Project-Noise Pollution

Full text

(1)

Contents

Chapter

Topic

Page

1 Introduction 2

2 What is Noise Pollution 3

3 Types and Effects 4 - 6

4 Statistical analysis 7

5 Noise control strategies 8 - 9

6 Suggestions and recommendations 10

(2)

Chapter- 1

Introduction

Modern technology has created many environmental pollutants of which noise is an immediate and identifiable example. Noise is defined as “Unwanted Sound” which means that, human being the recipient of sound, are the ultimate judges of what noisy sound is and what is not. Decibel is the standard unit for measurement of sound. Usually 80 db is the level at which sound becomes physically painful. And can be termed as noise.

Sound is the form of energy which gives the sensation of hearing and is produced by longitudinal mechanical waves in matter including solid, liquid and gases and transmitted by oscillations of atoms and molecules of matter.

Sound is produced when an object vibrates, alternatively compressing and expanding the air. The compression and expansion travels like wave from the source. They are called waves or simply vibrations.

(3)

Chapter- 2

 What is Pollution?

According to the EPA, “the presence of substance in the environment that, because of its chemical composition or quantity, prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces undesirable environmental and health effects is called noise.”

 Noise Pollution:

Noise can be defined as an unwanted or undesired sound.

Human beings are the judges of sound that which sound is tolerable and which is not. The intolerable sound is known as ‘noise’.

Definition of noise:

The proper definition of noise pollution cannot be defined in one sentence. There are several people had defined noise in different language:

1. Harvell: “Noise is an unwanted sound which increases fatigue and under some industrial

conditions it causes deafness”.

2. Blum: “A distracter and therefore interferes with the efficiency”.

3. J. Tiffin: “Noise is a sound which is disagreeable for the individual and which disturbs the normal

(4)

Chapter- 3

 Different types of noise and its effects on human beings

Noise can be broadly classified under the following three category: 1. Transport noise,

2. Occupational noise, 3. Neighbourhood noise.

1)Transport noise

Noise arising due to different types of transportation is called transport noise. This can be subdivided into-

a. Road traffic noise: Vehicles on road produce irritation for more people than any other noise source. This is because of steady increase in the number of road vehicles and consequently increases of road traffic density.

b. Aircraft noise: It differs from road traffic noise in the sense that it is not continuous but intermittent. There are peak noise levels when aircraft fly overhead and land at the airport. c. Rail traffic noise: The intensity of rail traffic noise is much lower than any other traffic noise.

Usually all railway tracks run through rural areas and so the exposure of rail traffic noise is minimum.

2)Occupational noise:

This is mainly produced by industrial machines and processes which affects millions of people. It also includes noise from domestic articles, i.e. , washing machines, vacuum cleaners and so on. Industrial workers are exposed to noise minimum of 8 hours per day and 6 days per week.

3)Neighbourhood noise:

There are a variety of sources such as, television, radio, DVD players and so on, which disturbs and annoys the general public.

 Effects of Noise Pollution:

1. Deafness, temporary or permanent, is one of the most prevalent effects of noise pollution. Mechanics, locomotive drivers, telephone operators etc all have their hearing impairment. 2. The first and foremost effect of noise is a decrease in the efficiency in working. Research has

proved the fact that human efficiency increases with noise reduction.

3. Too much of noise disturbs the rhythms of working, thereby affecting the concentration

required for doing a work. Noise of traffic or the loud speakers or different types of horns divert the attention, thus causing harm in the working standard.

4. Fatigue caused is another effect of noise. Due to lack of concentration, people need to devote more time to complete their task, which leads to tiredness and fatigue.

(5)

6. Sometimes, being surrounded by too much of noise, people can be victims of certain diseases like blood pressure, mental illness, etc.

7. Noise pollution indirectly affects the vegetation. Plants require cool & peaceful environment to grow. Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops.

8. Animals are susceptible to noise pollution as well. It damages the nervous system of the animals.

9. Noise indirectly weakens the edifice of buildings, bridges and monuments. It creates waves, which can be very dangerous and harmful and put the building in danger condition.

10. Perhaps the most serious problem created by sound pollution is the impact it has on our health. Because sound pollution can trigger the body’s stress response, one of its major health effects is chronic stress and the high levels of stress hormones that go with it. As a result, noise pollution has also been linked with health problems such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. It’s also been linked with musculoskeletal problems, as a Cornell University study on office noise found that those working in noisy office environments can also be less likely to ergonomically adjust their workstations for comfort, which can contribute to physical problems. Noise pollution can also impact sleep quality by preventing sleep and disrupting sleep cycles. And, perhaps most significantly, because chronic stress can lower your immunity to all disease, noise pollution is a general threat to health and wellness.

 Biological effects:

a. Headache due to continuous exposure of sound. b. Increase in the rate of heart-beat.

c. Narrowing of arteries. d. Pain in heart.

e. Digestive spasms through anxiety.

f. Lowering of concentration and effect on memory. g. Muscular strain and nervous breakdown.

 Psychological effects:

a. Depression and fatigue which considerably reduces the efficiency of a person. b. Insomnia as a result of lack of undisturbed and refreshing sleep.

c. Straining of senses and annoyance as a result of slow but persistent noise from motorcycle, alarm clock, cell bells, telephone rings and so on.

d. Affecting of psychomotor performance of a person by a loud sound. e. Emotional disturbance.

(6)

 Below is a table describing the effects observed in various decibel:

Noise (dB) Effects Observed

0 Threshold of audibility

110 Stimulation of reception of skin

120 Pain threshold

130-135 Nausea, vomiting etc.

140 Pain in ear, prolonged exposure causing insanity

150 Change in pulse rate

160 Minor permanent damage if prolonged

190 Major permanent damage in short time

 Diseases:

(7)

Chapter- 4

 Statistical analysis:

The following table describes noise levels in different cities across the globe.

City Noise level (dB)

Mumbai 100 to 180 Kolkata 90 to 170 New Delhi 100 to 160 New York 100 to 120 Washington 90 to 110 Paris 80 to 160 London 100 to 160 Brussels 100 to 160 Amsterdam 90 to 170 Bonn 80 to 115 Frankfurt 110 to 170 Athens 80 to 120 dB =decibel

 Maximum acceptable sound levels in dB inside the buildings: a. Film, broadcasting, T.V., studies- 30

b. Concrete hall and theaters- 35 c. Hospitals, hotels- 40

d. Office, libraries- 45 e. Shops and banks- 50 f. Restaurants- 55 g. Market- 72 to 82

h. A marriage procession- 80 i. Public meeting- 85 to 95 j. Dropping of a pin on floors- 02

(8)

Chapter- 5

 Noise Control Strategies

All noise control problem could be fundamentally denoted as:

Path

Noise control methods generally broken into three parts: 1. Noise control at source,

2. Noise control along the path to receiver, 3. Noise control at the receiver.

1.Noise control at source:

The noise pollution can be controlled at the source of generation by applying the below techniques:  Reducing the noise levels from domestic sectors, such as radio, television, DVD players, washing

machines, mixers. It can be reduced by their selective and judicious operation.

 Regular servicing and tuning, i.e. , maintenance of automobiles will reduce the noise levels.  The vibrations of materials may be controlled using proper foundations, rubber padding etc. to

reduce the noise levels.

 Speaking at low voices while communication reduces the excess noise levels.

 Permission of using loudspeakers in the habitant zone except for important functions should be prohibited.

 Proper lubrication and maintenance of machines, vehicles etc. will reduce noise levels.

2.Noise control at path:

Once sound has left a source and get established in the surrounding medium, either air or structure, of the building, it would travel some distance before reaching the point at which the noise nuisance will take place. When this situation arises, certain steps have to be taken to reduce the transmission of noise as it travels down the path.

Alternatively, vibration energy may transmit through building structure, directly and may arise from direct excitation from the source, where a noise source has been directly coupled with conducting path. Following are some of the ways by which we can reduce transmission:

Multiple layers, sound absorbing materials, design of building, installation of panels or enclosures and so on.

(9)

3.Noise control at receiver:

Noise has been received by people and more exceptionally by delicate instrumentation and it is often necessary to control the noise level received. This is normally achieved by treating the room or area within which the receiver is situated and we therefore have to study the acoustic of these situation.

 Permissible noise level: There exists a little opportunity for noise control of the receiver. Normally by setting permissible noise level have been set for the receiver and engineering technique must be used at the source and in order to limit the exposure of the receiver. On the basis of permissible sound levels, the city areas are usually divided into four zones. The

permissible sound levels are-

Zones Day Night

Industrial 75 dB 65 dB

Commercial 65 dB 55 dB

Residential 55 dB 45 dB

Sensitive zone (upto 100 m. around hospitals, educational institutions)

50 dB 40 dB

 Personal hearing protection: Devices like ear plugs can be used to reduce the intensity of the noise.

 By rotating the job between the workers at a particular noise source or isolating a person, the advance impact can be reduced.

 Administrative technique: regulations prescribe that, noise level of 90 dB for more than 8 hour continuous exposure is prohibited. Persons who are working under such conditions will be exposed to occupational health hazards. The schedule of the workers should be planned in such a way that their exposure to the high noise levels should be reduced.

(10)

Chapter- 6

 Suggestions and recommendations:

The earth is polluted with several polluted materials. We need to be careful to reduce the pollution across the globe, because this is our world and we have the responsibility to save the world. We have to prevent the sources from which the pollution is scattering in the environment. The government of several nations is stepping up to reduce this pollution and making all new acts, we as a responsible citizen have to obey those rules and help them preventing the pollution. If the general public does not obey the rule, no one is going to die except us. So we need to be careful and responsible to save the environment, save the earth.

We should try to low the volume of TV, radio or DVD players.

We should not cross the limit of blowing the loudspeakers in the public places.

We should not blow horns of vehicles in the sensitive areas like hospitals, schools, college, other educational or health organizations.

If somebody is feeling that he/she having some problem with ear or heart, he/she must go to a specialist for a medical check-up at the initial stage.

(11)

 Bibliography:

www.iloveindia.com

 www.healthexpertadvice.org

 Environmental Science- Richard T. Wright, Dorothy F. Boorse  Environment & Ecology- Indranil Ghosh

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :