Ch.9TheHighMiddleAges(1050-1450).pptx

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SECTION ONE:

GROWTH OF ROYAL POWER IN ENGLAND AND

FRANCE

A.

Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church

Feudal monarchs in Europe stood at

the head of society, but relied on

_

Vassals

__ for military support.

Both Nobles and the Church had as

much (or more) power as the

monarchs – courts, taxes, armies

Monarchs tried to centralize power

by:

__Strong Governments___

___ Taxes___

___Standing Army ___

B. Strong Monarchs in England

In 1066, Anglo – Saxon king Edward died without an

heir while the nobles chose Edward’s brother in law Harold, Duke William of Normandy claimed the throne.

On Christmas Day William the Conqueror, as he was

now called, assumed the crown of England.

1086, Williams Census of people, castles, field, pigpen

in England = Domesday Book

William’s successors continued to increase royal

authority. Using Williams census they created the royal _Exchequer, or treasury, to collect taxes.

In 1154, Henry II, a well-educated king inherited the

throne and expanded customs into laws. These royal courts became the foundation of English Common Laws a legal system based on custom and court rulings.

When traveling justices visited an area, local officials

collected a Jury, or group of men sworn to speak the truth. (Later it became 12 _neighbors of the accused – the ancestor of today’s jury.

Henry’s courts even attempted to regulate and try

clergy in the royal courts.

Main Idea:

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THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES

English rulers repeatedly clashed with nobles

and the Church.

King Henry’s son John faced three powerful

enemies:

1.

King Philip II of France

_: Give up English

held lands in France

2.

Pope Innocent II

_: Excommunicated him,

interdicted all of England, pay fees to Rome

3.

English Nobles

_: In 1215, a group of

rebellious nobles cornered John and forced

him to sign the

Magna Carta

_, or great

charter, which affirmed a long list of feudal

rights.

*** The Magna Carta contained two very

important ideas that shaped England

government.***

Nobles had certain rights, with time

extended to all citizens

Made it clear that monarch must obey the

laws

During the 1200’s the Great Council

evolved into Parliament, from the French

word

Parler

meaning “To Talk”

Great Council

Parliament

Model Parliament

(House of Lords / House of Commons)

Philip II of France

John of England

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D. SUCCESSFUL MONARCHS IN FRANCE

I. The Capetains

Elected

Hugh Capet

in 987 to fill vacant throne of France

- effective government - taxes

- impose royal law - support

II. Philip Augustus : Outstanding French king who added vast area

to his domain and became the most power ruler in

Europe before his death in

__1223__

.

III. King Louis IX – Saint: One of the most admired French rulers ascended to

the throne in 1226. Deeply religious,

generous, noble, and devoted to

Justice

and

Chivalry

. By

_1270_

France was the an

efficient centralized monarchy.

IV. Philip IV – Clashed with the Pope (Boniface VIII)

Philip, Louis’s grandson tried to collect new

Taxes

from the clergy.

Pope forbade Philip to tax the clergy without papal

consent.

Philip sent troops to seize the Pope, Boniface escaped but died from the attack soon

after.

During the struggle with the Pope, Philip rallied French support by setting up the

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SECTION THREE: EUROPEANS LOOK OUTWARD

MAIN IDEA: THE CRUSADES STIMULATED ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN EUROPE AND BROADENED EUROPEANS VIEW OF THE WORLD.

In 1050, as Western Europe was just emerging

from a period of Isolation, civilizations were thriving elsewhere, and medieval Europe was first beginning to test its strength.

Islam had given rise to a brilliant new civilization

that stretched from Spain to India, and Muslim traders and _Scholars spread goods and ideas even further.

India was a land of thriving cities were Hindu

and Buddhist traditions flourished.

The Chinese had a strong central government

(Tang and Song) and made amazing advances in technology (paper, printing, gunpowder)

In West Africa, the Soninke people were building

the trading empire of Ghana.

Across the Atlantic, the Maya had built cities

dominated by towering temples and the Incas of

Peru were building an empire connected by roads

Closer to Western Europe, the Byzantine empire

was prosperous and united, but in the 1050’s, the Seljuk Turks invaded the empire (Muslims)

Central Asia Middle East Muslim

Asia Minor Byzantine lands Holy Land

The Byzantine emperor _Alexius I urgently asked Pope

Urban II for Christian Knights to help him fight the Turks. Although rivals, Urban agreed.

At the Council of Clermont 1095, Urban incited bishops

and nobles to action. MOTIVES:

“GOD Wills It!” by 1096, thousands of knights were on

their way to the Holy Land.

Many knights hoped for adventure, or to win wealth

and _Land_

Pope Urban also hoped to increase his power and

perhaps heal the _Schism or split between the Roman and Byzantine Churches

Victories and Defeats

Only the First Crusade or Holy War came close to

achieving its goal. In 1099, Christian Knights

captured Jerusalem and capped their victory with a massacre of Muslims and Jewish residents of the city.

The Crusades continued, off and on, for over 200 yearsDuring the _Fourth Crusade, the crusaders were

diverted from fights Muslims to fighting _Christians

because Venetian merchants and crusaders in 1204 – captured and looted Constantinople, the Byzantine capital.

By 1291, Mulsim armies captured the last Christian

outpost, the victors massacred their defeated enemies, this time they were Christians

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EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES

Though the Crusades failed to conquer the Holy Land, they helped to quicken the pace

of changes already underway.

The Crusaders increased trade and encouraged the growth of a Money economy.

The Crusades helped to increase the power of Monarchs, as rulers won new rights to Levy, or collect, taxes in order to support the Holy Wars.

Enthusiasm for the Crusades brought Papal power to its greatest height.

Contacts with the Muslim world led Christians to realize that Millions of people lived

in regions they had never known existed. Some visited far off places like India or

China _ (Marco Polo: “Prince of liars”)

The Reconquista in Spain

The crusading spirit continued for some, especially in _Spain_, where Christian

warriors had been battling Muslims for centuries. Muslims had conquered most of Spain in the _700s_ and these Christians sought to take over Muslim held lands. This Campaign became known as the Reconquista or Reconquest of Spain.

In 1469, Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon, which opened the way for a

unified state. The two monarchs made a final push against the Muslim strong hold of

Granada_, and in 1492, the Reconquista was complete.

The religious _Toleration_, or allowing people to worship as they choose – ended with

Isabella.

With support from the __Inquisition__. A Church court set up to try people accused of

heresy: Isabella launched a brutal crusade against _Jews_ and Muslims.

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A. Medieval Universities

As economic and political conditions

improved in the High Middle Ages the need for _Education_ expanded.

By the 1100’s schools or _Universities__ had

sprung up around cathedrals to train the clergy. These first universities were

organized like _Guilds _ with charters for protecting rights, and set standards of training.

Student life offered few comforts and a

program of study covered seven liberal arts:

__Arithmetic__ Geography

_Astronomy__ Music Grammar Rhetoric Logic

To show mastery of a subject, students took

oral exams. Bachelor degrees took between three and six years.

Women were not allowed to attend the

Universities – few exceptions.

B. Europeans Acquire “New” Learning

Newly translated works of Aristotle and other

Greek thinkers had set off a revolution in the world of learning.

These ancient Greek writing posed a challenge

to Christian scholars, who were attempting to resolve the conflict between Faith and

_Reason_.

These Christian scholars known as Scholastics,

used reason to support Christian beliefs – Thomas Aquinas: Faith and reason exist in harmony – God over all.

Science and Mathematics:

A. little progress in science, didn’t fit with church teachings

B. Hindu Arabic numerals –

allowed both science and math to advance.

Section Four: Learning, Literature, and the Arts

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C. MEDIEVAL LITERATURE

D. Architecture and Art

__

Romanesque

_: About 1000, monasteries and towns built solid stone

churches that reflected Roman influence.

_

Gothic

_: About 1400, urged on by Abbot Suger at St. Denis near

Paris, builders developed this new style of architecture. A key feature

of this style was the _

Flying

_ __

Buttresses

__, or stone supports that

stood outside the church leaving room for huge _

Stained

_

Glass

_

windows.

Cities all over Europe competed to build grander, taller cathedrals to

_

Glorify

_ __

GOD

__.

Art:

- Stonemasons carved sculptures to decorate churches inside and out.

- Stain glass depicted the life of Jesus, and _

Biblical

__ events which

served as a religious education for he people.

In 1300s and 1400s the Gothic Style was applied to paintings and

__

Illumination

__ or the artistic decoration of books.

While Latin was the language of scholars and churchmen, new writings

began to appear in the _

Vernacular

_, or everyday languages of ordinary people –

French, _

German

_, Italian.

Medieval literature included _

Epic

_, or long narrative poems, about feudal

warriors and tales of the common people.

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Section Five: A Time of Crisis

Main Idea: Plague, upheaval in the Church, war and famine made the 1300s and early 1400s a time of crisis for Europeans.

A. The Black Death

The Black death had reached Italian ports by mid 1300s and by

_

1348

_ had reached beyond Italy to Spain and France and would

soon ravage the rest of Europe.

The sickness was the _

Bubonic

_ plague, a disease spread by fleas

on rats, which infested ships, towns, and the homes of the rich in

the pre-modern world.

A strain of the subsided plagues of the past still survived in

_

Mongolia

_ as Mongol armies conquered much of Asia around

1200, it set off a new _Epidemic__, or outbreak of a rapid

spreading disease.

China (35 Million) India (depopulation) Africa (Cairo 7000 buried a day) Europe (1/3 the pop.)

In Europe, the plague brought social upheaval, terror, and

bewilderment. Some turned to _

Witchcraft

_ for cures and others

plunged into pleasures – believing death would come soon.

Some viewed the plague as Gods __

Punishment

__ and would beat

themselves to show they repent for their sins.

Many Christians blamed the _

Jews

_ for the plague and in the

resulting hysteria came the rise of __

Anti - Semitism

__

As workers and employers died, production __

Declined

_ and the

European economy plunged. Survivors demanded higher wages;

the cost of labor soared, _

Inflation

__, or rising prices, broke out

too.

Costs, conflicts, revolts, and the plague had spread both death

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B. UPHEAVAL IN THE CHURCH

The late Middle Ages brought spiritual

crisis, scandal, and division to the Roman

Catholic Church.

- Leadership “French Captivity”

- Reform (Elected New Popes)

- Challenge To Church Power (Bible)

C. The Hundred Years’ War

On top of the disasters of famine, plague,

and economic decline came a long and

destructive

War

between 1337 and 1453.

(England vs. France)

Causes:

When

Edward

III of England claimed the

French

crown in 1337, war erupted between

these rival powers. (national pride)

English victories: At first the English won a

string of victories – and owed much of their

success to the

Long bow

wielded by English

archers.

French Victories:

In 1429, a 17 year old peasant woman, Joan of Arc ,

appeared at the court of Charles VII, the uncrowned King of France.

She told Charles that GOD had sent her to save

France.

She persuaded the desperate king to lead his army

against the English. To Charles amazement, Joan inspired the French troops to fight anew and led the French to several _Victories_ and planted the seed for future triumphs.

Joan paid for her success with her life. She was

taken captive, tried for _Witch craft_, convicted and burned at the stake. Later, the Church declared her a _Saint_.

The French rallied behind the execution of Joan

and used a new powerful weapon, the __Canon_, to attack English held castles.

Effects:

France : Provided feelings of national pride –

allowed Kings to extend power.

England: Turned to Parliament for funds that gave

them heightened power and rulers soon began looking at new trading ventures overseas.

Longbow and _Canon gave common soldiers a new

importance on the battlefield and undermined the value of armored Knights Castles and knights were doomed to disappear.

Monarchs needed large armies, not feudal Vassals,

Figure

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References