BENNET - Combined Counterpoint

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NOVELLO'S

MUSIC

PRIMERS

AND

EDUCATIONAL

SERIES.

A

DICTIONARY

OF

MUSICAL

TERMS

BY

J.

STAINER &

W.

A.

BARRETT.

(Compressed fromtheImperial8vo Edition by K.M. ROSS.) OneShilling; Paper Boards.1s. 6d.

OPINIONS

OF

THE

PRESS.

"

A

carefulandjudiciousabridgmentof the largerwork,andwill be found

useful to thoseby

whom

the originalisinaccessible."

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most serviceable abridgment of Stainer and Barrett's well-known

Dictionary. Few, if any, words that the student can wish explained are

absentfromthislittlevolume,whichshouldbeineveryamateurslibrary."— Daily Telegraph.

"Of even more general utility is 'Musical Terms.' As a dictionary of

reference this little volume should be on the table or shelf of every musician."

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"Mostofthe specialinformation contained in the large volume has been reproducedin this shillingpamphlet,thecompression having beenjudiciously

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No

individualwithanypretensions to a musicaltaste should be withont

thisexcellentbookof reference."

Perth Citizen.

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important addition is made to Messrs. Novello's series of 'Music Primers'in the shape of an abridgment,or rather compression,of Messrs.

StainerandBarrett'swell-known'DictionaryofMusical Terms.' That work

has rankedasa standard oneever sinceits publication, and Mr.K.M. Ross,

who has performed the task of reducing it to the slim dimensionsof its

primer' form,has executedthe business with evident care and intelligence.

For its dimensions, thislittle bookis unquestionablythe best dictionaryol

musical termsinour language."

TheScotsman.

"Theissueof thisabridgmentofMessrs. Stainerand Barrett's dictionarj

was a decidedly 'happy thought.'

Many

amateurs cannot well afford the

price of thecomplete work, whilemanyothersfind itsvaried contents,ifnot superfluous in themselves, an embarras des richesses as part of a book of

referenceforwordsincommonuse. Thepresent issue exactlymeetsthewants

of the many. Its pages are crowded with succinct definitions of musical

terminology, hardly a word being omitted. ...

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TheMusicalTime*

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Limited-

0^2^-/^^^--NOVELLO'S

MUSIC

PRIMERS

AND

EDUCATIONAL

SERIES.

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT

IN

THREE

PARTS

AND

FLORID

AND

IMITATIONAL

COUNTERPOINT

IN

THREE AND

FOUR

PARTS

WITH

EXAMPLES

BY

GEORGE

J.

BENNETT.

MUS. DOC, CANTAB.; F.R.A.M.;F.R.C.O.

ORGANISTANDCHOIRMASTER OF LINCOLNCATHEDRAL;

SOMETIME EXAMINER IN MUSIC AT THE UNIVERSITIES OF CAMBRIDGE. DURHAM, LONDON, ANDMANCHESTER:

EXAMINER ASSOCIATED BOARD, LONDON.

PRICE THREE, SHILLINGS

London:

NOVELL\)

XNJ^qMPANY,

Limited.

New

York:

THE

H. W.

GRA^S&^Sole

Agents for the U.S.A.

(8)
(9)

CONTENTS.

Preface ... ... ... ... ... .„ ... v

CHAPTER

I.

Counterpoint from a melodic point of view ... ... ... 1

CHAPTER

II.

Counterpoint from a harmonic point of view ... ... ... 4

CHAPTER

III.

Passing-notes in the 2nd Species, in Combined Counterpoint ... 13

CHAPTER

IV.

The 2nd and 3rd Species ... ... ... .. ... 23

CHAPTER

V.

The 2nd and4th Species ... ... ... ... ... 37

CHAPTER

VI.

The 3rd and 4th Species ... ... ... ... ,... 46

CHAPTER

VII.

The 5th Species in Combined Counterpoint ... ... ... 54

CHAPTER

VIII.

Florid and Imitational Counterpoint in three and fuur Pari ... 6S

(10)
(11)

PREFACE.

In thevarious existing treatises on Counterpoint the greater part of the

work

is necessarily given

up

to the exposition of

Simple Counterpoint.

As

Combined

and Florid Counterpoint

form

now

such an importantfeature of examination work, it is thought that there

may

be

room

for a book dealing only withthoseparticularbranchesof the subject,

and which

might be usedas supplementary to otherworks.

No

new

theory is

advanced

in these pages,

which

follow mainlythe

same

lines as the

modern works

on Counterpoint

ingeneraluse at the present time.

The

writer has, both in the text

and

in the examples, endeavoured to follow the excellent

recommendations

issued

by

theCouncil ofthe

Union

of Graduates; the only difficulty

beingthat inthe case of

some

Canti

Fermi

inthe minorkey,

it ispracticallyimpossible to observe strictlytherule thatno modulation shall be

made

before the primary key has been

established.

No

attempt is

made

to deal with

Modal

Counterpoint, as foundinthe

works

ofthe composersofthe Polyphonic period,

that subject being, in the writer's opinion, better deferred

until the student has completed a course of Counterpoint founded on ourpresenttonal system.

A

feature of this

book

is the considerable

number

of

worked

exercises, including every possible combination

and

arrangement of the parts in

Common

time, except that the 5thSpeciesistheonly species treatedincombination withitself.

As

to its plan, the first three Chapters deal with preliminary matters,

and

may

not be necessary, wholly or in part, for the student

who

has a natural instinct for choosing the rightharmonies

and

passing-notes.

With

reference to Chapter II., the writer is well

aware

thathelayshimselfopento thechargeofregarding the subject too

much

from

theharmonic pointofview, but he

was

induced

to include this Chapter by observing the feeble

harmony

so often displayed

by

students in their contrapuntal work,

especiallyin theirmisuseof the § chord.

In studying theeffect of the harmonic progressions it is

suggestedthat the pianoforte be freelyused.

As

passing-figures

whether used as

minims

in the 2nd Species, or as crotchets at the second half of the bar in the 3rd

and

5th Species

form such an important feature of

(12)

VI PREFACE.

on thissubject

may

not be considered superfluous. It

seems

convenient to divide passing-notes in the 2nd Species into

two

classes:

the workable

and

the less workable ones, as,

in choosing

them

indiscriminately, the student is liable to

hamper

his

work by

takingsuch passing-notes as theascending and descending Ninth,

and

the descending Fourth,

which

present greatdifficultyin the addition ofother

moving

parts.

In the Chapter on Florid Counterpoint (Chapter VIII. Sections i and 8) attention is directed to the bad effect

often producedby employing

two

quavers immediately before or afteracrotchet that is dissonantwith the

Canto

Fermo

at

themiddle of thebar.

The

danger of ill-considered dissonances at the last part

of the bar, especially

when

the

Canto

Fermo

moves

a3rd

up

or down,isalso dealtwithinSections2and10ofthe

same

Chapter.

The

following are generalobservances inthis

book

:

(i.)

No

restriction as to change of

harmony

within the

bar, especiallywitha

moving

Bass,

(ii.)

A

moderate

amount

of modulation allowed afterthe

primary key has beenestablished,

(iii.)

Free

useofthepreparedj? and £ in any combination

withthe 4th or 5th Species.

Cherubini mentions this only in combining the 2nd

and

4th Species. Othertheoristsgo

somewhat

further,

and

a natural developmentof the idea

seems

tobe to allow the useof these discords

whenever

theycan beproperlyprepared

and

resolved.

Against a

Canto

Fermo

in semibreves there is not often occasion touse the uninvertedchord of thepreparedSeventh.

(iv.) Occasional use of a syncopated

minim

in the 5th

Species againstanother

moving

part.

The

fact that the syncopated

minim

isto be found inthe

strictest Counterpoint of Palestrina

seems

to justify its use.

English composers of about the

same

period, notably Dering,

also sometimes

made

useof it.

Strict Counterpoint is indeed a thornysubject. Although

the

memorandum

issued

by

the Council of the

Union

of Graduates has done

much

towards standardizingit, teachers stilldiffer considerably on mattersof detail asto

what

is

and

is not permissible;

and

it is hardly likely that the

worked

exercises in this

book

will pass unscathed the ordeal of the

critic'seye.

Bearing in

mind

this divergence of views, a tentative linehas beenfollowed on

some

mattersin thetext.

It is desirable that the student be stimulatedto

make

his

(13)

PREFACE. Vll

harshnesses arising

from

the

moving

parts and crudities of

harmony

as

would

be considered bad in any Composition

ofacontrapuntal nature.

With

regard to the proper attitude of thestudenttowards well-establishedrules,a wise

remark

bythelateSir

John Goss

to his pupil Sir Frederick Bridge,

which

the writer is

permitted to quote,

seems

to be very apposite

" I

am

in

favour of your occasionally breaking arule,

when

you

know

how

to observe it."

The

writer expresses his thanks to Sir

Walter

Parratt

and

Professor

J. C. Bridge, Professorsof

Music

atthe Universities

of Oxford*

and

Durham

respectively, andtothe Senateofthe University of London, for permission to print certain Canti

Fermi

from the

Mus.

B. examination papers at those

Universities.

The

ideaof this

book

was

originally

prompted

bythedesire to provide

some

help to students preparing for the

examina-tions of the Royal College of Organists, and the writer wishes especially to thank the Council of that institution

(Hon. Secretary, Dr.

H.

A. Harding) forpermitting

him

to

print a considerable

number

of Canti

Fermi

from their

examination papers.

Two

of the exercises are included by the courtesy of

Dr. C.

W.

Pearce, the writer observing, after this book

was

finished, that a working of

them

had alreadyappeared in his "

Modern Academic

Counterpoint."

The

Canti

Fermi

in exercises Nos. 24, 25, 31, 33, 43, and 49, by

Theodore

Dubois, are from his "Traite de

Counter-point et de Fugue,"

and

are printed by permission of

Messrs.

Heugel

&

Co.,

Au

Menestrel, 2 bis

Rue

Vivienne,

Paris,publishers

and

ownersofthe copyright forall countries.

This work, with its erudite and comprehensive treatment of

Fugue, is without doubt the

most

important contribution to that subject that hasappeared for

many

years,

and

should be

ofgreat value to

advanced

students.

The

writer's

warmest

thanks are due to Sir Frederick Bridge for advice freelygiven on various important matters,

hisunique

knowledge

and experience inthis subject rendering

hisopinion particularly authoritative.

The

writeralsoexpresseshisthanksto SirC.

Hubert

Parry and Mr. Charles

Macpherson

for several suggestionswhich he hasacted upon.

(14)
(15)

CHAPTER

I.

COUNTERPOINT

FROM

A

MELODIC

POINT

OF

VIEW.

The

cardinal feature ofcontrapuntal writingisthateachvoice or instrument shall have a good melodic part. This is not always possible with parts proceeding in semibreves, but in

Combined

Counterpoint in three or fourparts,

where

allexcept the

Canto

Fermo

consist of

moving

parts, the melodic characterofeach of

them

should be insisted upon.

A

part

may

be unmelodic through there being a frequent harpingon the

same

notes within a too limited

compass

; or,

on the other hand, the

movement

may

be too strident or

disjointed,extendingtothe extreme limit ofanoctave or

more

in the course of every

few

bars. In either case the part

fails

from

lackof definiteaim,

and from

being voidof climax.

The

3rd Species, with its continuous crotchet

movement,

isparticularly liable to fall short in eitheroneorotherofthese

respects,

and

is, perhaps, the

most

difficult species to write

really well.

The

melodic form of both

Canto

Fermo

and

the accom-panyingcounterpoints can be ofvarious forms.

There

is the Canto

Fermo

which

commences

on a rather high note,

and

finishes an octave lower.

The

highest point

will then generally be felt tobe inthe first

two

or three bars,

andthe remainder will take the formofa gradualdiminuendo.

But

the majorityof Canti Fermi,

commencing

on a low or

medium

note, gradually ascend until they reach

some

culminating point; usually at the 6th or 8th above, and then recedeagaintowardsthenoteon

which

they started. This is

the typeofmelodicpartto

which

the following remarks

more

particularlyapply.

The

form

ofa melodic part

may

be said tobe ofthe nature

ofaseries of curves.

The

curves ofawell-written part will

varyin shape,withouttoo

many

of small dimensions.

As

the

melody

proceeds the curves

may

gradually increaseinheight,

the higheronesalternatingwith lowerones,sothatthe climax

may

not bearrivedat too suddenly.

But

whatever

form

the melodic parttakes, no

two

curveswill be exactlyalike.

(16)

2

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

For

instance, if a melodic part

commencing

on F, rises

gradually to

D

and then falls, next time it rises the highest note

especiallyifon the

same

partof thebar as before

will

probably beeither higherorlower than

D.

Sequential

movement,

not necessarily exact, is useful in

leading to a climax.

Observe

its use in both stanzasof our National

Anthem,

and the culminating note in the last

bar but one, the effect of

which

is intensified by this note appearingonly once inthe course ofthemelody.

A

repeated return to the

same

extreme high note should be avoided, particularly onthe

same

partofthebar.

Melodies of every description have been written on the

principle of the culminating high note, already referred to

inthe case of the National

Anthem.

For

instance: "

On

the

banks of Allan Water," "

The

British Grenadiers," "

The

Lincolnshire Poacher," Schubert's Serenade, the Toreador's

Song from

"Carmen"

(both parts),Clay's" I'llsingthee songs

of Araby," Elgar's "

Land

of hope and glory," the Austrian National

Anthem,

andthe

hymn-tunes

the

"Old

Hundredth,"

"

Dundee,"

"

Melcombe,"

"WinchesterOld," &c.

This is also the case in connection with larger works,

to mention only such well-known

examples

as the opening

theme

from the slow

movement

of Beethoven's

D

major,

C

minor,

and

Choral Symphonies,

and

the

themes

generallyin

Tschaikowsky'sPathetic

Symphony.

In the

works

of the early English

Church

composersthere are occasionallystriking effectsobtained

by

reservingan upper note intheTreble for a particular passage towards the end of

the

movement.

Several such instances are to be found in

Byrd'sServicein

D

minor. See,forexample, inthe

Te Deum,

the fine effect ofthe Treble part at the

words

"

Govern them

and

lift

them up

for ever.

Day

by

day

we

magnify Thee,"

and

a similar passage near the end of the Gloria in the

Nunc

Dimittis.

Our

public singers

know

too well the value of the culminatinghigh note.

In theabove cases the climaxis generallytowardsthe end

of the melody; this particular position is, however, not

essential inacontrapuntalpart.

It is not suggested that this is the only possible type of

melody,butit isprobablythe

most

usefuloneforthe studentto follow, andthe exercises in thisbook are writtenon that plan.

When,

asisdesirable, each part inacounterpoint exercise has its climax, these climaxes will, on account of the

inde-pendent

movement

of the parts, occur at different points,

(17)

COUNTERPOINT

FROM

A

MELODIC

POINT OF VIEW. 3

It is important that each vocal part should, as far

as the exigencies of the particular species permit, be

really singable. Whilst imagining the effect of the parts sounding together as he writes the exercise bar by bar, the student

must

acquire the habit of constantly testing the melodic effect of each separate part, viewed as a whole, after

any

additiontoithasbeenmade.

Without

particularattention

to this onthe part ofthe student,his Counterpoint will never be ofa high order.

If, as is unfortunately sometimes thecase, he has onlyan

indistinct idea of the sounds that he writes, it is advisable

to take

some

special

means

to improve this, such as a course

in ear-training. In the meantime, frequent use of the pianoforteduringthewriting ofthe exercisesis

recommended,

inorderto testtheeffectof

what

has beenwritten, and to see whether itsounds as

w

ras expected. Thisshould,ofcourse, be

regardedas a temporary measure, to be gradually and at last

entirely dispensed

w

r

ith,as in the case of theuse of artificial

(18)

CHAPTER

II.

COUNTERPOINT

FROM

A

HARMONIC

POINT

OF

VIEW.

In Counterpoint, although the

most

important consideration should be the melodicflowof the individual parts, it is also

desirable that it be constructed on a satisfactory harmonic

basis. Melodious flowing parts will

make

some

harmonic progressions tolerable

which would

sound bad if the parts

moved

note against note, but will not justify a succession of ill-chosen

and

crude progressions ofharmony.

The

firmness of the § chord permits of almost absolute

freedom of

movement

in the Bass. This is not always the casewith the

fj,

and

injudicious use of this chord is often the

cause of

weak

harmony.

A

^ willnever sound amiss with the

Bass

next

moving by

2nd, but on certaindegrees ofthe scale

notably on the Tonic or Dominant,

and

to a less extent on the Supevtonic

it can

sound very unsatisfactory if followed by certain leaps in

the Bass.

The

followingremarks have reference to the use of the §.

The

examples inthis

and

inthefollowing Chapter are written

in fourparts,asbeing the clearest

means

of representing the harmonic basis on

which

the

moving

Counterpoints

may

be constructed, whether inthree or in any

number

of parts.

1.

A

| on the Tonic or Dominant sounds

weak when

the

Bass

nextrises a4th orfallsa5th:

%

* Weak. Weak.

:q:

&

(19)

COUNTERPOINT FROM

A

HARMONIC

POINT OF VIEW. 5

2.

A

§ on the Tonic orDominantalso sounds

weak

when

the

Bass

nextrisesa3rd to a % chord:

i

Weak. Weak. :o:

§=£

:S:

^

'-EL

With

either of the above

movements

in the

Bass

it is

recommended

that a § be taken on the

Tonic

or

Dominant.

But

with

any

other

movement

of the

Bass

a ^ should be

occasionallyused asa

means

of varying the

harmony,

and of

avoiding excessive useof theTonic and

Dominant

harmonies.

It isparticularly effective

when

the

Bass

nextrisesor falls

a 2nd, as inthe following examples:

I

Allgood.

-o

ur

&

K—T^

3.

On

the TonicorDominant,

when

the

Bass

next risesa

5th,orfallsa4th,a § should be nearly alwaystaken.

For

occasional use, however, a § will not sound amiss if

the 6th is approached and quitted by

2nd

upwards, as in the following examples:

(20)

W^-COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

4.

A

§ on theSupertonic sounds

weak when

the

Bass

next rises a 4th orfalls a 5th.

With

this

movement

of the

Bass

a% should be taken onthe Supertonic:

i

Weak. <9-Strong.

W^-

&z

-Q-

St

5.

On

the Submediant

some

students

seem

to

make

apractice

of always employing a §.

Such

excessive use of this chord

isunwise, as astrongereffect is

more

often thannot produced by employing a § on the Submediant, especiallywith aleaping

Bass.

The

§ on theotherdegreesof themajor scale presents no

particulardifficulty as regards the

movement

of the Bass, or as regards harmonic progression.

The

foregoingremarks on chord-progression

may

be taken

to apply generally, whether the

Canto

Fermo

is in the

Bass

or in an upper part.

At

the

same

time it

must

be borne in

mind

that with a

moving

Counterpoint in the Bass, the placing together of the opening chords of

two

successive bars does not necessarily

show

the harmonic progression between the bars.

The

progression

may

bestrengthened, oreven entirely changed,

by

the

moving

Bass.

For

instance,the following

example

at (a) consists of the § on the Tonic, with the

Bass

rising a 4th,

which

is described on page 4 as weak.

With

the addition of a

moving Bass

at

(b)

and

(c) it

becomes

quite strong, the harmonicprogression between the barsbeingas at (d):

P

(a)Weak. zz: {b)Good

&

(c)Good. (d)

IS

£

W

" =£21 -"g:

DZQI

6

(21)

COUNTERPOINT

FROM

A

HARMONIC

POINT OF VIEW. J

Similarly,the

weak

progression of a § on the Tonic with the

Bass

rising a 3rd at [e) is strengthened at (/)

by

the

addition of the root in the

Bass

at the middle of the bar,

and by

the tied note in the inner part; whilst at (g) will

be recognized a familiar

and

effective dissonance, properly

resolved.

Both

oftheseexamples are perfectlysatisfactory.

{e)Weak. (/)Good. {g)Good.

r

i-»

m-

2±z:

5)

A

weak

harmonic progression also sometimes sounds less

objectionable, orevenwell,

when

oneofthe partsissyncopated.

With

the 4th Species in the Bass, both of the examples on page 4 admitofpossible use.

The

above examples(a)to (g) all havereferenceto thej|on

theTonic.

The

progressions

from

the % on the Dominant

and

Supertonic, described as

weak

on pages 4-6, are not likely tosound welleven with a

moving Bass

inshorternotes.

A

progression

which

should be particularlyavoided is the

jj on the

Dominant

followed

by

the ^ on the Subdominant,

introducing the Falserelationof the Tritone:

I

Mi

8-Composersof the Polyphonic period certainly made free use of this

progression. So characteristic is it of earlyChurch music that modern

composersemployitasameans ofimpartingecclesiasticalatmosphereto

their vocal writing.

But in such examplesof itsuse, ancient ormodern, it will be found

that the parts move entirely, or almost entirely, note-against-note. Its

use is inexpedient in contrapuntal writing against a Canto Fermo of semibreves.

(22)

8

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

It is therefore necessary

when

the

Canto

Fermo

in the

Bass

descends

from

the

Dominant

to the

Subdominant

to

take a § on eitherone, oron bothof these notes:

:g: 122:

s

—T3 -jQ. -Sr -&L :g= C.F.

Care

should also be taken to avoid the above progression

when

the

Canto

Fermo

is in an upper part, and especially

when

it risesfromthe

Dominant

to the

Submediant

:

As

this

movement

of the

Canto

Fermo

in an upper part often leadsto clumsyharmonization, it

may

bewell to give it

some

consideration.

The

principal matterto decide is whetheror notto use the

Dominant harmony

forthe first note. Ifthe

Dominant

| is

used, the next chord progression is limited to one of the following:

C.F.

w^

jGl.

u=£-tt—

Or, if the first inversion of the

Dominant

harmony

is

employed

:

C.F.

m

Rare.

23

^B^fl

6

(23)

COUNTERPOINT FROM

A

HARMONIC

POINT OF VIEW. 9

With

the

Canto

Fermo

in an inner part, in addition to the above, the following chord progression is alsoavailable:

C.F.

W

C.F.

But

(with the Canto

Fermo

in an inner part) there is an

increaseddanger of consecutive 5ths:

C.F.

m

From

the foregoing remarksit will be seen thattheuse of

the

Dominant

harmony

withthis

movement

of the

Canto

Fermo

may

present difficulty, on account of the limited choice of

chord-progressions.

The

easiercourse is to take theTonic

harmony

instead,but

it

would

be idle to imagine that the difficultycan be always avoided in that way, as there

may

be as likely as not

some

good reason for employing the

Dominant

harmony, such as:

(i.)

To

help establish thekey; (ii.)

To

avoida preponderance

of Tonic

harmony

; or (iii.)

On

account of

what

immediately precedesor followsit.

In such case, the harmonic limitations already referred to

should be borne in mind,

and

particularcare taken with the

movement

of the

Bass

inthe next bar or two.

(24)

10

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

Whilst a Counterpoint exercise should be constructed

largely on the stronger harmonies of the key, a certain

infusion of secondary chords is desirable, if only to avoid monotony.

It is, for instance, decidedly

weak

always to use the

Subdominant

and Tonic harmonies,

when

the

Canto

Fermo

in an upper part proceeds in either of the following ways,

in the key of

C

:

This is a case

where

with either one or both notes a secondary

harmony

might wellbe employed.

The

following are

ways

in

which

the first of the above progressions of the Canto

Fermo

can be harmonized :

-Q-_o__

3E

It may, however, be well to draw attention to the danger of con-secutive 5ths between the Submediant and Dominant chords, if either of theaboveprogressionsbe used immediatelybeforethecadence.

WithamovingBasstheseconsecutive5thscancertainlybe avoided by employingtwochordsinabar, asinthe followingexamples. Otherwise, with this movementof theCanto Fermo, itis impossible(apart from a conceivable instance with a syncopated Bass) to take the Submediant

chord immediatelybefore thecadence.

(25)

COUNTERPOINT FROM

A

HARMONIC

POINT OF VIEW. I I

THE

MINOR

KEY.

The

remarks on the use of the $ (pages 4

7)

may

be

also applied to a certainextentto theminorkey, basedon the harmonicscale.

The

complete § on the Dominant, being dissonant, is

unavailable, but in three-part writing an incomplete § is

possible.

With

the

Canto

Fermo

in the

Bass

its use is

practically limited to

when

the

Bass

next

moves by

2nd

up

or down. It is

somewhat

less restricted with a

moving

Bass.

1

When

the Supertonic is followed

by

the Dominant in the Bass, a § on the Supertonic sounds weak, as in the major

key.

The

dissonant i] on the Supertonic being unavailable,

it is generallybest,with this

movement

in the Bass, to take an incomplete §:

W^:

fr° I tt

g

-

-O-^

-te

tt«

The

minor 7thof the key

may

be used as the

Bass

of a

6 chord, provided that it be approached and quitted by

2nd

downwards

:

(26)

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

Ifintroduced asan essential noteofthe chord in an uppei

part, the minor 7th of the key induces a certain vagueness

of tonality,

and

may

even soundlike an unsuccessful attempt

at a modulation tothekey ofthe relativemajor.

For

this reason it should not be often used as an

essential noteinan upper part,

and

when

used it is advisable

to introduce the

Dominant

harmony, with the proper leading

note, in the course of the next

two

or three bars, as in the following examples.

By

this

means any

vaguenessoftonality

isarrested.

The

minor7th should, as in the Bass, be approached and quittedby 2nd

downwards

:

It isalso possible touse theascendingmajor 6th of the minor key as

anessentialnote of thechord,providedthatit beapproachedand quitted

by 2nd, generally upwards. It, however, presents great difficulty with

moving parts, and can seldom be profitably used. The student is

recommendednottouseitinCombinedCounterpoint,withthe exception ofthe 5-6ontheSupertonicinthe2ndSpecies,whichisparticularly useful

ata cadence.

The

selection ofchordsintheminor keybeing ratherlimited,

when

theCanto

Fermo

admitsofit, a transition tothe key of

the relative major is generally effective

and

to be recom-mended, but the primary key should be first established.

(27)

CHAPTER

III.

PASSING-NOTES

IN

THE

2nd SPECIES, IN

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

In

Combined

Counterpoint the 2nd Species requires care as to the passing-notes employed. If that part has an

ill-chosen passing-note it

may

clash against the other parts and produce a dissonance at the last part of the bar

which

doesnot admitof satisfactory resolution.

The

following examples are faulty in that respect, the cause being the use of unworkable passing-notes in the 2nd Species part:

4

9

zz

m-TT

Note

the ugly progression between the bars in each example:

m=m

Albrechtsberger and Cherubini avoided this difficulty by

practicallydiscarding the useofpassing-notesinthe2ndSpecies part in the

few

examples of

Combined

Counterpoint to be found in their treatises.

By

so doing oneofthe most salient

featuresofthe 2nd Species islost, andthe part is reduced toa

more

or less inelegant seriesof leaps in every bar.

The

better plan

seems

to be to

make

a selection of those passing-notes

which

are

most

adaptable to the addition of other

moving

parts, excluding thelessworkableones.

(28)

M

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

In an upper part the workable passing-figures are at the following intervalsabovethe

Bass

:

8-7, 6-5, 5-6,

and

3-4.

In the

Bass

the following can be taken in their inverted

form

:

8-7, 3-4.

THE

PASSING

8-7.

The

Bass Rising

a 4/th,

or Falling

a 5TH.

The

following

examples

show

the various degreesof the

scales of

C

major

and

C

minor on

which

the 8-7can be taken.

The

most

effectiveuseofthe 8-7 is with this

movement

of

the Bass.

The

progression

marked

(a) can only be taken if the 5th,

being dissonant, is omitted:

T

P O

-**-r>

_

/ rj

n

n

1 ' 1

^

1 1

a

1 | l 1 iffl f°" "<T3 ' 1 \Sy 1 ' ' 1 J *y ' 1 -e- -Q_

Mf

<Z> f-j l("J. rj ""w^

O

—Q. ^

, (*) T-P-0-,

Jf L'u f?

n

"P

r3-

te~

T~ri

Im'F p 1 r^ r> H 1 1 Vf ' ! 1 1 • eWt* bi Q. . ra (gja.fr ,.

^y

fr

"

* tt

The

Bass Rising

a 2nd.

This progression is not of great use except with the

Dominant

in the

Bass

:

$

m

m

^~

o

iijg

(29)

THE

PASSING 6-5. 15

THE

PASSING

6-5.

The

Bass Rising

a 2nd.

The

6-5 is a very useful passing-figure. Resolved on the

interval of the3rd, that interval can form partof either a §

or

I chord, but a % is

recommended

as generally best. It

is figured 6 in the following examples

where

the £, being

dissonant,cannot be taken.

The

following remarksrefer to examples in theminor key

at the topofthenext page :

(i.)

The

6-5 on the Supertonic with the upper notesof the

ascending melodicscale

moving

downwards(seea) soundscrude.

It is generally better to take the descending

form

of the melodic scale, even if it

makes

a transition tothe keyof the

relative major, as inthe following

example

:

£

Ss

BE

(ii.)

On

the

Dominant

(see b), the complete § being dissonant, the 3rd

from

the

Bass must

be omitted.

:o_ -g>

trt- f^

Q

t=t

=P==^=

w

(6)

rP—^-En

i 1

-p-

*3 1—

-j

T-&-&-

_q_:

/L 1 1

n

lm t 1 1 ! VU ' F •7

«

-&-/~y <*3 (w.

|pS

>~

^l

Si

B=

&6

(30)

16 («)

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

\£^^Z

f* rr>

p

<>-

^ Q

"1

1

ja._i] •oi)\ * -<s>-

Ll_|J

-H--^

O

' -

H

1

O

| 1 1 1 C»5

The

Bass Falling

a 3RD.

This treatment of the 6-5 can be taken on

any

degree

of the major or minor scale, but it is hardly a strong progression on account of the similarmotion in 6ths:

m=^

THE

PASSING

5-6-The

Bass

Falling

a 2nd.

The

5-6,

which

might almost be termed the Palestrina

passing-figure,

by

the very important part it plays in that

composer's Counterpoint, is perhaps the most useful and

effective of all passing-figures.

At (a)the raised6th of the minor key

must

be approached

by

2nd, generally from below. This progression is usefulat a cadence:

(«)

Pllll

T2\

ii

fctMf

oq

is

(31)

THE

PASSING 5-6. 17

The

Bass Risixg

a 5TH,

or Falling

a 4.TH.

^^

-I

i-g

H-g

22=:::p

il=ei

22: 30r6

fat;

J=tte£5lE

.<=: zpz:

~^:

The

Bass Rising

a 2\d.

This treatment of the 5-6 can be taken on nearly every degree of the major scale, and on

some

degrees of the minor

scale, but it is hardly a strong progression, on account of the

similar motion in 6ths:

j3i

(32)

i8

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

THE

PASSING

3-4.

The

Bass Falling

a 2nd.

The

3-4 sounds wellwhetherthe3rd

form

part of a § or

ofa § chord. It is only figured 6 in the following examples

where

the 5th, beingdissonant, cannot be taken.

The

example

at (a) has the minor 7th of the

minor

key

in the Bass. This

must

be approached

downwards from

the Tonic

Bass

:

Sat

zx

(6)

^ggj^

Wp.

^£$E=L

6 6 6 t}6 6 6 t|6 -&-\>

Hi

_

o—

T rj

"^

T

{jp'WJ^

"1

'

q=t-

u

(?):. \>

Q

t '

' ~

-&—

1-0 Q~-r*

9

n

^4

6 A 6 6 8 6 6 6

A

passing 3-4 is not

recommended

with

any

other

(33)

PASSING-NOTES IN

THE

BASS. 19

PASSING-NOTES

IN

THE

BASS.

The

Inverted

8-7.

A

passing 8-7 in the

Bass

can be taken on any degree

of the

major

or minor scale, except

where

there is adissonant

triad.

The

following

examples

are intended to

show

thevarious

movements

of the

Canto

Fermo

in an upper part

which

admit of a passing 7th

from

the Dominant being taken in

the Bass.

These

examples might betransferred to the other available degrees of the scale.

Here

and

there a progression

would

prove impossibleon accountofthe

movement

of an

augmented

interval, ora doubling of the leading-note :

Possible.

TZT-

JCL-E

ft

1-w

T^=^

-Q-s]

^-

4l P* cj

rz

^^&

"E^

.or::

-£2_ ,

O

m

^

p

1 :a:

P o

I

7?~5

~

It isalso possible oncertaindegreesof the scale toresolve a passing 8-7in the

Bass

on a § chord. This progression is

of far lessimportance thanthe resolutionon a \ :

#

a

1 1

®

n

$—

a—

e

1l

&

1 u

&

rs-

<-@J_J

1 -A 1

£L_.

(34)

20

combined

counterpoint.

The

Inverted

3-4.

When

the

Canto

Fermo

in an upper part falls a 2nd, a passing 3-4 can be introduced in the Bass,

by

taking the

interval of the 6thbelow thefirstnote of the Canto

Fermo.

It should nearly always resolve on a § chord.

Only

the

most

likely

Bass

notes are included in the following examples:

-m

W:

rZ2T.

3BEE

tfcr: ^9-TT

O^

T

—Q

f t-O ^j-£*-7

^

O n

-O-Q

(

W

p rz>

^

I >-T» h I _. ?.fej

L 6

6

6

-

t

Occasionally the passing 3-4 istaken at the interval of an 8ve below the

Canto

Fermo,

as in the following examples.

The

6th from the

Bass

will then be represented in the other upper part.

Attention is

drawn

to the 7th on the

Dominant

at the second partof thebar:

\J VL> <-J

J

* 'TaV 1-2 tJ [W« C> ! \J> 1 -&—**--fr-jvF 6

The

studentis

recommended

not to take a passing 3-4 in

the

Bass

when

the Canto

Fermo

proceeds

by

leap, as in the followingexample.

The

effect iscertain to be bad withother

moving

parts added :

I

m

XX.

(35)

THE

AUXILIARY NOTE. 21

Theobservantstudentwillhavenoticedinthe course of this Chapter

thatthemosteffectivepassing-notes aretakenagainstthe movement of a 2nd, 4th, or 5th in the Canto Pernio. In Combined Counterpoint it is

not often that a workable minim passing-note can be taken when the

Canto Fermo moves a 3rd, up ordown, whether in the Bass or in an upperpart.

Itremains to be said that theonly other possible passing-notes (i.e., real Passing-notes as distinguished

from

Auxiliary

notes) not dealtwith inthis Chapter are:

(i.)

The

Ascending and

Descending

gth in an upper

part, and inthe

Bass

;

(ii.)

The

Descending4th inan upper part.

These

are the less workable passing-notes referred to on page 13, and their indiscriminate use in a 2nd Species part

in

Combined

Counterpoint is the cause of

much

ill-sounding

Counterpoint.

So

seldom can they be used with

good

effect, that the student is advised to shun them,

and

confine his

minim

passing-notes to those

more

workable ones

recommended

on page 14.

THE

AUXILIARY

NOTE.

The

Auxiliary noteis of less musicalvaluein a 2nd Species part than the true Passing-note. It is occasionally useful in

thecombination ofthe 2nd and3rd Species.

In the progressions 5-6

and

6-5 the second

minim

is

sometimes treated after the

manner

of an Auxiliary note.

If this produces the effect of a change of harmony, it is,

of course, not really an Auxiliarynote.

-9

^r

^, 1—

&—

rj

-&

rT

-o-

<T2 ~~

e

n

A-

-^

-i

n

r>

r

r^t

1 1 -1

1

*B

I i

' 1 iJ (W\«

(w« CJ vi^ 5 6

(36)

COMBINED COUNTERPOINT.

When

the 6-5 is

employed

in this

way

on the Tonic or Dominant, with the

Bass

next rising a 4th or falling a 5th,

the second

minim

has undoubtedly theeffectof establishing a

3 chord. Thisis auseful progression,ifapproached smoothly

inthe

minim

part:

-7

1

n

<"->

«

/.

w—

^—

&- _o

1 !

2F

] -&-M\m rj (<*j. NJ>

O

O

A

minim

that is dissonant with the Canto

Fermo

should, generally speaking, notbetreatedas an Auxiliarynote, as the

effect is likely to be harsh with another

moving

part added.

The

following, however, admitsof possible use.

A

7th on the

Dominant,

or a Diminished 7th on the Leading-note of the minor key, can beintroduced

by means

of an Auxiliary note in the Bass. It is essential that the Canto

Fermo

intheTreble or inner partfall a2nd, inorder to

resolve the dissonance :

\J

yu~

,

^O

-U <raV

P

fj (W• \^s 1 |_ '

m

(37)

-3

CHAPTER

IV.

THE

2nd

AND

3rd SPECIES.

[This Chapter and the following Chapters are divided into

numbered sections.]

i.

In

Combined

Counterpoint a 2nd Species part should not be overloaded with passing-notes. Generally speaking,

it is advisable to have a fewer

number

than in Simple Counterpoint.

When

combining the 2nd and 3rd Species it is possible

to plan out first the 2nd Species part, or

some

portion of it,

and then addtheotherpart.

This

method

may

generally

work

verywell, except that if

the 3rd Species part is in the Bass, that part cannot be left

entirely until last.

A

preliminary plan might be

made

as

in the following example, the bass part being completed afterwards.

Such

plan

must

be considered of a tentative

nature:

ziz

C.F.

S^i

2.

In

Combined

Counterpoint of whatever kind, it is

advisable to give particular consideration to the middle of

the bar. Incombining

minims and

crotchetsthese

two

parts should there be generally consonant with one another; an

occasional dissonance is then

welcome and

effective.

When

these parts together

form

a dissonance at the middle of the bar, the part in crotchets should approach it

by 2nd.

Such

dissonance shouldgenerally be approached in

(38)

=4

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

however, sometimes be taken without ill-effect, if one of the

moving

parts is inthe Bass, asat (c) and (d):

(a) (&) ( (c) (d)

-O

J

n i 1 .

n

|

An

exceptionalcaseis

when

thecrotchet part has changing

notes.

The

two moving

parts

may

thenapproachadissonance

at themiddle of the bar by skip in both parts,

and

in similar

motion:

tH

-1-47

^

h-

¥-*—-

'-3

°^-»

-1

-

•: /„\. fj.^_ ((*;. P***—

| * '***» # # v>

' 1

—&

14_J

|

|_JJ

[In the examples the Canto

Fermo

is ahvays represented by

the pavt that has a semibreve or semibreves. It is not considered necessarytoindicateit.)

3.

Although the stronger effect is generally obtained by retaining the

same

harmony

throughout the bar, it is

permissible occasionally to change it.

When,

as is usually the case, thischange of

harmony

occurs at the third crotchet

of the bar, an accented passing-note can sometimes be

effectively introducedatthatpoint in the crotchet part, as in

the following examples:

-+

+

j—

r--t—

:o:

T~

:^

' 5 ' 5 5 3 3 2

There isnoeffectof consecutive 8vesand 5thsbetweentheTenor and

Bassinthefirstof theaboveexamples,as these intervalsdo not occur in successive chords. This applies to all similar cases where there is a

change of harmony withinthe bar. (See, forinstance,ExercisesNo. 7,*

bars 6

7; No. 11, bars8

9; and No. 12, bars4

5.)

*ThenumberedExercises referredtohereandelsewherewillbefound

(39)

THE 2ND AND 3RD

SPECIES. 25

4.

The

bare 4th between the upper parts of a § chord

at the middle of the bar sounds thin. It is particularly

objectionable

when

approached by similar motion, as in the following

example

at (a). If approached in contrary motion, and with the crotchet part

moving

by

2nd as at (b), the progression is quitetolerable.

The

bareness of the 4th is not felt

when

the 3rd of the chord is in the Bass, particularly if approached in contrary motion, as at (c) :

(a> Bad.

I

(b) Better. (c) Good.

¥

T-d-

Jl • 4.

^z=*

m

5.

The

conventional

Changing

note figure,consistingof

a

turn round a central note, should be sparingly used. It is

sometimes useful at a cadence, or to fall back on in case of

difficulty:

-

m

W

a

»g

^^

=F

*

r=

?***H^

=f

It is

recommended

that the last note of a

Changing

note

figure be quittedby 2nd, as indicated in the above examples.

Such

skips as the following are ugly:

fS^

-*^

"*<5>

O

<S> 1 \

q

U tfaY p

f

p^

v£l-1 1

^

:

6.

There

is another and

more

ancient typeof

Changing

note

theNota Cambiata

as adopted by

Fux

fromthe

works

of the early composers ;

employed

also by Albrechtsberger

but rejectedby Cherubini.

G. J. Bennett

Combined Counterpoint

Novello

C

(40)

26

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

The

Nota Cambiata has undoubtedly

more

melodic interest

than the conventionalturn,

and

although the aforesaidtheorists

made

use of it in

a

way

which would

be hardly accepted in

these days, it

seems

possible occasionally to introduce it over

a

§ chord withoutoffence.

The

following are suggested

ways

for its treatment (see alsoExercise5,bar 8; and, with the 4th Species, Exercises29,

bar 5;

and

31, bar4):

i

ro:

J--4: -QT ZZZ1

-?-+

m

1

f-r

:cz:

H

} 1 ~t>

1 T~~ , ' (i

^—

ra

^Q^S^Z?

\i o> j

'iff

^

i 1

-g—

*

*

1 Tt>

rl rj

X

£5

&

r-J

Vf»-^

+—

::

ThisChangingnote figure differs from the conventional turn in that thefirstthree notes areallconsonant withtheCanto Fermo. Againstan

y

objectiontoitsuseonaccountofacertainambiguityof harmony, it may

beurgedthatthisseemstobe acase where the harmonic point of view shouldgiveway,onaccountof the excellentmelodiceffect.

7.

The

following examples

show some ways

in

which

the 2nd

and

3rd Species can be combined, the passing-notes

in the2ndSpecies part being limited to those workable ones

recommended

in Chapter III.

Many

of these

and

of the subsequent examples are also

available intheminor key:

i

rTf

&-.

£3

:ii£2i

:ri:

(41)

-«LJ_J_-THE 2ND

AND

3RD

SPECIES. 27 n l | 1 i 1

fk

<^» id

'"J #

<S>

-J-J-

t^H-•> I W -+--

m

- -o- 1 I i r -&- I I -8-<kV <r> (Wj ,-2 rj rj 6 5 r> 1 6 6 I 5 1 6 5

7T

J

J

(O

o

?-3 1 1

&-*-'

m

*

«

f

m

r-j

-i

A

«> *y

P

e> -Q- i 1 i 1

r~

i

r

r

-fr£\'

^

r> [(•/• N

o

6 5 6 5 6 5 | 6 !

y

#

-r

J 1 ' 1 T rj

o

rj r) J * m t i | \J S m m 4 «

-J

A

-G>- I l

P

1 i

r

r

°^

(<-£•• rj (

W

• --, TJ> 5 6 (8-" inBass.) j? ;> -<> 5 1 "# " | 6 r-S 3 (3-4 in 4 Bass.)

^

r -f-r

1 ri> -0-r> -Gh- *-1 1 1

O

iWi•

°

*"-> r-> 13 ((*;. i i ;

^

^

g - ' ' - I

In thelasttwoexamplesit maybe observed that the partshappen to

formapassing chord at the second half of the bar. This isfrequently thecasewithamovingBass.

8.

When

the Canto

Fermo

in an upper part descends a 2nd

between

certain degrees of the scale, a fundamental discord can be effectively introduced at the last part of

(42)

28

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

Observe

how

the dissonanceis both prepared andresolved

in the

Canto

Fermo

:

Dom. 7th. Dom. 7th.

Dom.

gth.

J

J

J-jn

H

U

-Hn

1

4rr>

~

:o #

<~j £>

-s»—

|

tr

"

m-r

r

1 L-G> 1

~j° r>

~&

1 r—<S> -?j

r-^

Added6th.

—a

k

|

m

-Dim. 7th. 1 Dim,7th.

X

w\

\

m f

r

-0

~~|

'

1

\~ rm"P J 1 rj IsU

1 J m *

S

rv -O-

Ar-j-&

Q

1 1 T-1

L-L-i-

r n

Wj>-1 i

M—

H \ ...O

-*

'

*V~

_

£-»

g.

Effective usecan be

made

of scale-passages

moving

in

opposite directions.

In the

two

firstexamples the parts

meet

in the middle of

the barat theinterval of an 8ve.

In thelast

example

they

meet

at the interval ofagth, the contrarymotion toand

from

the dissonance

making

the effect satisfactory.

The

harmony

may

be regardedaschangingatthe middleofthebar, withan accentedpassing-noteintheBass:

-J

J

J

, r>

6—5

10.

Sequential

movement

isof valuein this combination.

It can oftenbe introducedwithgood effect

when

a progression

of

two

notes in the

Canto

Fermo

is repeated a 2nd or 3rd higheror lower.

Repetition at the interval of a 3rd is perhaps the

most

useful, and examples

may

be found in Exercises2, bars5

g;

3,bars 4

7; 4, bars2

5; 5, bars 3

7; 8, bars4

8;

and

12,bars 1

4.

It will be observed that the two-bar pattern is not necessarilyrepeatedentire.

(43)

THE 2ND AND 3RD

SPECIES. 29

Sometimes

it is convenient to

make

the crotchets follow an independent line (see Exercise i, bars 4

8),

which

may

indeed

produce the better effect, provided that the sequential character

of thepassage be sufficientlyrecognizable.

Occasionally, asinExercise10,bars 4

8,sequential

movement

which is not suggested by the

movement

of the Canto

Fermo

can be

employed

inthe

minim

part.

11.

The

following are

some

of the

many

possible forms of cadence,

and

are nearly all available in the minor key.

The

student is, as in subsequent chapters, also referred to the cadences at the end of the

worked

exercises.

£=

1

r

~~o: -w ^-i

^l

zozzz:

H

)—

J—\

1 I

/

1

m

m

J

fi

e

=°^

g>

n

m

—m—m-

75

P

|

P

I

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-r

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11

^

r-i

: t=

-r

d—

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*

^2:

IS

(44)

30

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

In

most

ofthe followingand subsequent exercises the

Bass

is

unfigured. except foran occasional figure

where

there might be

any

question astothe impliedharmony.

A

comma

is sometimes used

in preference to an extended

slur

togive

some

indication of the phrasingof a part.

CANTO FERMO

IN BASS.

Ex. I

gEr^=g=f:

-~-, F.R.C.O.,July, 1914.

^^^=f=^gi^^=FH^^

S

^B=m

1

r C.F.

I

I

S^H=J=

«Hee

:g=*z =ff=P=

T*—

pr

J=t

^==t

*=

^

1^

Note, (i.) Bars 1-2.

The8vesbetweenTreble and Bassare fromTonic

toDominant, incontrary motion,andboth unaccented.

(ii.) Bar 3.

The doubled leading-note is approached and quitted by

conjunct movementinbothparts.

The above exercise might also commence in the following way. The

alternativesmallnotesintroduce 5thsbetweenTreble and Alto. Theyseem

to be permissible, notbeing direct, and the second 5th consisting of notes unessentialtothe prevailingharmony, but theyarehardlyrecommended:

(45)

THE 2ND

AND

3RD

SPECIES. 3

1

FromanExaminationPaper.

mm

st

^^m

m

*=*=*

3g=

^gJfEgJfz^zg:

EE±EE-J~E

etBMi

3=t±

C.F.

$

1

"

I

1~

»^MB

S===*

^

--&==&

=

:— : f» • 3E=S=

I*

*

c

i*-, *?. :.l I ; ±: *-

P

I *~

1^

Note.

The Canto Fermo does not admit of the key of

D

minorbeing properlyestablisheduntil neartheend.

Ex. 3. F.R.C.O., January,1897.

«

-r

q

==ez

f-m

C.F.

3

"2^-

T=^

Note, (i.) Bars 3-4.

The skip in the Treble, from a crotchet that is

dissonant with the minim, is less objectionablethan if it had been to any

othernote thanthe 8ve.

(ii.) Bar6.

Thedoubledleading-note has evenmore tojustify it than is

the caseinExercise1; as, in addition to theconjunctmovementinbothparts,

(46)

32

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

Ex. 4.

CANTO

FERMO

IN TREBLE.

Oxford,1stMus.Bac,1915.

E=T

T-y-nrr-P

p=F=P=

t^^P

m

4==^

T-g—

r

1 *_

s»Tfr—

E

£23

--=3;

g

=F=

p

E

-»-*-fc£>=*=n 5»=P: * r

m

»

r

r

J-3$r^&

mm

m

Ex. 5. A.R.C.O., January,1895.

C.F.

£

^=c

:H=g *

C-^=Eg

3r=i=

i

^Wrffe

^

fr

^rf

wlr-

1

r

^

^

p^

HI

*2d!3

^

Note, (i.) Bars1-2.

The8vesbetweenTrebleand Bassareby contrary motion and unaccented. Moreover, the second 8ve is covered by the

continued contrary motiontothe following bar.

(ii.) Bar8.

Nota CambiatainAlto(seepage25).

(hi.) At bar 9 is the "conceivable instance with a syncopated Bass"

(47)

Ex.6. b

THE 2ND AND 3RD

SPECIES. 33

Oxford,1stMus.Bac,1915.

C.F.

&

b$

^=^z

i- I I LPlI? <=

T5

^3- • : -1

i-stn^

u

rr

•&- r-S> fa

r

'

p

' s? 1—<s>— jl :

.£^£___

=rv^

-M f P m. p-r--f-m^ _ y

w

t>b l

1 1

F-1 -i

1

1

-U-L-U-P-

4=^=

1

1

1—

»

Ex. 7. F.R.C.O., July,1912.

5

H6

Ex. 8.

,4

fJfc

CANTO

FERMO

IN

INNER

PART.

Durham,1stMus.Bac,1913.

g=j^=fe

1 1=

^

aL

|—

r~r

C..F.

g

jfe-J

r

(48)

34

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

:{Sr==:

HE

ii

iSS

-M=?=*lHZZMZ

mt^^M

Ex.g. Oxford,istMus.Bac,1914.

C.^.

3=u:

ft*^

p^=^

*=t

^^

3t*

J—

:~r

7^~

lty» /r.

i— 1 5

2

3

"P

- r"=J

=q—

f** | H 1ft b.— I

M

—<s>

--» 1 -i-

=t=

-H

1

^f-^ S>— J ^=?

H

H

m—m~

V=f

-fw

—<s>

H—

hsy

-ri1

>-"r*~~f~i

=t^3=3

1

w

bJlI

-H--fc-*

4—

U-

4=«=

-H-

-t

1 e-

J-

*&^=T

L_J

Note.

The 3rd Species in the Bass sometimes assumes a more

instrumentalcharacter,with amoreextendedcompassthaninan upperpart.

Ex. 10. F.R.C.O.,July,is :^- .a. --t-

m

-<=-C.F.

i^=

S

:

-i—

g^^^Eg^

^

S^^

(49)

THE 2ND

AND

3RD

SPECIES. 35

fccttz

3=

j=£=5=

f~-&=

-M~

Note. Bars5-6.

The skip from a crotchet that is dissonant with the

minim mustbe considered alicence.

Ex. 11.

I—

-r

« »~ F.R.C.O., January,1907. 3=r£

^

-*~l-* ^T=*= C..F.

Ei_=

§£^

ISe

^^i^

£

--&

Si

-

p

*

-ftr^

J^__

4Rrg 1 «S> . (=>

1

J n >Ci-» [ 1 -J L J_L

-fc=d

-^

<&

Note. Bar 7.

Doubling of the Leading-note with conjunct movement

in both parts.

Ex. 12. A.R.C.O., January,1909.

p

^ffr-rr

^

^

^

^f^^^^

^^

C.F..

m^:

*F=&

t=i=

5 6 3

f

\["

f—^

=£=

a... -*£

Note.

(i.)

A

working of the above exercise is difficult except by

employingtwochordsinnearlyeverybar.

(ii.) Bychangingtheharmonyin Bar 1, sequentialmovementisobtained

(50)

36

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT. IN TRIPLE TIME. Ex. 13.

a

•"-:«- tj* |flj* =1 1 L

--£=?-Durham,1stMus. Bac,1911.

-i ! I

J -F z^--Mz C.F.

tm

'jt2_

M

|S^=^

^w=^

-*-t-?-

-»—»--WdH

9

- IZZl

*m

:~?zz

^=>-^=P=F

g^^Fg3^

g

m^^

B=*==

»

fe

ggj

S

^

=*=g=

=fifc

n

n-Note. Bar 2.

The skip from the fourth crotchet which is dissonant

with the Bass is perhaps justified by the particular pattern of theTreble

(51)

37

CHAPTER

V.

THE

2nd

AND

4th SPECIES.

i.

In any combination with the 4th Species, it isconvenient

to consider that part first, subject to the condition that the

Bass

part can never be leftentirely until last.

In planning out a 4th Species part the student is sometimes

led on

by

the

movement

of the

Canto

Fermo

to write such a Counterpoint as the following,

which

he imagines will suffice

because the syncopationis unbroken:

The

monotony

of such a Counterpoint, with its limited compass, its repeated leaptothe

same

upper note

never rising

as a climax to a higher note

is evident,

and

if no better

unbroken solution could be found, the syncopation should

somewhere

be interrupted.

It

may

be mentionedasa matter of practical experience, that

in cases

where

an unbroken syncopated part is impossible, the

better result will often be obtained by interrupting the synco-pationabar or

two

earlierthan isabsolutelynecessary.

2.

With

regard to the 2nd Speciespart, care

must

be taken

to avoid it being a disjointed part, consisting of a series of

awkward

skips.

The

means

to this endare:

(i.)

The

use of Passing-notes

where

possible;

(ii.) Judicious changes of

harmony

at the second half of

the bar

;

(iii.) Occasionaluseoftheprepared j?

when

the2ndSpecies

is in the Bass,

and

ofthe \

when

the 4th Speciesis

inthe Bass.

3.

The

following remarks

and

examples will

make

clear

to

what

extent the Suspensions 9-8, 7-6, 4-3,

and

6-5 can be

accompanied

by the passingfigures

recommended

in Chapter III.

(52)

33

COMBINED

COUNTERPOINT.

THE

SUSPENDED

9-8.

Accompanied

by

the

5-6.

This is not of

much

use in three parts, the absence of the 3rdof thechord

making

theprogression sound thin.

Note

the skip

from

the 6th at the

end

of the second bar.

The movement

of this interval is free (except that on this

particular

Bass

it happens to be the

Leading

note), it being

consonant with the

Bass

:

--TZL

3

-£ :g£

^

Accompanied

by

the

3-4.

The

first

example

has the 3-4 in the

Bass

at bars 2 and 4,

and

thesecond

example

the 9-8 in the Bass, with the 3-4 in the innerpart. (For further examples, see Exercises 19

and

20.)

^=

122:

^

£

7J3

7 7 4 3

THE

SUSPENDED

7-6.

Accompanied

by

the

5-6.

Itis essential that the 5th be perfect,

and

approached from the

2nd below

:-ms

-_-J-j

g^

j

zgz^zg

pl

Figure

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