes….

– Read the passage on pp. 27-28 of the unit packet…

• Context (C)

• Main ideas (MI) • Evidence (E)


Dare to Know!

• In the next five minutes….


SAT Reading Passages

• They are trying to discriminate…

– Context – Main ideas – Inferences

– Counter-arguments (69-81, laying a

context but not yet “truly” the


1. A

2. D (55-65) 3. E (23-39)

4. B (23-39, Renaissance mentioned at 73 but only as background for the Enlightenment…) 5. D





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