*Corresponding author:Vadivel, V
Department of Botany, V.O. Chidambaram College, Tuticorin – 628 008, Tamil Nadu, India ISSN:0976-3031
THE NUTRITIONAL AND ANTIOXIDANT CONTENTS OF WILD JACK BEAN (
L. DC.): AN UNDER-EXPLOITED LEGUME FROM SOUTH INDIA
Department of Botany,V.O. Chidambaram College,Tuticorin – 628 008, Tamil Nadu, India
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Six accessions (three with red-coloured seed coat and three with maroon-coloured seed coat) of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis L. DC.) were collected from six different agro-climatic regions of South India. They were analysed for their proximate, mineral and amino acid compositions, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and certain antioxidant contents. Amino acid profiles revealed that levels of leucine, lysine and tryptophan in red-coloured seed coat accessions and valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and tryptophan of maroon-coloured seed coat accessions of jack bean were found to be deficient; whereas, threonine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine and sulphur containing amino acids of all the six accessions were found to be higher than FAO/WHO requirement pattern. The IVPD of the accessions ranged from 73.12 to 79.18%. Antioxidant substances like phenols, tannins, L-DOPA and trypsin inhibitor contents were also investigated.
The wide prevalence of protein-calorie-malnutrition in developing countries including India is of great concern not only to agricultural scientists but also to the concerned governments. Legume seeds provide less expensive and important protein sources to combat malnutrition in developing countries of the world where protein-rich foods of animal origin are not available for the people in low socio-economic groups. However, pulse production in India could not keep pace with population growth and consequently the per capita availability has declined from 70g in 1956 to 34g in 1996(Ali, 1997). As population pressure continues to strain available food supplies, development of inexpensive alternative sources of protein and energy for man could measurably reduce malnutrition. Researchers are therefore subjecting some wild under-exploited crops to chemical analysis and indications are that quite a number of them are highly nutritious (Janardhanan et al., 2003). In this context, a lot of attention is currently being focused on the potential use of jack bean (Canavaliaensiformis L. DC.) as a source of food and feed.
The jack bean (local name: Segappu thambattai) is a representative of the family Fabaceae and is distributed in peninsular India (Vadivel and Janardahan, 1998). It is a native of Central America and the West Indies as has now been
widely introduced throughout the tropics. The sword bean [Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC] is very closely related to the jack bean. However, the seeds can be distinguished by the length of the hilum which is less than half length of the seed in the jack bean, and is nearly as long as the seed in sword bean. Jack bean plants are usually bushy and erect. Leaves trifoliate, shortly hairy; petiole usually longer than leaflets, grooved above, stout, with large pulvinus at base and at base of each leaflet; leaf lets elliptic to ovate, terminal leaflet long-stalked, side leaflets short-stalked with unequal base. Pods more than 10 times as long as broad and containing as average 8 to 20 seeds (Purseglove, 1968).
The Indian tribal sects, Kurumba, Malayali, Irula and other Dravidian groups, consume the mature seeds of jack bean after cooking (Mittre, 1991). Its seed decoction or powdered seeds used as an antibiotic and antiseptic (Gill and Nyawuame, 1994). In Western countries, this legume is used as a cover crop and the roasted seeds are ground to prepare a coffee-like drink (Bressani et al., 1987). Jack bean is considered one of the few pulses that grow well on the highly leached, nutrient-depleted lowland tropical soils (Emebiri, 1996). It can be grown relatively easily and produce high yields in the regions of low altitude, high temperature and relative humidity (Molina et al., 1974).
Available Online at http://www.recentscientific.com
International Journal of
International Journal of Recent Scientific Research
Vol. 10, Issue, 10(E), pp. 35502-35508, October, 2019
Copyright © Vadivel, V,2019, this is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
CODEN: IJRSFP (USA)
Received 4th July, 2019 Received in revised form 25th August, 2019
Accepted 23rd September, 2019 Published online 28th October, 2019
Amino acid profiles,
Despite the potential of this under-exploited species as a source of less consumed food, medicine and cover crop, to our knowledge, meagre information is available on the germplasm collection from South India and its evaluation for chemical composition. In South India, the tropical rain forests of Western Ghats and deciduous forests of Eastern Ghats have a large group of under-exploited food plants from Leguminosae, whose chemical potential has hitherto remained untapped (Vadivel and Janardhanan, 1998). In this context, chemical evaluation of six accessions of jack beans collected from six different locations of South India has been investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sources of seed
Six accessions (three with red-coloured seed coat and three with maroon-coloured seed coat) of wild jack bean were gathered as mature pods (nearly 5kg was gathered from each accession) from natural stands in six agro-climatic / ecological regions. Locality, district, state and month of collection are given in Table 1. The accessions were botanically identified by using the botanical key of Sudhir et al. (1994). The mature pods were collected from tropical rain forests of Western Ghats (five accessions) and deciduous forest areas in Eastern Ghats (Dasukuppam accession). After thoroughly drying in the sun, the pods were thrashed to remove seeds. The seeds, after thoroughly clearing and removal of broken seeds and foreign materials, were stored in airtight plastic containers at room temperature (25°C ± 2°C). The air-dried seeds (nearly 50 g from each accession) were powdered in a Wiley mill to pass a 60-mesh screen and stored in screw-capped bottles at room temperature for further analysis.
Table 1 Collection details of six accessions of jack bean seeds
Locality District State Month of collection
(Western Ghats) Kollam Kerala February Dasukuppam R
(Eastern Ghats) Chittoor
Pradesh July Naduvil R
(Western Ghats) Cannur Kerala March Maananthavaadi M
(Western Ghats) Wyanad Kerala March Pathanamthetta M
(Western Ghats) Pathanamthitta Kerala February Vazhikkadavu M
(Western Ghats) Malapuram Kerala March
R, red – colour seed coat; M, maroon - coloured seed coat
The moisture content of the seed flour was estimated gravimetrically by drying at100°C in an oven until a constant weightis attained. It was expressed in percentage based on the difference between initialand final weights of the flours. The total nitrogen and crude protein (N × 6.25) of the flours were evaluated by micro-Kjeldahl method (Humphries, 1956). Total lipidextraction of the seed flours was carried out in thimbles covered with glass wool in a Soxhlet extractor, and the lipid was extracted using 200mL of petroleum ether at 60 - 80°C (AOAC, 1995). The condensation ratewas fixed (150 drops/min for 7 h); the samples were allowed to cool, transferred topre-weighed beaker, and evaporated to dryness at room temperature (28 ± 2°C);and the lipid content was gravimetrically estimated. The crude fiber and ash contents
were also determined gravimetrically following the AOAC (1995) methods. The carbohydrates were calculated based on Müller and Tobin (1980):
Carbohydrates (%) = [100 – (crude protein (%) + crude lipid (%) + (crude fibre (%) + ash (%)]
The gross energy was calculated using the formula by Siddhurajuet al. (1996):
Gross energy (kJ / 100g) = (protein x 16.7) + (lipid x 37.7) + (carbohydrates x 16.7).
All these constituents were analysed in triplicate. All results were expressed on a dry weight basis.
Five hundred milligrams of the ground legume seed was digested with a mixture of 10mL concentrated nitric acid, 4mL of 60% perchloric acid and 1mL of concentrated sulphuric acid. After cooling, the digest was diluted with 50mL de-ionised distilled water, filtered with Whatman no. 42 filter paper and filtrates made up to 100mL in a glass volumetric flask with de-ionised distilled water. The mineral contents (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and manganese) of the seed flours were determined by atomic absorptionspectrophotometry. The vanadomolybdophosphoric acid method was employed to determine thetotal phosphorus by measuring the absorbance at 420nm using KH2PO4 as standard
Amino acid analysis
The total seed protein was extracted by a modified method of Basha et al.(1976). The ethanol treatment was omitted to retain the prolamin fraction. The extracted proteins were purified by precipitation with cold 20% trichloroactic acid (TCA). A protein sample of 30mg was hydrolysed by 6N HCl (5mL) in an evacuated sealed tube, which was kept in air oven maintained at 110C for 24h. The sealed tube was broken and the acid removed completely by repeated flash evaporation after the addition of de-ionised water. Dilution was effected by means of citrate buffer pH2.2, to the solution contains 0.5mg protein mL-1. The solution was passed through a millipore filter (0.45 µM) (Waters Millipore, Mississauga, ON, Canada) and derivatized with O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) by using an automated pre-column (OPA). Amino acids were analysed by a reversed-phase HPLC (Model 23250, ISCO, Lincoln, NE, USA) fitted with a spherisorp C18 column (4.6 x 250mm) and
P a g eEssential amino acid
score= ⁄ ( ) x100
Determination of in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD)
Protein digestibility was assayed by the in vitro method described by Hsu et al(1977). Calculated amounts of the control (casein) and sample weight were weighed out, hydrated in 10mL of distilled water and refrigerated at 5C for 1h. The samples containing protein and enzymes were all adjusted to pH 8.0 at 37C. The IVPD was determined by the sequential digestion of the samples containing protein with a multi-enzyme mixture (trypsin, -chymotrypsin and peptidase) at 37C followed by protease at 55C. The pH drop of the samples from pH 8.0 was recorded after 20min of incubation. The IVPD was calculated according to the regression equation Y= 234.84 – 22.56 X, where Y is the % digestibility and X the pH drop.
Analysis of antioxidant contents
The antioxidant contents, phenols (Bray and Thorne, 1954), tannins (Burns, 1971) and the non-protein amino acid L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) (Brain, 1976) were quantified. Trypsin inhibitor was determined by the enzyme assay of Kakade et al. (1974) by using benzoil-DL-arginin-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) as a substrate.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The proximate compositions of six accessions of jack bean are shown in Table 2. The crude protein content of the jack bean accessions ranged from 28.9% for Maananthavaadi accession to 35% for Valacode accession. This range is higher than those reported for pigeonpea, kidney beans, green gram and cowpeas (Mnembuka and Eggum, 1995), chickpeas and peas (Meiners et al., 1976a) and black gram (Rajyalakshmi and Geervani, 1994). These seven-grain legumes are used extensively in typical Indian diets and are expected to play a significant role in improving protein nutrition in India and Asia. The range of protein obtained in the present study is also higher than those reported for the seeds of five Canavalia species namely C. ensiformis, C. gladiata and C. meritima (Bressani et al., 1987), C. virosa (Rodrigues and Torne, 1991) and C. rosea (Abbey and Ibeh, 1987). They recommended its protein source to alleviate protein malnutrition among the economically weaker sections of people in developing countries.
The difference in protein content was probably due to different growing conditions for the plants from which the seeds were collected (Vadivel and Janardhanan, 2004). The crude fat
content is low in Naduvil (3.7%) and high in Vazhikkadavu (4.7%) accessions. The fat content range is higher than that of pigeonpea and kidney beans (Mnembuka and Eggum, 1995), chick peas (Caygill et al., 1981), peas and cowpeas (Meiners et al., 1976a) and black gram and green gram (Gupta and Wagle, 1978). Nonetheless, the crude fat content does not qualify the jack beans as an oil-rich legume, especially when compared with peanut and soybeans which have fat contents of about 25.3% and 19.5%, respectively (Narasinga Rao et al., 1989). Crude fibre ranged between 7 and 9.8%. The ash content is within 3-5.8%, the lowest is for Pathanamthitta accession, and Vazhikkadavu accession has the highest. This range is similar to that found in the literature for legumes that serve as good source of minerals. Jack bean seeds have a high range of carbohydrate because of their low lipid content. Peanut and soybean seeds have lower carbohydrate values of 26.1% and 20.9%, respectively (Narasinga Rao et al., 1989). All the six accessions register a higher energy range (1511–1574 kJ 100g-1 DM) than commonly cultivated legumes like cowpea, green gram, horse gram, moth bean and peas (Narasinga Rao et al., 1989), which are in the range of 1318-1394 kJ 100g-1 DM.
The mineral elements analysed and presented in Table 3, are important nutritionally. Potassium was the most abundant macromineral and its composition ranged from 634.4mg 100g-1 in the Dasukuppam accession to 1017.5mg 100g-1 in the Valacode accession. Sodium levels were generally low in all accessions with values ranging from 39 - 114.5mg 100g-1. The low amounts of sodium in the legume seeds is good for health because of the relationship that low sodium diet has to hypertension in humans (Dahl, 1972).Among the micro-minerals, iron concentration ranged between 3.2mg 100g-1 in Maananthavaadi and 5.2mg 100g-1 in Valacode and zinc from 2.1mg 100g-1 in Maananthavaadi to 4.4mg 100g-1 in Dasukuppam accession.
In general, all the six accessions are found to contain higher levels of sodium compared to chick peas, kidney beans, peas and cowpeas (Meiners et al., 1976b); higher potassium and magnesium contents compared to cowpeas (Akinyele, 1989); higher calcium and iron contents compared to pigeonpea, black gram and green gram (Sankara Rao and Deosthale, 1981) and higher phosphorus content compared to chick peas (Attia et al., 1994). The potential of any foodstuff to be source of the major elements depends on the availability rather than the total content of the mineral.
Certain plant constituents like phytates could significantly reduce the overall availability of the minerals found in them (Omode et al., 1995).
Table 2 Proximate composition of six accessions of jack bean (g 100g -1 seed flour) †
ValacodeR DasukuppamR NaduvilR MaananthavaadiM PathanamthittaM VazhikkadavuM
Moisture 8.5±0.3 9.2±0.2 8.3±0.2 5.1±1.5 8.7±0.2 4.7±0.5 Crude protein 35.0±0.3 32.8±1.1 32.4±0.6 28.9±0.5 30.3±0.8 30.6±0.5
Crude lipid 4.3±0.5 3.8±0.1 3.7±0.5 3.9±0.1 4.0±0.4 4.7±0.2 Crude fibre 7.7±0.3 8.5±0.7 7.0±0.2 9.8±1.7 8.2±0.3 8.5±2.5 Ash 3.9±0.1 4.5±0.1 3.4±0.1 4.6±0.6 3.0±0.2 5.8±1.3 CHO 49.2±0.5 50.4±1.5 53.6±0.2 52.8±1.0 54.5±0.5 50.4±1.4 Energy
(kJ/100g DM) 1568 1532 1574 1511 1567 1532
† Mean of three replications expressed on dry weight basis ( SE); CHO- Carbohydrate; R, red – coloured seed coat;
This concern still needs to be investigated in the seeds of C. ensiformis. The variability in the content of minerals for the same species may be related to genetic origin, geographical source, level of soil fertility and the efficiency of uptake from the soil (Vadivel and Janardhanan, 2004).
The amino acid profiles of the purified seed proteins and the essential amino acid score are presented in Tables 4 and 5.
The contents of leucine, lysine and tryptophan in red-coloured seed coat accessions and valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and tryptophan contents of maroon-coloured seed coat accessions are found to be deficient compared to FAO/WHO(1991) requirement pattern.
Table3 Mineral composition of six accessions of jack beans (mg 100g-1 seed flour) †
ValacodeR DasukuppamR NaduvilR MaananthavaadiM PathanamthittaM VazhikkadavuM
Sodium 56.8±3.8 114.54.7 42.83.1 39.04.4 48.23.4 41.73.8 Potassium 1017.5±2.8 634.43.8 758.43.3 783.84.7 876.12.5 847.63.5 Calcium 497.99.1 323.18.3 392.35.1 449.53.9 350.42.0 419.69.6 Magnesium 192.17.5 281.96.2 191.87.7 187.13.8 190.77.5 318.96.3 Phosphorus 240.25.2 381.84.7 50.8±7.3 280.95.7 467.34.6 468.55.7 Iron 5.2±3.2 4.7±0.8 3.4±1.2 3.2±0.8 4.4±1.0 3.5±0.9 Zinc 4.3±1.7 4.4±0.1 3.1±0.9 2.1±0.2 2.2±0.9 3.4±1.3 Manganese 1.0±0.2 0.6±0.3 0.4±1.3 0.6±1.0 1.0±1.0 0.9±0.7
Mean of three replications expressed on dry weight basis ( SE); R, red – coloured seed coat; M, maroon-coloured seed coat
Table 4 Amino acid profiles of three accessions of jack bean (Red-coloured seed coat) (g 100g-1 protein)
N.D- Not Detected; EAAS- Essential Amino Acid Score
Table 5 Amino acid profiles of three accessions of jack bean (Maroon-coloured seed coat) (g 100g-1 protein)
P a g eOn the contrary, the contents of threonine, phenylalanine,
tyrosine, histidine and sulphur-containing amino acids of all the six accessions are found to be higher than FAO/WHO (1991) requirement pattern.
The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) range of jack bean (Table. 6) was higher than that of pigeonpea, peas and cowpeas (Rajyalakshmi and Geervani, 1990), chick peas and soybean (Srivastav et al., 1990), groundnut (Prathiba and Uma Reddy, 1994), black gram and green gram (Chitra et al., 1995) and kidney beans (Deshpande et al., 1982). However, the IVPD values of the wild jack bean seeds are much lower than casein (97.7%) (Acton et al., 1982). The relatively low levels of IVPD in legume seeds are due to the presence of globulins as the major storage proteins, which are quite resistant to the attack by proteolytic enzymes in vitro (Deshpande et al., 1982).
Table 6also contains data on phenols, tannins, L-DOPA and trypsin inhibitor. Phenols occurred within the range of 0.48-1.41% and tannins ranged from 0.16 to 0.53%. These ranges seem to be lower compared to black gram (Rani and Hira, 1998). In recent years the importance of antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds and their potential usage in processed foods as a natural antioxidant compounds has reached a new level (Lafay and Gil-Izquierdo, 2008). Increases bile secretion, reduce blood cholesterol and lipid levels and antimicrobial, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, antispasmodic, antideprescent activities are some of the biological activities of phenols (Silva et al., 2007; Lafay and Gil-Izquierdo, 2008).
In medicine, especially in Asian (Japanese and Chinese) natural healing, the tannins are used as astringents, against diarrhoea, as diuretics, against stomach and duodenal tumours (De Bruin et al., 1999) and as anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antioxidant and haemostatic pharmaceuticals (Dolara et al., 2005). Recently the tannins have attracted scientific interest, especially due to increased incidence of deadly illnesses such as AIDS and various cancers(Palauy and Priscilla, 2006). The L-DOPA contents were in the range of 1.98-2.64%, the lowest for Maananthavaadi accession and Valacode accession had the highest. Natural L-DOPA had a more rapid onset of action and longer effect without increases in dyskinesias, when compared tosynthetic L-DOPA formulations in Parkinson treatment (Katzenschlager et al., 2004).In the presently investigated seeds, trypsin inhibitor content ranged from 22.38 to 34.34TIUmg-1 proteins.Trypsin inhibitors are one of the most promising and investigated subjects for their role in pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies.
Trypsin inhibitors isolated from Cajanuscajan and Phaseoluslimensis showed that trypsin inhibitors exhibit high antioxidant, free radical–scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activities, which might be helpful in preventing the progression of various oxidative stress–mediated disorders by ceasing generation of toxic ROSs and by inactivating the proteases released during inflammatory processes, thereby preventing tissue damage (Shamsi et al., 2018). In general, maroon-coloured seed coat accessions of jack beans are found to contain fewer amounts of phenols, L-DOPA and trypsin inhibitor contents compared to that of red-coloured seed coat accessions of jack beans. Besides, Rosenthal (1998) reported that canavanine, which is found in the seeds of Canavalia, has demonstrative antineoplastic activity against a number of human cancers and canavanine promises as a lead compound as a chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of human pancreatic carcinoma.
The present study reveals that the profiles of nutrients in all the six accessions of jack bean seems to be higher than that of certain conventional pulses and can also be explored as an alternative protein source to alleviate protein-energy-malnutrition among economically weaker sections of people in developing countries. It should be pointed out,however, that animal feeding experiments are needed for thefinal answer as to the nutritional significance of the findings.
Abbey BW, Ibeh GO. Functionalproperties of raw and heat processed brown bean(Canavalia rosea DC) flour. Journal of Food Science. 1987; 52: 406-408.
Acton JC, Breyer L, Satterlee LD. Effect of dietary fibre constituents on the in vitro digestibility of casein. Journal of Food Science. 1982; 47: 556-560.
Akinyele IO. Effects of traditional methods of processing on the nutrient content and some antinutritional factors in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Food Chemistry. 1989; 33: 291-299.
Ali M. Pulses of nutritional food security. Indian Farming. 1997;47: 31-37.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis 16th Ed. Association of official analytical chemists. Washington DC, USA. 1995.
Attia RS, El-Tabey Shehata AM, Aman ME, Hamza MA. Effect of cooking and decortication on the physical properties, the chemical composition and the nutritive value of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Food Chemistry. 1994; 50: 125 - 131.
Basha SMM, Cherry JP, Young CT. Changes in free amino acids, carbohydrates and proteins of maturing seeds Table 6 IVPD and antioxidant contents of six accessions of jack bean
ValacodeR DasukuppamR NaduvilR MaananthavaadiM PathanamthittaM VazhikkadavuM
IVPD (%)‡ 74.66 73.12 75.64 79.18 76.41 77.90
Phenols (%)† 1.23 ± 0.05 1.21 ± 0.01 1.41 ± 0.06 0.86 ± 0.01 0.48 ± 0.02 0.77 ± 0.02
Tannins (%)† 0.16 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.03 0.18 ± 0.01 0.53 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.03 0.47 ± 0.01
L-DOPA (%)† 2.64 ± 0.31 2.32 ± 0.48 2.48 ± 0.73 1.98 ± 0.82 2.08 ± 0.08 2.23 ± 0.04
Trypsin inhibitor (TIU mg-1 protein)‡
34.34 33.82 30.43 24.32 22.38 23.48
from various peas (Arachis hypogaea) cultivars. CerealChemistry. 1976; 53: 583-597.
Brain KR. Accumulation of L-DOPA in cultures from Mucuna pruriens. Plant Science Letters. 1976; 7: 157-161.
Bray HC, Thorne WV. Analysis of phenolic compounds. Methods of Biochemical Analysis. 1954; 1: 27-52. Bressani R, Brenes RG, Garcia A, Elias LG. Chemical
composition, amino acid content and protein quality of Canavalia spp. seeds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1987; 40: 17-23.
Burns RR. Methods for estimation of tannins in grain, Sorghum. Agronomy Journal, 1971; 63: 511-512. Caygill JC, Jones JA, Ferber CEM. Imitation milks from
Cicer arietinum (L.), Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek and other legumes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1981; 32: 601-607.
Chitra U, Vimala V, Singh U, Geervani P. Variability in phytic acid content and protein digestibility of grain legumes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1995; 47: 163-172.
Dahl LK. Salt and hypertension. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1972; 25: 231-238.
De Bruyne T, Pieters L, Deelstra H, Vlietinck A. Condensed vegetable tannins: biodiversity in structure are biological activities. Biochemical System Ecology. 1999; 27: 445-459.
Deshpande SS, Sathe SK, Salunkhe DK, Cornforth DP. Effects of dehulling on phytic acid, polyphenols and enzyme inhibition of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Food Science. 1982; 47: 1846-1850.
Dolara P, Luceri C, De Filippo C, Femia AP, Giovannelli L, Carderni G, Cecchini C, Silvis S, Orpianesi C, Cresci A. Red wine polyphenols influence carcinogenesis, intestinal microflora, oxidative damage and gene expression profiles of colonic mucosa in F344 rats. Mutation Research. 2005; 591: 237-246.
Emebiri LC. Evaluation of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) lines derived from natural crossing with sword bean (Canavalia gladiata). Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. 1996; 12: 319-325.
FAO / WHO. Protein Quality Evaluation. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 1991. Pp. 66.
Gill LS, Nyawuame HGK. Leguminosae in ethnomedicinal practices of Nigeria. Ethnobotany. 1994; 6: 51-64. Gupta K, Wagle DS. Proximate composition and nutritive
value of Phaseolus mungoreus, a cross between Phaseolus mungo and Phaseolus aureus. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1978; 15, 34-35.
Hsu HW, Vavak DL, Satterlee LD, Miller GA. A multi-enzyme technique for estimating protein digestibility. Journal of Food Science. 1977; 42: 1269-1271.
Humphries EC. Mineral components and ash analysis. In: Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, Vol. 1. Paech K and Tracey MV (Eds.). Springer Verlag, Berlin. 1956. pp. 468-502.
Janardhanan K, Vadivel V, Pugalenthi M. Biodiversity in Indian underexpoited / tribal pulses. In: Improvement Strategies for Leguminosae Biotechnology. Jaiwal PK
and Singh, R.P (Eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, Great Britain. 2003. Pp. 353-405.
Kakade ML, Rackis JJ, McGhee JE, Puski G. Determination of trypsin inhibitor activity of soy products: A collaborative analysis of an improved procedure. Cereal Chemistry. 1974; 51: 376-382.
Katzenschlager R, Evans A, Manson A, Patsalos PN, Ratnaraj N , Watt H, Timmerman L, Van der Giessen R, Lees AJ. Mucunapruriens in Parkinson’s disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 2004; 75:1672-7
Lafay S, Gil-Izquierdo A. Bioavailability of phenolic acids. Phytochemical Reviews. 2008; 7: 301-311.
Liddell HF, Saville B. Colorimetric determination of cystine. Analysist. 1959; 84: 133-137.
Meiners CR, Derise NL, Lau HC, Crews MG, Ritchey SJ, Murphy EW. The content of nine mineral elements in raw and cooking mature dry legumes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1976;24: 1126-1130. Meiners CR, Derise NL, Lau HC, Ritchey SJ, Murphy EW.
Proximate composition and yield of raw and cooked mature dry legumes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1976; 24, 1122-1126.
Mittre V. Wild plants in Indian folk life-a historical perspective. In: Contributions to Ethnobotany of India. S.K. Jain (Ed.). Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India. 1991. Pp. 37-58.
Mnembuka BV, Eggum BO. Comparative nutritive value of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC) and other legumes grown in Tanzania. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1995; 47: 333-339.
Molina MR, Arguta CE, Bressani R. Extraction of nitrogenous constituents from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1974; 22: 309-312.
Muller HG, Tobin G. Nutritional and Food Processing. London: Croom Helm Ltd. 1980.
Narasinga Rao BS, Deosthale YG, Pant KC. Nutritive value of Indian foods. Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India. 1989; Pp. 24 - 48.
Omode AA, Fatoki OS, Olaogun KA. Physiochemical properties of some underexploited and nonconventional oil seeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1995; 43: 2850-2853.
Palavy K, Priscilla MD. Standardisation of selected Indian medicinal herbal raw material containing polyphenols as major constituents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2006; 68: 506-509.
Prathiba KM, Uma Reddy M. Nutrient composition of groundnut cultures (Arachis hypogaea L.) in relation to their kernel size. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1994; 45: 365-369.
Purseglove JW. Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. In: Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons 1. Longman, Green and Co Ltd, London, UK. 1968; Pp. 242-244.
P a g eRajyalakshmi P, Geervani P. Studies on tribal foods of South
India: effect of processing methods on the vitamin and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of cereals/millets and legumes. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1990; 27: 260-263.
Rama Rao MV, Tara MR, Krishnan CK. Colorimetric estimation of tryptophan content of pulses. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1974; 11: 213-216. Rani N, Hira CK. Effect of different treatments on chemical
constituents of mash beans (Vigna mungo). Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1998;35: 540 – 542. Rodrigues BF, Torne SG. A chemical study of seeds in three
Canavalia species. Tropical Science. 1991; 31: 101-103. Rosenthal GA. L-Canavanine: a potential chemotherapeutic
agent for human pancreatic cancer. Pharmaceutical Biology. 1998; 36: 194-201.
Sankara Rao DS, Deosthale YG. Mineral composition of four Indian food legumes. Journal of Food Science. 1981; 46: 1962-1963.
Shamsi TN, Parveen R, Afreen S, Azam M, Sen P, Sharma Y, Haque QMR, Fatma T, Manzoor N, Fatima S. Trypsin inhibitors from Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus limensis possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. Journal of Dietary Supplements. 2018; 15: 939-950.
Siddhuraju P, Vijayakumari K, Janardhanan K. Chemical composition and protein quality of the little-known legume, velvet bean (Mucunapruriens (L.) DC). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1996; 44: 2636-2641.
Silva EM, Souza JNS, Rogez H, Rees JF, Larondella Y. antioxidant activities and polyphenolic contents of fifteen selected plant species from the Amazonian forests. Food Chemistry. 2007; 1012-1018.
Srivastav PP, Das H, Prasad S. Effect of roasting process variables on in vitro protein digestibility of Bengal gram, maize and soybean. Food Chemistry. 1990; 35: 31-37.
Sudhir K, Vijayluxmi A, Kumar S, Agarwal V. Note on identity of two closely related species of Canavalia DC. (Papilionaceae). Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 1994; 18: 275-277.
Vadivel V, Janardhanan K. Genetic resources of some south Indian tribal pulses. IPGRI Newsletter for Asia, the Pacific and Oceania. 1998; 26: 21-22.
Vadivel V, Janardhanan K. The nutritional and antinutritional attributes of sword bean [Canavalia gladiata (Jack.) DC.]: an under-utilized tribal pulse from south India. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2004; 39: 1-10.
How to cite this article:
Vadivel, V., 2019, The Nutritional And Antioxidant Contents of Wild Jack Bean (Canavalia Ensiformis l. Dc.): An Under-Exploited Legume from South India. Int J Recent Sci Res. 10(10), pp.35502-35508.