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Building

Accessible

Web

Sites

with

Oracle

Portal

An

Oracle

White

Paper

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Building

Accessible

Web

Sites

with

Oracle

Portal

1.

Introduction ... 3

2.

International

and

U.S.

Guidelines

On

Accessibility...

4

2.1

W3C

Guidelines

...

4

2.1.1

WAI

...

4

2.2

US

Guidelines

and

Laws

...

6

2.2.1

ADA

...

6

2.2.2

Section

508...

6

2.3

European

Guidelines

...

7

3.

Oracle

Accessibility

Program

...

8

3.1

Oracle

Global

HTML

Accessibility

Guidelines

(OGHAG)

...

8

3.2

Oracle

Accessibility

Checker (OAC) ... 8

4.

Development

Of

Accessible

Portal

Instances

With

Oracle

Portal...

11

4.1

Preliminary

Remarks ... 11

4.1.1

Target

Group...

11

4.1.2

Other

Applicable

Documents...

11

4.2

Introduction

...

11

4.3

General

Guidelines...

11

4.3.1

Concepts

...

11

4.3.2

Layout

and

Navigation...

12

4.3.3

Graphics

and

Multimedia

...

12

4.3.4

Language

...

12

4.4

Special

Guidelines

...

13

4.4.1

Central

Portal

Mechanisms

...

13

4.4.2

General

Information

...

13

4.4.3.

Page

Groups ... 13

4.4.4

Layout

and

Views

...

14

4.4.5

Pages ... 16

4.4.6

Sub­pages

...

17

4.4.7

Tabs

...

17

4.4.8

Items

...

17

4.4.9

Default

Portlets ... 19

4.4.10

HTML

Portlets...

20

4.4.11

Other

Portlets...

20

4.4.12

Buttons ... 20

4.4.13

Forms

...

21

4.4.14

JavaScript

...

21

5.

Summary...

22

5.1

Oracle

and

Accessibility

...

22

5.2

Accessible

Pages

with

Oracle

Portal...

22

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Building

Accessible

Web

Sites

with

Oracle

Portal

Approximately500millionpeople worldwidehavesometypeofdisability.

1.INTRODUCTION

Asmoreandmoreservices,bothgeneralandgovernmental,areprovidedoverthe WorldWideWeb,itisincreasinglyimportantforwebsitestobeaccessibleto personswithdisabilities. Accordingtoestimates,around5­ 10%ofEuropeans (about37millionpeople)areclassifiedasdisabled.Approximately54million Americansand500millionworldwidehavesometypeofdisability. Thetypesof disabilitiesthatcanlimitaccesstowebsitesspanstheentirerangeofvisual, acoustic,physical,speech,cognitiveandneurologicalimpairments,andagood understandingofthebarrierstoinformationaccessthateachkindofdisability posesisvital. Thegrowingproportionofolderpeopleinthegeneralpopulationis alsoanimportantconsideration.

Oracleiscommittedtomakingproductsthatareaccessibletopersonswith disabilities. Tothisend,OraclehasestablishedtheOracleAccessibilityProgram  (OAP)asanintegralpartofitsproductdevelopmentprocess. Ithascreatedtools tochecktheaccessibilityofHTMLcode. Italsomakesthestatusreportsonthe accessibilityofitsproductspubliclyavailable.

ThisdocumentaimstofurtherOracle’scommitmenttoaccessibilitybyproviding guidelinesforwebsiteoperatorswhendesigningaccessiblewebpagesusingoneof Oracle’slatestproducts–OracleApplicationServerPortal10gRelease2(10.1.4) (OraclePortal). Thisdocumentprovidesareferenceguidetointernationaland U.S.standardsforaccessiblewebdesign,aswellasrecommendedpracticesfor structuringcontentonwebpagesbuiltwithOraclePortal.

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2.INTERNATIONALANDU.S.GUIDELINESONACCESSIBILITY 2.1W3CGuidelines

TheWorldWideWebConsortium (W3C)isanumbrellaorganizationthat monitorsstandardizationofwebtechnologies.Standardizedtechnologies (specifications,guidelines,softwareandtools)weredevelopedtosupportthe futuredevelopmentoftheWorldWideWebandsecureitsinteroperability.

2.1.1WAI

WAIstandsforWebAccessibilityInitiative.Inconjunctionwithorganizations throughouttheworld,thisinitiativeaddressesbarrier­freewebaccessin5main areas:

• Technology

­ Protocolsandformats

• Guidelines

­ Layoutofaccessiblewebpages

(WebContentAccessibilityGuidelines(WCAG)) ­ Designofsoftwareforcreatingaccessiblewebsites

(AuthoringToolAccessibilityGuidelines(ATAG)) ­ Accessiblebrowsersandauthoringtools

(UserAgentAccessibilityGuidelines(UAAG)) ­ DesignofaccessibleXMLapplications

(XMLAccessibilityGuidelines(XAG))

• Tools

­ Initialdevelopmentoftechnologiesforreviewingandcorrecting content

­ Maintainingareferencelistoftoolsforreviewingandcorrecting content

­ Developingaverificationandreportinglanguage(e.g.EARL, EvaluationandReportLanguage)

­ Automaticandmanualverificationofsources

• Training

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TheWAIincludesanexplicitdefinitionofwhat‘barrier­freeaccesstotheweb’ means,namely:

• Websitesandapplicationsthat

­ Peoplewithdisabilitiescanrecognize,understand,browsethrough andinteractwith

• Webbrowsersandmedia playersthat

­ Canbeusedeffectivelybypeoplewithdisabilities

­ Interactwellwithsupportingtechnologiesthatcertainpeoplewith disabilitiesusetoaccesstheweb

• Editingtoolsandwebtechnologiesthat

­ Facilitatethedevelopmentofaccessiblewebcontentandwebsites ­ Canbeusedeffectivelybypeoplewithdisabilities

ManygovernmentsandindustrialcompaniessupportWAI.Inaddition,many partners(includingOracle)areworkingwithWAIonspecificsub­projects.

2.1.2WCAG

WCAG standsforWebContentAccessibilityGuidelinesanddescribesthecoding andstructuringofaccessiblewebcontentinthecontextofWAI.Thefollowing aidsareavailable.

• WCAG 1.0Checklist

• WCAG 1.0Technologies

• WCAG 1.0FrequentlyAskedQuestions(FAQ)

• WCAG 1.0ConformityLogos

• WCAG 1.0Translations

• WCAG 1.0FactSheet

• WCAG 1.0Curriculum

• QuickTipsforaccessiblewebsites

• Accessibilityverificationofwebsites

• Resourcesforplanningtheimplementationofwebaccessibility

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Version1.0oftheWCAG wasapprovedforW3Crecommendationon5May 1999andcontainsaprioritylistfornormativetestpoints.Version2.0iscurrently underdevelopment.

WCAG1.0Priorities

TheWCAG1.0prioritiesforaccessibility

testpointsaremarkedasnecessary, PriorityA UndertheWCAG,awebcontentdevelopermustcomplywith recommendedandoptional. thesetestpoints.SatisfactionofPriorityAtestpointsareabasic

requirementforsomegroupstobeabletousewebdocuments. Oneormoregroupswouldfinditimpossibletoaccessthe informationinthedocument,ifthesecheckpointswerenotmet.

PriorityAA Awebcontentdevelopershouldcomplywiththesetestpoints. Otherwise,itwillbedifficultforcertainpeopleorgroupstoaccess thecontentofdocuments.Satisfyingthesetestpointswould eliminatesignificantbarrierstoaccessingwebdocuments.

PriorityAAA Awebcontentdevelopercanaddressthistestpoint.Itwouldbe somewhatdifficultforcertainpeopleorgroupstogainaccessto thedocumentcontentwithoutsatisfyingthesetestpoints.

Fulfillmentofthiscriterionimprovesaccesstothewebdocument.

Theindividualtestpointsarecontainedinachecklistandprovideastructured descriptionoftherelevanttechnologicalaspectsofdesigningHTMLpages.This checklistisoftenusedtoevaluatewebsites.Correspondingaccessibilitycheckers areoftenusedtoanalyzecomplianceofthepagesinquestionwiththeWCAG prioritiesandoutputreportsthathighlightanydifferencesfrom thechecklist. 2.2USGuidelinesandLaws

2.2.1ADA

ADAstandsfortheAmericanswithDisabilitiesAct.TheADAisageneral antidiscriminationlawthatprotectspeoplewithdisabilitiesinavarietyofcontexts, suchasemployment,andequalaccesstocommercialfacilitiesandpublictransport. TheextenttowhichtheADAappliestocommercialwebsitesisuncertain.The ADAdoesnot,however,prescribespecificaccessibilitystandardsforITproducts.

2.2.2Section508

SpecificaccessibilitystandardshavebeenestablishedunderSection508oftheU.S. ‘RehabilitationActof1998’. Whilethesestandardsapplyonlytoproduct

purchasedbytheU.S.government,theyarewidelyrecognizedandprovidegood guidanceonwebaccessibilityoutsidethegovernmentprocurementcontext. The

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section508standardscovernotjustwebaccessibility,butalsoawiderangeof otherinformationtechnologyproducts.

Thefollowingsectionsfrom Section508arerelevanttoOracleproducts: 1194.21–SoftwareApplicationsandOperatingSystems

1194.22–Web­basedIntranetandInformationApplications 1194.23–TelecommunicationProducts

1194.24–VideoandMulti­mediaProducts 1194.25–Self­contained,ClosedProducts 1194.26–DesktopandPortableComputers 1194.31–FunctionalPerformanceCriteria

1194.41–Information,DocumentationandSupport

Regulation1194.22containsspecificformattingguidelinesforHTMLpagesandis ofprimaryimportanceforensuringthatwebpagesproducedbyOraclePortal meettherequirementsofSection508. Thestandardsinthisregulationoverlap withbutarenotidenticalto,theWCAG 1.0guidelines.

2.3EuropeanGuidelines

Inacommunicationfrom theEuropeanCommission(EC)totheCouncilofthe EuropeanUnion(EU),theEuropeanParliament,theEconomicandSocial CommitteeandtheCommitteeofRegions–eEurope2002dated29May2001– theEuropeanUnionacknowledgestheimportanceofInternetaccessfordisabled citizens.Inthecommunication,theECurgedEUmemberstatestoadoptthe WAIguidelines(see2.1)toensureaccessibilityofpublicsectorwebsites.In addition,thestatementfrom theECoutlinesthestatusofdevelopmentineach memberstate.Thecommunicationsdemonstratestheincreasingimportanceand attentionassignedtoaccessibilityinEurope.

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3.ORACLEACCESSIBILITYPROGRAM

OracleswitcheditsproductstrategyentirelyovertoInternetcomputingseveral yearsago.Forthisreason,particularattentionispaidtothesubjectofaccessibility whendevelopingnewproductsandsolutions.The‘OracleAccessibilityProgram’ (OAP)wascreatedasaresult.Oraclehasbuilta‘CompetenceCenterfor Accessibility’aspartofthisprogram.Staffexperiencedwithaccessibilityarealso foundineachoftheProductManagementteamsandcontributerelevantaspects tothedevelopmentofaccessibleOraclesolutionsandproducts.

AspartoftheOAP,statusreportsontheaccessibilityofOracleproductsand solutionsarepublishedvoluntarily(see‘VoluntaryProductAccessibility Templates’menuoptionathttp://www.oracle.com/accessibility/index.html). Inadditiontothevoluntarypublicationoftheaccessibilitystatusofagiven product,OraclehasdevelopeditsownHTMLAccessibilityGuidelinesthatare verifiedbythe‘OracleAccessibilityChecker’createdforthatpurpose.

3.1OracleGlobalHTMLAccessibilityGuidelines(OGHAG)

TheOracleGlobalHTMLAccessibilityGuidelines(OGHAG)arean internalset ofguidelinesusedtoassesstheaccessibilityofOracleproductsandsolutions. OGHAG isacompilationofcheckpointsfrom WCAG 1.0andUS Section508 thatarerelevanttoOracleproducts.

3.2OracleAccessibilityChecker(OAC)

TheOracleAccessibilityCheckerisawebapplicationthatcheckswebinterfaces foradherencetoOGHAG.ItencompassesbothWCAG 1.0PriorityAA checkpointsandUS Section508HTMLstandards,andisusedtoassessthe accessibilityofwebapplications.

OACincludesseveralmethodsforanalyzingwebsites:

• Analyzer:permitsrapidverificationofindividualHTMLpages.

• Crawler:permitsanalysisofawebsitebyspecifyingthedepthandscopeof documentstobeverified.

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• Zip/Jar:permitstheverificationoflargesetsofHTMLfiles,e.g.onlinehelp filesforanapplicationthathavebeencompressedandarchivedasazipand canberetrievedviaawebserver.

• ProxyRun:helpsinverifyingdynamicallygeneratedwebsitesorapplications. Thispermitsstep­by­stepprocessingoftheapplicationinonebrowserwith theresultsdisplayedinaseparatebrowseroralternativelyinlineonthepage currentlybeinganalyzed.

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TheOracleAccessibilityCheckerprovidescompletetestreportsspecifyingthe

• InstancesinwhichOGHAGhasnotbeenfollowed

• Specificcodelineforeachsuchinstance

• Proposalsforcorrectivemeasures

TheOracleAccessibilityCheckerisnotyetfreelyavailableasadownloadable application.

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ApproachesdetailedapplytoOracle ApplicationServerPortal10gRelease2 (10.1.4)andencompasstheguidelinesof USSection508andWCAG.

4.DEVELOPMENTOFACCESSIBLEPORTALINSTANCESWITH ORACLEPORTAL

4.1PreliminaryRemarks

TheseguidelinesfordesigningaccessibleportalinstancesregulatetheuseofOracle ApplicationServerPortal10gtodevelopwebsiteportalsolutions.

TheseguidelinesarebasedonthestandardfeaturesofOraclePortal.Theyare presentedfrom anapplication­wideperspectiveanddrilldowntoindividual features.

Note:thisdocumentisintendedasanadditiontoprojectdevelopmentguidelines, notareplacement.Forthisreason,allpossibleguidelinesarenotreproducedhere infull.Thisdocumentneedstobereviewedtodeterminenecessaryadditionstoan existingproject’sguidelinesdependingontheplannedapproach.Theguidelines herecurrentlyrelatetoOracleApplicationServerPortal10gRelease2(10.1.4).

4.1.1TargetGroup

Thisdocumentistargetedatdevelopersofportalsolutionswithaccessibility requirements.Toacertainextent,thedocumentcanalsobeusedtoplantheuse ofOraclePortalforspecificprojects.

4.1.2OtherApplicableDocuments

US Section508–Section508oftheRehabilitationAct(USA)andtheregulations issuedunderthatlaw(codifiedat36C.F.R.Part1194).

WCAG –WebContentAccessibilityGuidelines2.0(W3CWorkingDraft19 November2004). TheWCAGhasnumeroussupplementarydocumentsthat regulatetheuseofcertaintechnologiesinthecontextofaccessibility. 4.2Introduction

InadditiontotheprinciplesforstructuringInternetsites,OraclePortalprovides relevantfeaturestoassistwithplanningdesignsanddevelopingeditorialcontent. 4.3GeneralGuidelines

Thefollowingguidelinesrelatetothegeneralaspectsofwebsitesandtheir content.TheyareindependentofOraclePortalusedindevelopmentoratruntime. Allpointsoutlinedhererequiresomesubstantiationthroughspecifictests.

4.3.1Concepts

Keepitsimple.Thisapproachshouldbefollowedwherepossibleinbuilding accessiblesolutionsforpersonswithdisabilities.

Accessibilityisapropertythatshouldbeexpresslytestedforonaregularbasis possiblywithautomatedtestingtools.Variousotherrequirementsareclosely linkedwiththeactualrequirementsforaccessibility:

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• Themostopen,currentstandardtechnologiespossibleshouldbeused withouttheuserhavingtoresorttospecialtechnologicaltoolstounderstand thecontent.

• Technologiesmustbeusedinthewaytheywereintendedanddesigned,and notforanotherpurpose.

• TheHTMLcodemustsatisfythestrictestrequirements,including,ifpossible XHTML.Thisshouldbeverifiedregularlyusingvalidationprograms.

• Theapplicationmustalsobeoperableandcomprehensibleusingauxiliary assistivetechnologies(alternativeinputdevices,screenreadersetc.).Operation mustnotberestrictedtospecificinputandoutputdevices.

4.3.2LayoutandNavigation

ThegraphicalandstructuraldesignofInternetsitesalsoinfluencestheir

transparencyandcomprehensibility.Thedesignandnavigationthereforehastobe easilyunderstoodandconsistentlyuniform.

• Usersmustbeprovidedwithinformationforcontextandorientation.

• Thechosenstylemustbeappliedconsistently.

• Navigationmustbeconsistentviaalldesignatedtools(mouse,keyboard,etc.) andrationale.g.usinglogicalsequences.

4.3.3GraphicsandMultimedia

Internettechnologiesarenotablefortheirgraphicsandmultimediacapability.This canbeusedtosignificantlyincreasethecomprehensibilityofcontentandthe attractivenessofthesite,iftheusercanperceivethecontentviatheirsenses.For peoplewithsensorydisabilities,theuseofmultimediamustnotbeanobstacleto theirabilitytoaccesstheconveyedinformation.

• Contentmustbestructuredsothattextandgraphicsarecomprehensibleif viewedwithoutcolor.

• Forimages,thecombinationoftheforegroundandbackgroundcolorsmust contrastsufficientlyonablack­and­whitescreenandwhenviewedbypeople withcolor­blindness.

• Mediadesignfeatureswithnorelevancetocontent(e.g.backgroundgraphics) mustbeidentifiableassuchifconveyedusingalternativemedia.Example: graphicswithnoreferencetocontentmustexplicitlycontainablank descriptioni.e.alt=””andnotjustnoALTattribute.

4.3.4Language

Accesstoapplicationcontentdependsfundamentallyonthetextinquestion,both withregardtoitscomplexityandthereadingabilityitnecessitates,andthe transformationofreadablepagecontenttoe.g.audiooutputsofscreenreaders.

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Pagegroupsfacilitatethe organizationofportalobjects.

• Contentshouldnotbemorelinguisticallycomplicatedthannecessary.

• Theapplicablerulesofgrammarandorthographyofthepagelanguagemust beobserved.

• Theremustbenounidentifiedlanguagechangeswithinpages. 4.4SpecialGuidelines

Thefollowingguidelinesarelistedaccordingtothecomponentstowhichtheyare tobeapplied.

4.4.1CentralPortalMechanisms

Thefollowingmechanismsareofcentralimportanceinthecreationofaccessible websites:

• Templates(pageskins,portaltemplates,contentlayouts)canbeusedto influencemanytypesofbehavior.

• Portalstylesandcascadingstylesheets(CSS)areusedtoclearlyseparate structureandcontent.

• Accesscontrolrightsfrom pagetoitem levelenabletheoptimized managementofitems.

4.4.2GeneralInformation

AccessibilityrequiresthatthegeneratedPortalpagesvalidatetopublishedformal grammars.OraclePortalcurrentlygeneratesHTMLthatvalidatesagainstthe HTML4.01Transitionaldocumenttype.Itiscurrentlyplannedthatfuturereleases willsupportStrictandXHTMLdocumenttypes.

AllpagesshouldbestructuredinaccordancewiththeapplicableHTMLdocument standardandtheguidelinesoutlinedbelow.Thisappliesequallytocontentadded topages.Deprecatedfeaturesmustnolongerbeused.

Allitemsandportletsshouldbeassignedkeywordswhenbeingcreatedforeasy searching.Thisallowsportalcontentitselftobefoundeasilyusingthe‘Search’ portlet.Theuseoftheportletisnotcompulsory.However,itshouldbeusedasit isincludedinOraclePortalbydefaultandmakesawebsitemoreuser­friendly.

4.4.3.PageGroups

Pagegroupsareusedtoorganizeportalobjectssuchaspages,templates,styles, navigationpagesetc.Pagegroupscanbeusetologicallyseparateandorganize differenttypesofapplicationsthataretoberepresentedinaportale.g.‘Content Management’and‘ContentPublication’.

• Eachpagegroupmustbeassignedadefaultportaltemplate.

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4.4.4LayoutandViews

Portaltemplateshelpindevelopingdefault layoutsandconsistentadherencetoa commonstructure.

4.4.4.1 Styles

Colorsandfontsforpagesandtheircontentareconfiguredusingstyles.These settingshaveadirecteffectonlegibilityforthecolor­blindorthosewithdefective vision.Appropriatesettingsarerequiredtoensurecomplianceoftheportal appearancewiththerelevantaccessibilityguidelines.

• Atleastonestyleforcontrollingtheappearanceofitems,portletsandtabs mustbedefined.

• Allfontsmustusearelativesizetofacilitatescalingofpages.

Itispossibletointegrateproprietarycascadingstylesheets(CSS)usingapageskin byaddingalinktotheCSSintotheheadsectionofthepageskine.g.

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css" />

Seebelowforfurtherinformationonpageskins.

However,thereferencedproprietaryCSSmustatleastcontaintheequivalentitem  descriptionsfrom theOraclePortalstyletobeeffectivee.g.

... .PortletHeaderText{Color:#FFFFFF;Font­Family:Arial, Helvetica;Font­Size:100%;Font­Weight:Bold;} .PortletHeading1{Color:#336699;Font­Family:Arial, Helvetica;Font­Size:90%;Font­Weight:Bold;} .PortletHeading2{Color:#336699;Font­Family:Arial, Helvetica;Font­Size:80%;Font­Weight:Bold;} .PortletHeading3{Color:#336699;Font­Family:Arial, Helvetica;Font­Size:70%;Font­Weight:Bold;} .PortletHeading4{Color:#336699;Font­Family:Arial, Helvetica;Font­Size:70%;Font­Weight:Bold;} ... 4.4.4.2 Portal Templates

Portaltemplatescanbeusedtospecifyadefaultlayout.

• Forconsistent,standardizedstructuringofportalsites,portaltemplatesare essential.

• Aftercreatingthepagegroupandstyle,theportaltemplateisthethirddesign step.

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Theportaltemplateperformsthefollowingfunctions:layout,style,accessrights, basicstructureandisbuiltusingthePortalpageeditor.

Toprovidetheuserwithaconsistentbasicpagestructure,allpagesshouldusea portaltemplate.Theportaltemplateisusedtostructurethepageusingtabs,item  regionsandportletregionstodividethepageintoitsbasicstructuralbuilding blocks.Thefunctionsofindividualregionswithinthepagearealsospecifiedhere.

• Generally,eachpagemusthaveatleastoneregion.

• TheRegionContentpropertyofeachregionspecifieswhetherornottheuser wheneditingapagecanaddcontent.

Insomeregions,itshouldnotbepossiblefortheusertoaddcontentitemssuchas logos,images,navigationandotherportletsastheregioncontainsstandardized contentthatappliestoallpagesthatusethetemplate.Otherregionsareprovided foruserstoentercontent.Theaforementionedpropertyisthensettoallowusers toaddcontent.Thepreviewfunctionisusedtocheckhowthetemplateappearsas apagewithoutspecificcontentadded.

Ensurethatthepagecontainsasfewregionsaspossible,aseachregionis generatedasalayouttableintheHTMLsource.

Layouttablesmustbelinearizablesothattheycanberecognizedassuchbytext browsers,screenreadersetc.ThetablesgeneratedbyOraclePortalaregenerally linearizable.Ensurethatnottoomanytablesaregeneratedwhenstructuringthe page.

4.4.4.3 Page Skins

Pageskinscanbeappliedtopagesandportaltemplates.Thistypeoftemplateis usedtospecifywhatisdisplayedonthepagesurroundingthestructureasdefined bythepageoraportaltemplate.Pageskinsarewrittenbyusinghandcrafted HTMLcode.

• Allportalsitesshouldbecreatedusingacombinationofportaltemplatesand pageskins.

• Apageskincanbeassignedtotheportaltemplatesothatallpagesare structuredidenticallyusingacombinationofbothtemplates

• Thepageskinmustatleastcontainthedocumenttypedefinitionforthe generatedHTMLcodetopasscleanlythroughavalidator.

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                                                                                                                                                             4.4.4.4 Content Layouts

Contentlayoutsareusedtocontrolthedisplayandlayoutofthepropertiesof itemsinanitem region.ThetemplateiswrittenwithHTMLcodewithembedded tagstorepresentthepropertiestobedisplayed.

• TheHTMLusedmustcomplywiththeapplicableaccessibilitystandards.

4.4.5Pages

WCAG andSection508requirementsmustbeobservedforthepagelayout,asthe structureofthecontentiscloselylinkedwiththerulesforaccessibility.Someof theimportantrulesessentialtopagestructuringareoutlinedbelow:

• Blinkingormovingtextandpagecontentmustbeavoidedasitmustbe possibletofreezemovement.

• Alternativepagelayout:donotplacetoomuchcontentincomplexstructures onasinglepage,butinsteadbuildupmultiplesimplepageswithclear navigationoptionsinwhichinformationiseasilyfound.

• Suitabletextequivalentsmustbeprovidedforeverygraphicalormultimedia item (images,movies,sounds)onthepage.

• Avoidautomaticforwarding.

• Highlightchangesfromthemainlanguagetoanotherlanguage.

• Ensureasequenceofhyperlinks,form checkboxesandanyinputfieldsare navigablewiththetabkey,traceableandlogical.

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Sub­pagesarehelpful,andshouldbeusedto structurecomplexcontent.

4.4.6Sub­pages

Bycreatingsub­pages,highlycomplexcontentcanbedistributedacrossdifferent pages.Therecanbeseveralreasonsfordividingcontentintosub­pages,e.g.:

• Tobreakdowncomplexitywithinthepage

• Security–thespecificpagecontentmayonlybeviewedbyindividual departmentsandthereforeusergroups

• Style–thepagehasaspecificappearancee.g.astheorganizationhasitsown brandforthisarea

• Approvalprocesses–individualdepartmentshavedifferentapproval processesthatmustbemapped

Sub­pagesmaybebasedonalesscomplexportaltemplate.

• Logical,uniquepagenamesshouldbechosenastheyareusedinlinking(see PageLinkalso).

• Ifasub­pageusesadifferentportaltemplate,theguidelinesforportal templatesapplyherealso.

Seededpagessuchasthesearchresultspagemustbelinkedtotheapplications portaltemplatesothatthispagealsocomplieswiththechosenstandardsandis consistentinlookandfeel.Makesurethatthispagecanalsobeusedbyseveral differentportalapplications.

4.4.7Tabs

Contentcanalsobegroupedlogicallyusingtabs.Adecisionmustbemadeduring thedesignphaseregardingwhethercontentshouldbestructuredusingindividual pages(e.g.sub­pages)orononepageusingtabs.Thepagecanalsobeorganized intofurthersub­tabspertab.

Thecontentofpagesisstructuredusingdifferentregions.Tabscanalsobeused wherecontentistobeassignedtodifferentusergroups.Everytabhasitsown accessdefinitioninthiscase.

• Tabsareusefulifthecontentshouldbeaccessiblefrom apage,butrequiresa logicalstructureduetoitscomplexityorsecurityrequirements.

4.4.8Items

Itmustbeensuredthatallitemshaveadescription,searchterms,perspectivesand categoriesetc.

• Avoidthesimpleitem typesasdescriptionsandsearchtermscannotbe enteredandthereforetheuseoftheseitem typeswouldcreateabarrierto access.

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                                                                                                                                             4.4.8.1 File

Whenaspecifiedfileisuploadedtoapageandsaveditforms‘fixedcontent’that canbedisplayedimmediatelyonthepageinthecorrespondingregion,oraccessed viaalinktodisplaythecontentintheexistingbrowserwindoworanewwindow.

• Ifthelinktothefileisrepresentedonthepagebyanimage,thedisplayname isgeneratedintotheALTpropertyoftheIMG tag.

GeneratedHTML:

<a href="http://uksn289.uk.oracle.com:7778/portal/page/p

ortal/phenty/population.txt">

<img src="http://uksn289.uk.oracle.com:7778/portal/pls/p

ortal/docs/1/6172.GIF" border="0" align="bottom" alt="Population Statistics"></a>

• Thetextofthedescriptionappearsundertheimageandshouldnotbe specifiedifitisnotarealdescription.

4.4.8.2 Text

Atextitem canhavealengthofupto32KB,reducedinsizebyescapingany specialcharacters.Itisenteredinabasictexteditorandappearsstaticallyonthe page.ThetexteditorallowstheusertoswitchbetweenWYSIWYG modeand htmlsourcemode.Theusercaneditthetextgraphicallyorswitchmodesand changetheHTMLcodedirectly.

• Usefontsizesthatscaletofacilitateresizingintheuseragente.g.thebrowser. 4.4.8.3 URL

Thisitem isusedtocreatealinkwithanothersourceontheIntranetorInternet.

• Thedisplaynamemustbechosenlogicallyasitrepresentsthevisiblelinktext. Bydefaultthedescriptionisdisplayedunderthelink.

• Ifanimageisusedforthelink,adisplaynamemustbespecifiedasitis generatedintotheALTproperty.Thisistheonlywayinwhichthisitem can beusedintextbrowsersasthelinktextappearsinsteadoftheimage.To configurewhetheranimageorlinktextistobedisplayedforaregion,the definitionsoftheregiondisplaypropertiescanbechangedaccordingly.

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• Ifalinktargetisopenedinanewwindow,awarningmustbedisplayedbefore changingwindowsi.e.ifyouchangethedisplayoptionto‘linkthatdisplays item innewbrowserwindow’,thedescriptionattributemustbedisplayedfirst, andthenthelinknamesothatthewarningmaybevisible.

4.4.8.4 Page Link

Apagelinkisusedtodisplayalinktoapageinthesameoranotherpagegroup.

• Thepathname,i.e.pagename,isdisplayedasalink.Thismustbearational, logicaldescriptionofthepage.

• Ifthelinkisrepresentedonthepagebyanimage,thedisplaynameis

generatedintotheALTpropertyoftheIMG tag.Thesameguidelinesapplyas fortheURLitem.

4.4.8.5 Images

Whenuploadinganimagefrom alocaldirectoryOraclePortalloadsthespecified imagefileandrenamesit.Itisassignedagenerateduniquename.Thenew filenameassignedbythesystem appearsinthe‘src’propertyoftheIMG tag. Conversely,iftheimagesourceisspecifiedusingaURL(e.g.:/images/xyz.gif),the filenameisnotchangedandtheimageisreferenced.Theimagefilemustbe locatedontheserverwhereOraclePortalisinstalled.Thenameoftheimagemap isdeterminedfromthedisplaynameattribute,iswrittentotheusemapHTML propertyandmustbeconsistentwiththevalueintheimagemapitem attribute. Thedescriptionattributeofanimageasenteredduringitem creationisoutputas textonthepage,butisnotgeneratedastheALTproperty.

• ThedisplaynameattributeisusedtopopulatethegeneratedALTproperty.

• Thenamepropertyoftheimagemapmustbethesameasthedisplaynameif theimagemapfeatureisbeingused.

4.4.8.6 Zip File

Itemsthatrepresentazipfilecanbeembeddedonpages.

• Thedisplaynameoftheitem appearsasalinkonthepage. 4.4.8.7 PL/SQL

APL/SQLitem canbeusedtoretrieveinformationdirectlyfrom thedatabase. ThegeneralrulesforaccessibilityapplytotheresultsbroughtbackbyPL/SQL code.

4.4.9DefaultPortlets

PortletscontainedintheOraclePortalpackagecanbeembeddedinaregionand aregiventhelayoutcorrespondingtothetemplatesthatapplytothepage.

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Note:notallportletssuppliedwithOraclePortalordownloadablefromtheOTN  knowledgeexchangeconform toaccessibilitybestpractices.

4.4.10HTMLPortlets

HTMLportletscanbeusedtodisplaycontentintheportalthatisneithersimple textnoralinktoanotherpagesource.Theportletcontentcanbestructuredby specifyingthedirectHTMLcode.

• TheHTMLusedmustcomplywiththeapplicableaccessibilitystandards.

• HTMLportletsshouldnotcontainanyframes.Thiswouldcombine‘Layout usingtables’with‘Layoutusingframes’.However,ifframesmustbeused, eachframemustbegivenatitleandtheNOFRAMES tagused.Alternative textcanthenbeprovided.

• Ifdataisdisplayedinatable,eachtablemustcontaintheSUMMARY propertyandclearlyidentifythecolumnheadings.

• Columntitlesmustbedifferentiatedclearlyfromthecolumndata.Intables withcomplexcontent,arowtitlemustalsobeprovided.Forthetabletobe usedinaseries,aseparatetablecellmustbeusedforeachunitofdata.

Samplecodefordata table:

<table border="1" SUMMARY="This table charts population

statistics broken down by country">

<tr> <th id="header1"Country</th> <th id="header2">Population</th> </tr> <tr> <td headers="header1">United States</td> <td headers="header2">272 million</td> </tr> <tr> <td headers="header1">United Kingdom</td> <td headers="header2">59 million</td> </tr> </table> 4.4.11OtherPortlets

ForallthirdpartyorhandbuiltportletsthataregeneratedusingPL/SQLorJava, thesamerulesasforallportalitemsandcontentapplytotheoutputofthe portlets.

4.4.12Buttons

Usingimageswithbuttonscanmakethem morevisuallyunderstandablebutthey mustbeassociatedwithtextualequivalents.

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                                                                                                                                4.4.13Forms

• Allinputfieldsmustbenamed.Toachievethis,thecodemustcontainthe Labeltag.

CodeExample:

<tr>

<td><label for="firstname">First name:</label></td> <td><input type="text" id="firstname"

name="First name"></td> </tr>

• Allinputfieldsmustbeprovidedwithplaceholdercharacters.

4.4.14JavaScript

AllpagesthatarecreatedusingOraclePortalcontainJavaScriptitemsgeneratedby thesystem intheirHTML.JavaScriptcanalsobeaddedtoapagebythedeveloper usinganumberoffeaturesinOraclePortal.

• AllscriptsmustcontainaNOSCRIPTregion.TheNOSCRIPTregion describesthepurposeofthescriptandisdisplayedbybrowsersthatdonot supportJavaScript.

• Theuseof‘JavaScript:’constructsisexpresslyprohibited.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5.SUMMARY

TheOracleAccessibilityProgram

(OAP)isanindependentOracleunit. ItexaminesOracletechnologyand productsfromtheviewpointof accessibility.

AspartoftheOAP,statusreportsonthe accessibilityofOraclePortalarepublished voluntarily.

5.1OracleandAccessibility

Oracletakesthesubjectofaccessibilityveryseriously.ThisiswhyOraclecodesits HTMLproductstointernationallyrecognizedguidelinesandbuildsitsapplications toworkwiththeaccessibilityextensionsofcommerciallyavailablewebbrowsers andwithassistivetechnology.

Oraclehasbeenaleadingforceintheareaofaccessibilitysince2001,evenwhen guidelineswerenotcommonlystipulatedinstatutoryregulations. Internally, OraclelaunchedtheOracleAccessibilityProgramtoimproveitsproductsand technologies.Aspartofthisprogram:

• ACompetenceCenterwassetuptostructureandmonitorthedevelopment ofOracleproductsandsolutionsfrom anaccessibilityperspective.

• VoluntarystatusreportsontheaccessibilityofOracleproductsandsolutions arepublishedontheInternet.

• ProprietaryOracleguidelines(OracleGlobalHTMLAccessibilityGuidelines, OGHAG)havebeendevelopedthatareacombinationoftheWCAG  CheckpointsandrelevantpartsofUS Section508.

Tobeabletoverifyadherencetostricterguidelines,Oraclehasalsodevelopedan AccessibilityCheckerthatcreatestestreportsonindividualpages,websitesorsets ofHTMLpagescompressedintoanarchive(zip/jar)onthebasisofOGHAG. Thetestreportsprovideinformationonanybreachesoftheregulations,theexact pointintheHTMLsourcewhereitoccursandprovidespecificnoteson

addressingit.

5.2AccessiblePageswithOraclePortal

Accessibleportalwebsitesareimportantforallpotentialuserswhowouldhave difficultyinaccessingthecontentoftraditionallystructuredInternetsites.Any numberoftypesofdisabilitycanbeattherootofthis.Inadditiontothevisually disabledorblind,peoplewithmotor,acousticormentallimitationsmaybe affected.

AccessibilityofInternetpagesdependson:

• Whichcontentrequirementstheapplicationhastofulfill.

• Whichtechnologiesareusedfortheapplication.

• Whichtools/generatorsareusedduringdevelopmentand

• Howtheseareused.

InastudyoftheaccessibilityofOraclePortal,itwasfirstdeterminedhowthetool behavesasstandard.Theresultswerethenrevisedtooptimizethis‘standard behavior’from thepointofviewofdevelopingaccessiblewebsites.

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Thereforeitisnotonlytheproductitselfthatisimportantbutalsohowitisused todevelopwebsitesthatcanbeaccessedbypeoplewithdisabilities.Thispaper hasdetailedhowOraclePortalcanbeusedtodevelopaccessiblewebsitesthat meetinternationallyrecognizedguidelines.

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6.LINKSANDREFERENCES OracleAccessibilityProgram: http://www.oracle.com/accessibility AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct(ADA): http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm Section508oftheUS FederalRehabilitationAct: http://www.section508.gov/

WorldWideWebConsortium: http://www.w3.org/

Statementfrom theEUCommissiononaccessibility:

http://europa.eu.int/eur­lex/en/com/cnc/2001/com2001_0529en01.pdf W3CwebAccessibilityInitiative:

http://www.w3.org/WAI/

W3CWebContentAccessibilityGuidelines: http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/

AuthoringToolAccessibilityGuidelines: http://www.w3.org/TR/WAI­AUTOOLS/ UserAgentAccessibilityGuidelines:

http://www.w3.org/TR/WAI­USERAGENT/ XMLAccessibilityGuidelines:

http://www.w3.org/TR/xag EvaluationandReportLanguage:

http://www.w3.org/TR/EARL10­Schema/ W3CMarkupValidationService:

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BuildingAccessibleWebSiteswithOraclePortal May2006

Authors:DetlefMüller,JochenHagenbach, SilkeKraft­Kugler,PeterHenty

OracleCorporation WorldHeadquarters 500OracleParkway RedwoodShores,CA94065 U.S.A. WorldwideInquiries: Phone:+1.650.506.7000 Fax:+1.650.506.7200 oracle.com

Copyright©2005,Oracle.Allrightsreserved.

Thisdocumentisprovidedforinformationpurposesonlyandthe contentshereofaresubjecttochangewithoutnotice.

Thisdocumentisnotwarrantedtobeerror­free,norsubjecttoany otherwarrantiesorconditions,whetherexpressedorallyorimplied inlaw,includingimpliedwarrantiesandconditionsofmerchantability orfitnessforaparticularpurpose.Wespecificallydisclaimany liabilitywithrespecttothisdocumentandnocontractualobligations areformedeitherdirectlyorindirectlybythisdocument.Thisdocument maynotbereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans, electronicormechanical,foranypurpose,withoutourpriorwrittenpermission.

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