Copyright, 1916, by
AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION
IPage Contents 3-10 Foreword 11
1^General Rules for Publication of Manual 12
"j Standing and Special Committees 13
Classification of Track " Specicil Committee,
Classification of Railways 15
Roadway" Committee I.
- General Contract
^Specifications for the Formation of the
" General , . 21
Grading24 "Borrow Pits ". 29
OptionalOverhaul Clause 29
"Price and Measurement of
^^" Tunnel Excavation 30
Specially Applicableto Revision of
Wideningfor Additional Track 31
^ " General Conditions 33
^Steam Shovels 35
Vs^ " General Specifications for a Modern Steam Shovel 35
HandlingSteam Shovel Work 36
"Flat Cars 36
V!5^s"" Plows and
"Vertical Limits - 37
Shrinkagein Embankments 38
Grade Reduction Work 38
Track Elevation Work 39
Surface and Sub-Surface Drainage 42
Tunnel Construction 43
Tunnel Ventilation 47
Soddingwith Bermuda Grass 47
Ballast " Committee II. Page
Choice of Ballast 49
Depthof Ballast SO
Specificationsfor Stone Ballast SO
PhysicalTest of Stone for Ballast : 50
Specificationsfor Gravel Ballast 51
Testing Qualityof Gravel for Ballast 51
CleaningFoul Ballast 53
Ballast Sections 55
Ties " Committee III.
Specificationsfor Cross-Ties 58
Conservation of Timber
Tie Renewals in Continuous Stretches versus
SingleTie Renewals.. 62
Records of Cross-Ties 62
Comparisonof Cross-Ties of Different Materials 63
Rail " Committee IV.
Specificationsfor Carbon Steel Rails" 1915 65
-Inspection65 "Material 65 " Chemical
Requirements66 " Details of Manufacture 70 Rail Sections Th
Drillingfor Rails 84
DropTest Machine 85
Standard Locations of
Test Pieces 88
Rail Record Forms 93
Specificationsand Instructions for Use of Rail Record Forms Ill
Studyof an Individual Rail 113
Track " Committee V.
Gageon Curves 117
Width of Standard
Track " Continued. Page
Specificationsfor Steel Tie-Plates 119
Specificationsfor Malleable Tie-Plates 122
Track Bolts 123
Specificationsfor Track Bolts 123
SpringNutlocks '. 125
Agenciesto Obtain a Better Class of Section Foremen.... 131
Maintenance of Line 131
" Formulas for Exact Determination of Functions of the
" Formulas for Field Use 137
byOffsets 1 38
Spirals byDeflections 138
" Table of Functions of the Ten-Chord
Maintenance of Surface 153
ThroughCurves and Turnouts .- 160
throughLevel Turnouts 161
Requisitesfor Switchstands 168
Lengthsof Switches 168
Frogsand Switches 169
Crossingsand Switches 172
" General Instructions 172 "
Inspection173 "Material 173 "
Frogs176 " -Switches 178 Turnouts 182 "Notation 182 " Formulas 182
Main Line Turnouts 186
Buildings" Committee VI.
PassengerStations with One General
CoalingStations ; 192
Buildings " Continued. Page
Section Tool House 195
"Slate and Tile 199
"Cement Tile 200
Designof Inbound and Outbound
Rest Houses 208
Heatingfor Medium-Sized Stations 217
LightingMedium-Sized Stations 217
SanitaryProvisions for Medium-Sized Stations 218
Bridgesand Trestles " Committee VII.
Piles and Pile
Structural Timber 221
Standard Defects of Structural Timber 222
Standard Names for Structural Timber 230
Bridgeand Trestle Timbers 230
Specificationsfor Southern Yellow Pine
" Standard Heart
LongleafYellow Pine 231
Longleafand Shortleaf Yellow Pine 232
DouglasFir and Western Hemlock
and Trestle Timbers 233
Specificationsfor Timber Piles 235
" Standard Heart Grade 233
" Standard Grade 234
" Railroad Heart Grade 235
Specificationsfor Metal Details Used in Wooden
Bridgesand Trestles 236
" Railroad Falsework Grade 236
Workmanshipfor Pile and Frame Trestles to be
Built Under Contract 238
Principlesof Practice 241
WorkingUnit-Stresses for Structural Timber
Pile Record Form
Use of Guard-Rails for Wooden
Bridgesand Trestles 246
Masonry" Committee VIII.
Masonry,General Definition 252
Masonry " Continued. Page
Specificationsfor Natural and Portland Cement 252
Specificationsfor Plain and Reinforced Concrete and Steel Rein-forcement
" Concrete Materials 281
" Steel Reinforcement 282
" Details of Construction 288
Designsof Reinforced Concrete Structures 289
Monolithic Construction 292
DepositingConcrete Under Water 293
Disintegrationof Concrete and Corrosion of
RepairingDefective or Worn Surfaces of Concrete 294
Crossings" Committee IX.
Concrete Fence Posts 310
Fences,Snow Sheds and Recommended Practice of Snow Re-moval 311
Surface Stock Guards 313
Interlocking" Committee X.
Manual and Controlled Manual Block
Location of Manual Block
Installation,Renewal and Maintenance of
Joint InterlockingPlants 326
on Condition of the Block to Coriductors and
" Switch Indicators 330
"Requisitesof Installation 330
Findings, Conclusions,Standards and
Records and Accounts " Committee XI. Page
SeparateLocalities for Protection in
Case of Fire 340
Time Roll 353
Record Cost of Work 379
Buildingand Water Service Construction 380
Sidetrack Record 384
Track Chart 390
Signsfor Use on
Maintaininga Storehouse 422
Organization" Committee XII.
General Rules for the Government of
Employesof the Maintenance
Regardingthe Conduct of Maintenance of
SafetyRules : 438
General Rules for the Government of
Employesof the Construction
Water Service " Committee XIII.
Qualityof Water, Methods of Treatment and Results Obtained
Efficiencyof Water Softeners 444
Typesof Water Softeners 449
Scalingand Corrosive Matter Which Will
Water Service Records 458
Specificationsfor Steel Water and Oil Tanks 464
Yards and Terminals " Committee XIV.
Requirementsof Yards and Terminals 469
Yards and Terminals " Continued. Page
FreightTransfer Stations 479
PassengerTerminal Stations 479
TypicalSituation Plans for Division
Iron and Steel Structures " Committee XV.
" General 482
" Unit Stresses and
Proportionof Parts 484 " Details of
Testingat the Mills 498
"Full-Sized Tests 505
Bridgesas to Safe
Bridgesand Records of
Specificationsfor the Erection of Railroad
Instructions for the Mill
Inspectionof Structural Steel 513
Instructions for the
Inspectionof the Fabrication of Steel
Instructions for the
RailwayLocation " Committee XVI.
Train Resistance 535
Wood Preservation " Committee XVII.
Groupingof Timbers for
Specificationsfor Creosote Oil 541
Specificationsfor Creosote Oil 541
"Specificationsfor No. 2 Grade Creosote Oil 541
Specificationsfor No. 3 Grade Creosote Oil 542
Specificationsfor the. Fractionation of Creosote Oil 542
The Use of Coal-Tar in Creosote 546
Analysisof Coal-Tar 547
Specificationsfor Creosote-Coal-Tar Solution 546
Precautions to be Followed in the Use of the Creosote-Coal-Tar
Absorptionof Creosote Oil.
Wood Preservation " Continued. Page
Specificationsfor Tie Treatment 549
" General Requirements 549
" Zinc-Chloride Treatment 551
" Zinc-Tannin Treatment 551
" Zinc-Creosote Emulsion Treatment .- 553
" Two-Injection Zinc-Creosote 554
Determination of Zinc in Treated Timbers 555
Clearance Lines for
Equipmentand Permanent Way Structures Adja-cent
to Third Rail and for Third Rail Structures 563
. . .
Galvanizingon Iron or Steel 579
Crossingsof Wires or Cables of
Signal and Other Circuits of Similar Character Over
Rights-of-Way,Tracks or Lines of Wires of the
Same Classes 581
Gradingof Lumber "
GradingRules and Dressing Rules for Southern Yellow
Specificationsfor Construction Oak Timbers 631
Uniform General Contract Forms "
Construction Contract Form 653
" Form of Proposal 655
" " General Conditions 656
Subjects and Committees 667
List of Forms 667, 668
volume,the Board of Direction of the
EngineeringAssociation feels that while there is still
improvement,it indicates a decided step forward in the advance-ment
of the Science of
Engineeringand Maintenance of
Principlesof Practice herein contained
are the result of
appointedto consider each
subjectand of careful consideration
annual conventions which have been held since the
It is intended that this volume shall contain results
subjectreference is given to the volume of the
the full context of the Committee reports and discussions thereon.
The first edition of the Manual was issued in
edition was published in
were issued in September, 1906, and
September,1908; a revised
edition of the Manual was issued in 1911; Supplements thereto were
publishedin 1912, 1913 and 1914.
The action of the 1915 convention, and a
the action of previous conventions, is embodied in the present volume.
GENERAL RULES FOR THE PUBLICATION OF THE
1. The title of the volume will be "Manual of the American
DiscretionaryPowers of Board of Direction.
2. The Board of Direction shall edit the Manual and shall have
authorityto withhold from
publicationany matter which it shall consider
as not desirable to
publish,or as not
shape,or as not
bythe Association and
in the Manual shall be considered in the direction of
shall not be
bindingon the members.
4. The Manual will
practiceas have been made the
SpecialCommittee and embodied in a com-mittee
publishednot less than
priorto the annual con-vention,
bythe Committee to the annual
which,after due consideration and
discussion,shall have been voted
opinionof the Board of
Direction,should be reviewed
Association,may be referred to that Association before
publishedin the Manual.
5. All conclusions included in the Manual must be in concise and
publication,as the Manual will consist
onlyof a summary
record of the
Association,with a brief reference to the
of the Association for the context of the Committee report and
discussion and the final action of the Association.
publishedin the Manual may be amended or with-drawn
byvote at any
proposedin time for
publicationnot less than
convention,and in the
of the Committee in
subject; (b)upon recom-mendation
of the Board of
(c)upon request of five
made to the Board of Direction.
7. The Manual will be revised either
by publishinga new edition or
possibleafter each annual con-vention.
COMMITTEES.Page 1. Roadway 17 II. Ballast 49 III. Ties 57 IV. Rail 65 V. Track 115 VI. Buildings 187
VII. Wooden Bridges and Trestles 219
VIII. Masonry 247
Signs,Fences and Crossings 297
X. Signals and Interlocking 319
XL Records and Accounts 339
XII. Rules and Organization 423
XIII. V^ater Service 433
XIV. Yards and Terminals 467
XV. Iron and Steel Structures 481
XVI. Economics of Railway Location 521
XVII. W^ooD Preservation 539
XVIII. Electricity 561
XIX. Conservation of Natural Resources
Classification of Railways 15
Grading of Lumber 591
Uniform General Contract Forms 653
Brine Drippings from Refrigerator Cars
Stresses in Railroad Track
"CLASSIFICATION OF RAILWAYS.
Class "A" includes all districts of a
railwayhaving more than one
main track, or those districts of a railway
havinga single main track
with a traffic that equals or exceeds the following :
Freightcar mileage passing over district per year per mile,
or. Passenger car mileage per year per mile of district, 10,000; with
speedof passenger trains of 50 miles per hour.
Class "B" includes all districts of a
track with a traffic that is less than the minimum
"A," and that
equalsor exceeds the following :
passingover district per year per
mileageper year per mile of
speedof passenger trains of 40 miles per hour.
Class "C" includes all districts of a
railwaynot meeting the traffic
requirementsof Classes "A" or "B."
iVol. 7, 1906, pp. 331, 340; adopted by letter-ballot, June, 1906; Vol. 8, 1907, p. 15.
GroupA " General.
Arrangingthe material in groups
Contract. " A written agreement between two or more
conditions,etc., under which certain
obligationsmust be per-formed.
(Specificationsare a part of the
(a;)A statement of work
performedor material fur-nished,
accordingto which payment is to be rendered.
probablecost of a
(verb)." The act of
Quantities." The amount of material to be
Slide. " The movement of a part of the earth under the force of
Specification. " That part of the contract
describingthe materials for or
the details of construction.
Stock-Pass. " A culvert or
the passage of stock.
Unit Price. " The
priceper unit of the various
contract for which a certain work is to be
Washout. " The
carryingoff of the permanent way
erosion of waters.
Right-of-Way. " The land or water
rightsnecessary for the roadbed and
Roadbed. " The finished surface of the
roadwayupon which the track and
Roadway. " That part of the
roadwayis often referred
to as the
Station Grounds. "
Propertyto be used for station purposes.
^Adopted, Vol. 7, 1906, pp. 341, 442, 443; Vol. 11, Part 2, 1910, pp. 1063,
1087; Vol. 16, 1915, pp. 566, 1071.
composedof more or
Channel. " The
depressionor cut in which a stream is confined.
Culvert. " An
arched,circular or flat covered
brick or masonry, carried under the roadbed for the passage of
water, or for other purposes.
Drain. " An artificial waterway for
conductingwater from the
Drainage. " The
interceptionand removal of water
Ditch. " An open artificial waterway for
Intercepting Ditch. " An open artificial waterway for
slopesof a cut or
againstthe foot of an
Subdrain. " A covered
drain,below the roadbed or
Trench. " A
narrow, shallow excavation to receive a structure.
Waterway. " A
channel,either natural or
flow of water.
Average Haul. " The mean distance material is to be hauled.
Average Total Haul. " The
average total distance material isto be hauled.
Benched. " Formed into a series of benches.
space left between the top or toe of
interceptingditches or borrow
space introduced in a
(verb)." To take material from a borrow
(noun)." Material removed from a borrow
Borrow Pit." An excavation made for the
Fill)." A bank of
earth,rock or other material con-structed
above the natural
cuttingdown of the natural
(b)The material taken from
(c)The space formed
Foundation Pit." An excavation made for
layingthe foundation of a
Haul. " The distance material is moved in the construction of the
Free Haul. " The distance within which material is moved without extra
Overhaul. " The number of cubic
throughthe overhaul dis-tance
bythe overhaul distance in units of lOD feet.
Overhaul Distance. " The distance
beyondthe free-haul limit that mate-rial
is hauled in
roadw^ay,for which extra
Ramp. " An inclined
Shrinkage. " The contraction of material.
Stepped. " Formed into a series of steps.
Packed)." Packed down
Total Haul. " The total distance that material is to be hauled.
Waste. " Material from excavation not used in the formation of the
Waste or Spoil Banks. " Banks outside the
GroupG " Tunnels.
Curb. " A
bottom of a shaft to prevent
settlement,or built into the walls
at intervals for the same purpose.
Rock. " A solid mass of mineral substance.
Shaft. " A
pitor well sunk from the
groundsurface above into a tunnel
furnishingventilation or for
increasingthe number of
pointsfrom which it may be carried on.
Tunnel. " An excavated passageway under
Sump)." A cistern or well into which water may be conducted
byditches to drain other
Similarityin the form of
grubbingshould be made in units
of one hundred
(3)A threefold classification of materials : "Solid
Rock" and "Common
specialcases such additional
classification of material as may seem necessary, such additional classes
specifiedin the contract.
(4)Profiles should be made
regardto distribution of
^Adopted, Vol. 4, 1903, pp. 32, 35, 39, 44, 66, 74; Vol. 5, 1904, pp. 688, 719;
(5)The width between center lines of main tracks on tangent should
preferablybe not less than 13
feet;on curves this distance may be
(6)Rock excavations should be taken out not less than six
(7)No waste should be
subgradecloser than ten
(10)feet from the
profilesas to distribution of material should be
gradingfor each of the classes may cover
'WIDTH OF ROADWAY AT SUBGRADE.
railways,with constant and
a minimum permanent width of twenty
theoryupon which the width of embankment at
is based it is considered that the
virtuallya low embankment ; and in order to preserve
immediatelyunder the track
line,the width of
subgradein excavations shovild be made the same as on
outside of which sufficient room should be allowed for side ditches.
'SLOPES OF ROADWAY CROSS-SECTION.
Local conditions and the character of material should
taken into account in
'SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF THE
1. The center of the
roadwayshall conform in alinement to the
^Adopted, Vol. 3, 1902, pp. 34, 37, 43; Vol. 6, 1905, pp. 122, 123.
" ^Adopted, Vol. 3, 1902,
pp. 34, 45; Vol. 6, 1905, pp. 122, 123.
^Adopted. Vol. 4, 1903, pp. 20-29, 33-35, 78-109; Vol. 5, 1904, pp. 675-684,
688, 719; Vol. 6, 1905, pp. 125-136, 143-164; Vol. 11, Part 2, 1910, pp. 1062,
subgrade,and this term indi-cates
the tops of embankments or the bottoms of excavations
receive the ballast.
roadwayshall be formed to the
shown upon the standard
may be directed from time to
4. When finished and
roadwayshall conform to
finishingstakes and shall be of the
feet,exclusive of the
width necessary for ditches. For each additional track an additional
("""")feet shall be made.
slopesof embankments and excavations shall be of the follow-ing
expressedin the ratio of the horizontal distance to the
Embankments,Earth " One and one-half to one ;
Rock " From one to one, to one and one-half to one ;
Excavations,Earth " One and one-half to one;
Loose Rock " One-half to one ;
Solid Rock "
These ratios may be varied
shall be made as directed in each
that may be
reserved,shall be cleared of all trees, brush and
materials of whatsoever nature.
7. All these
materials,except as hereinafter
burned or otherwise
removed,as may be
clearingis to be done, stumps shall be cut close to die
higherthan the stump-top diameter for trees twelve
inches and less in
eighteen (18)inches for
trees whose stump-top diameter exceeds twelve
embankments,where stumps shall be cut so that
fillingover them shall be not less than two and one-half
9. The work of
keptat least one thousand
feet in advance of
10. All trees which may be reserved shall be
strippedof their tops
ties,or cut to such
lengthsas may be
right-of-wayas may be
for which service payment shall be made
bythe cord of one
11. Where isolated trees, or where
exist,payment shall be
made for the removal thereof at a
agreedupon before removal.
12. Measurement of
clearingand payment for the same shall be
units of one hundred
(100)feet square, or fraction
groundfrom w^hich material is to be borrowed as
well as from
ditches,new channels for waterways and other
Grubbingshall also be
slopestakes of all em-bankments
of less than two and one-half
14. The work of
keptat least three hundred
feet in advance of
15. Measurement of
grubbingshall be estimated upon all excavation
two and one-half
Paymentfor the same shall be
units of one hundred
(100)feet square, or fraction
16. The term
specificationsincludes all excava-tions
and embankments for the formation of the
of roads and streams, foundation
pits,and all similar works
to the construction of the
railway,its sidetracks and station
Work Included " Classification.
17. All material excavated shall be classified as "Solid
Excavation,"and such additional classifications of ma-terial
as may be established before the award of the contract.
18. "Solid Rock" shall
compriserock in solid beds or masses in its
original positionwhich may be best removed
blasting;and boulders or
19. "Loose Rock" shall
compriseall detached masses of rock or stone
of more than one cubic foot and less than one cubic
yard,and all other
rock which can be
pickand bar and without blast-ing;
althoughsteam shovel or
blastingmay be resorted to on favorable
occasions in order to facilitate the work.
20. "Common Excavation" shall
compriseall materials that do not
come under the classification of "Solid
Rock,"or such other
classifications as may be established before the award of the contract.
Slopesof all excavations shall be cut true and
loose stones in the
slopesshall be removed.
22. Rock excavation shall be taken out
subgradeand refilled to
Excess Excavation and
23. Excavation in excess of the authorized
cross-section,as well as
lines,shall not be
paidfor unless due
beyondthe control of the contractor or his agents. In all cases the
surplusmaterial shall be removed
bythe contractor without
slopesreformed. The classification of the material shall be in
accordance with its condition at the time of
conditions. The measurement of the material shall be the
regardlessof the classification.
Disposalof Excess Excavation.
24. Where the
quantityof excavation exceeds that
the embankments to standard
surplusshall be used to
widen the embankments
alongone or both
sides,as may be
directed,and no material shall be
depositedin waste banks unless such
waste be indicated either on the
wastingis ordered the material
grade-line,and under no circumstances shall the waste bank
have its nearest
("""")feet of the
26. Where the
quantityof excavation from the
cross-section is insufficient to form the
be made up
cuttingson one or both sides of the center
line,as may be directed. No material shall be taken from borrow
unless such borrow be indicated either on the
27. The classification and
quantitiesshown on the
for distribution of material are
only,and shall in no way
govern the final estimate. The
or diminish the
afifectingthe contract unit
for the various parts of the work.
Gravel,stone or any other material suitable for
specialuse of the
Company,which is found within the
directed. Other suitable material in the
Berme in Rock
29. A berme of
)feet shall be left between
the top of
cuttingsand toe of
ordered,shall be made at the top of the
theymust be maintained to their proper
until the work is
36. Where an embankment is to be
surface shall be
unsuitable material shall be excavated so that the embankment shall be
on a firm foundation.
bogsor swamps of unsound bottom for
logsand brushwood may be
formingthis foundation to be not less than six
(6)inches in diameter at
the small ends. If necessary, there shall be two or more
each other at
closelywith brush. The bottom
placed transverselyto the
slopestakes of the embankment.
Measurements and payment for this substructure shall be
(100)feet square, or decimal
thereof,of area covered
trestles,the material shall be
compactedbetween the trestle bents and around and under all
parts of the structure. In case of train
fillingbymeans of a temporary
trestle,the material shall be
spreadin the fill.
Embankments at Trestles.
abuttingthe ends of trestle
forward upon the structure a distance of at least
with increased width of
)feet in order to form
a full roadbed.
subgradeshall be compact and finished to a true
depressionthat will hold water.
41. Material for embankments over or about masonry or other struc-tures
layer carefully tamped.
Specialcare must be exercised that no excessive strain be
pricefor excavation shall cover the cost of
behind,over and around
all such structures.
42. Land for borrow
pitsor waste banks shall be
pitsshall be connected with ditches and drained to the
nearest water course, when
directed,material shall not
be borrowed to a
depththat will prevent proper
right-of-wayshall be the same
as used in the cross-section of the
roadway.A berme of not less
...(....)feet in width shall be left between
stakes of the embankment and the
edgeof the borrow
pit.A berme of
not less than
)feet shall be left between the
slopeof the borrow
right-of-wayline. Bermes shall
consist of the
pitsshall not be excavated before
theyhave been staked
shapein order to admit of
and accurate measurement.
wastingof material will not be
permittedon land set apart for station
groundsor for other
PRICE AND MEASUREMENT OF GRADING.
Gradingshall be estimated and
prices specifiedfor the
respectivematerials. Measurements shall be made
only,except as hereinafter mentioned.
Work Included in Price.
47. The contract
yardshall include the excavation
of the material
byany method whatsoever ; the
depositof the same in the manner
48. Unless otherwise
distinctlyunderstood that the
yardcovers any haul found necessary. No allow-ance
will be made for any so-termed overhaul.
Alternate Optional Overhaul Clause.
optionaloverhaul clause is recommended to
Roadwayin case itis desired to allow
48-a. No payment shall be made for
haulingmaterial when the
of haul does not exceed the limit of
free-haul,which shall be feet.
The limits of free-haul shall be determined
points" one on each side of the neutral
point" one in excava-tion
and the other in
embankment,such that the distance between them
specifiedfree-haul limit and such that the included
of excavation and embankment shall balance. All haul on material
beyondthe free-haul limit shall be estimated and
paidfor on the basis of
All material within this limit of free-haul shall be eliminated from
The distance between the center of
excavation and center of
limit of free-haul as above
described,shall be the overhaul distance.
Overhaul shall be
computedin units of one cubic
compensationto be rendered therefor shall be
In case material is obtained from borrow
constructed,the haul shall be determined
necessarilytravels. The overhaul shall be determined
multiplyingthe number of cubic
byone-half the round
bythe team, less the free-haul distance. The runways shall
49. If itbe
impracticableto measure borrowed material in
it may be measured in
usingthe cross-section notes of the
justand reasonable allowance for
bulk,so that the
50. No classification or allowance shall be made for loose or solid
rock in borrow
specificwritten instructions are
beingthe intent and
borrowed material shall be classified and
paidfor as common excavation.
Line,Grade and Cross-Section,
51. Tunnels shall be excavated to the
shown upon the
plans,or to such modifications thereof as may be
Bottom of Rock Tunnels.
52. The material from rock tunnels shall be taken out
subgradeand refilled to
Blastingshall be done with all
possiblecare, so as not to
the roof and sides. All insecure
cross-section shall be removed
54. Excavation in excess of the authorized cross-section shall not
Price to Include.
paidfor tunnel excavation shall embrace the cost of
removal of all materials between the outer faces of the
placingof the materials
in embankment or waste
banks,as directed. It shall also include whatever
materials and labor are
requiredfor temporary props, supports and scaf-folding
for the safe
work,as well as all expense of
keepingthe tunnel ventilated and free from water, oil or gas.
Niches or Recesses,
56. Niches or recesses for the
protectionand convenience of the rail-way
location,number and dimensions of all shafts shall be deter-mined.
pricefor them shall cover all materials contained
the connection of the shafts with the tunnel. This
priceshall also cover
all material and labor for
curbingand support of the sides of the shafts
as may be
required,the cost of
keepingthe shafts ventilated and free
from water, oil or gas, as well as the cost of all
58. Wells or sumps within the tunnel necessary for its permanent
drainageshall be made as directed and
paidfor at the same rate per
yardas for tunnel excavation.
59. The contractor
shall,without loss or
construct all roads necessary for his use in the execution of this contract.
60. The contract
yardfor tunnel and shaft excava-tion
respectively,cover any haul found necessary in
agreedupon. There shall be no allowance
for any so-termed overhaul.
CLAUSES SPECIALLY APPLICABLE TO REVISION OF EXIST-ING
LINE OR WIDENING FOR ADDITIONAL TRACK.
Delayto Train Service.
61. The contractor shall arrange his work so that there will be no
delayin any manner with the train service of the Com-pany.
He shall be
byhis acts or those of his
employes.Whenever the work is liable
to affect the movement or
trains,the method of
shall first be submitted for
approval,without which it shall not be com-menced
prosecuted.If continuous detention occurs to the train
completethe work at the expense of the
givinghim written notice.
Safetyof Trains and Tracks.
blastingshall not be
permittedclose to the main
nor shall the contractor be
permittedto transport material
the work as authorized affects the
safetyof the trains or
Companyshall take such
precautionsas it may deem advisable to insure
safety.The cost thereof shall be
chargedto the contractor and deducted
When and How
Company'sTracks May be Moved.
63. The contractor shall not move the
Company'stracks or in any
way interfere with them under any circumstances. Whenever it becomes
necessary that the main line or sidetracks be moved, it shall be done by
Company,and the actual cost thereof charged to the contractor and
deducted from his estimate.
Location of Additional Tracks,
64. The location of the additional track shall be on the
existingline. But whenever it is expedient to change any por-tion
to the opposite side, the altered alinement shall be shown upon the
maps or diagrams furnished
bythe Company, and the contractor shall
conform to the same without extra charge.
65. Wherever the existing embankment of
heightor over is raised or
widened,the slope of the existing
embankment shall be
plowedin order to bind the new material
66. Wherever it is necessary for material of any description to be
transported across the existing track or tracks, the location of the cross-ings
must be approved. The material and labor of
the same shall be furnished by the
Company.The actual cost shall
chargedto the contractor and deducted from his estimate.
Dayand night watchmen shall be furnished by the
the places it may consider necessary for the
and works. The cost shall be charged to the contractor and deducted from
his estimate. It is
distinctlyunderstood, however, that the
such watchmen shall not relieve the contractor from the
for damages caused
68. The cost of installment, maintenance and operation of all
necessary to ensure the safety of trains, consequent upon the contractor's
work, shall be borne by the contractor, and all instructions
69. Previous to or
duringthe work of
grading,the contractor, if
directed,shall erect and maintain temporary fences in order to prevent
trespass upon the
70. The contractor
shall,at his own expense, make and
bythe line of
railway;and he shall be held
whatsoever nature to persons or
leavinggates or fences open,
fires or in other ways. If necessary, the payment of the estimate may be
withheld until such
adjusted.The intention of
the contract is that the
Companyshall not be held
claims or losses incurred
duringthe construction of the line due to the
negligenceof the contractor or his
Changesof Alinement or Gradients.
gradientsand cross-sections of the
well as ditches and other incidental
may be altered in whole or in
part, as deemed necessary, either before or after the commencement of the
changeor alteration shall not affect the unit
specifiedin the contract; nor shall any such
changesor alterations con-stitute
damages,nor shall any claim be made or allowed on
account of such
Snow and Ice,
duringthe progress of the
shall remove all snow and ice from between the
slopestakes at his
Bench Marks and Stakes.
Ti. The contractor shall
carefullypreserve all bench marks and
stakes. In case of
so, he will be
required,the contractor shall
open up a safe road for
passage on horseback and foot
alongthe whole or any
portionof the work
SpecificationsPart of Contract.
generalconditions referred to are dis-tinctly
beingembodied with the contract, the whole
the entire agreement between the
Companyand the Contractor.
givencareful attention in the selec-tion
of a steam shovel for
roadwayconstruction. These are in their order :
(1)Care in the
selection, inspectionand acceptance of all material
that enters into every part of the machine.
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR A MODERN STEAM SHOVEL
OF 70 TONS WEIGHT FOR ROADWAY CONSTRUCTION.
Weightof shovel :
dipper:Two and one-half
pressure: One hundred and twenty
heightabove rail of shovel track at which
dippershould unload :
Depthbelow rail of shovel track at which
Number of movements of
per minute from time of
Character of hoist : Cable.
housing:Permanent for all
Capacityof tank : Two thousand
of coal bunker: Four
specialshort arm should
Form of steam shovel track : "T" rails on ties.
Lengthof rails for
ordinarywork : Six
Form of rail