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Audubon Zoo, 1993
Rodrigo de Almeida Barreto Edwin Hagan-Emmin Dimitra Patrikarakou Joseph Biedenharn Olufunlola Pearce Kimihiro Tateishi Trevor Budd Cohort B
Introduction Discussion Questions:
0. What is the strategy of the zoo and how has it
1. Who are the main stakeholders in the zoo, their
main objectives & relative influence?
2. In what way does the structure of the zoo affect the
influence of its stakeholders?
3. How does the zoo manage its important external
relationships for realising its strategic objectives?
4. How do the current managerial structure, staffing
hinder the zoo director’s plans?
Aims/Strategic objectives – Joe Biedenharn Structure/Stakeholders - Edwin Hagan-Emmin Effectiveness/Conclusion – Trevor Budd
We aim to demonstrate that:
The Mission has guided the strategic direction of the zoo
The strategy of the zoo has changed very little The open structure of the zoo prevents any
singular stakeholders having dominant influence The current strategy & structure of the zoo will continue to be effective in the future as long as it:
Remains innovative in line with the mission Builds on its core competencies
Continues to reflect the values of both its members & volunteers
Focus of National Concern in early 1970s “Animal ghetto”
“An animal concentration camp”
$5.6m zoo improvement plan launched 1972 Recommended by the Bureau of
Governmental Research in 1971
Launched by the Audubon Park Commission 1972
Finally approved by the New Orleans City
Planning Commission 1973 Cohort B
1972 - 1993
Physical facilities grew from 14 to 58 acres Purpose remained to “entertain”
Introduction of admission charges in 1972 saw attendance increase dramatically
Friends of the Zoo (FOTZ)
Founded with 400 voluntary members; elected 24 member board in 1974/5
Aim: to increase support and awareness initially but soon expanded to involve funding, operating and governing the zoo
1972 - 1993
FOTZ, oversaw: Policies
Set membership guidelines
Concessions, fundraising & marketing
Volunteers staffed many of the zoo programs Zoo area patrollers
Assisted in commissary, animal healthcare, wild bird rehab, etc.
Audubon Park Commission: Set actual policy
Controlled operations Set zoo hours
Set admission prices Etc.
1972 - 1993
FOTZ became the “Audubon Institute” in 1988 to reflect its growing interests:
Fundraising: “Adopt an animal”, “Zoo-to-do” Membership: 400 in 1974, peaked at 3800 in 1990
Concessions: 1976 profits were $1,500, peaking at $700,000 in 1988
1972 - 1993
Award winning advertising campaigns In 1984 only 36% were tourists
Educational activities: Junior zoo keepers, Student internships & Zoomobile, for external events
Attributed to FOTZ, continuing attendance increases and creativity in special events & programs
Corporate support high; In 1989 the fundraising goal was $1,500,000
1972 - 1993
By the late 1980’s:
Virtually spotless - adequate staffing & pride 93% of visitors gave a high approval rating One of the top 3 zoos of its size in the U.S.A. Almost financially self sufficient by 1987
Organisation expanded with a full compliment of professionals & managers
Cohort B External Environment Internal Situation CEO, Top management team Organization Design Effectiveness Outcomes Role of an organisation`s Mission
Core of a company’s Strategic Direction Purpose – ‘Why the Company Exists’ Values – ‘What the Company Believes In’
The mission of the Audubon Institute is to
cultivate awareness and
appreciation of life and the earth’s
resources and to help conserve and
enrich our natural world.
Audubon Institute Mission Statement
Strategic DirectionCohort B Membership FOTZ Staff Local Community Stakeholders
Whose interests should the Mission address? City / State
The Institute’s primary objectives: (integral part of the mission statement)
Conservation: To participate in the global effort to conserve natural resources by developing and maintaining captive stocks of endangered plants, animals, and marine life, and by cooperating with related projects in the wild.
Education: To impart knowledge and understanding of the interaction of nature and man through programs, exhibits, and
publications and to encourage public participation in global conservation efforts.
Research: To foster the collection and dissemination of scientific information that will enhance the conservation and educational
objectives of the facilities of the Audubon Institute.
Economics: To ensure long-range financial security by sound fiscal management and continued development, with funding through creative means to encourage corporate, foundation, and individual support.
Leadership: To serve as a model in the civic and professional communities. To foster a spirit of cooperation, participation, and rise.
Expansion of Programs and
Marketing and Advertising
Grow Financial Resources
Educational Programmes, etc.
Fulfilling the mission statement
Entertainment, breeding animal species,
conducting research and educating the public It hasn’t changed in principle, however it now:
Has increased focus on partnering with the community
Strives for never ending innovation to stimulate attendance, visitors & staff (inc. to motivate) Aims to be completely self-funding with an increased focus on its economic position Strategy & how has it changed?
In what way does the structure of the zoo affect the influence of different stakeholders?
STRATEGY / STRUCTURE External Environment Internal Situation CEO, Top management team Organization Design Effectiveness Outcomes Strategic Direction Cohort B
The zoo`s operational structure is hierarchical Weber study in organisation growth as most efficient structure
The collaborative nature of the organisation structure tempers unrestricted influence
Organisations bounded by mission and culture will have specific mechanisms for restricting dominant influence
A notion of Power Equilibrium between
stakeholders fostered via an open organisation structure Cohort B MISSION Audubon Structure Stakeholders Local Community
Friends of the Zoo City/State
The zoo is a collection of varied stakeholders with differed levels
What bonds the stakeholders – Internal & External? MISSION
STRATEGY CULTURE ACHIEVEMENTS VALUES STAKEHOLDERS SENSE OF MISSION & LEGITIMACY
The Structural Glue!
Cohort B External Environment Internal Situation CEO, Top management team Organization Design Effectiveness / Conclusion Strategic Direction
Has mission, strategy & structure
How Effective? Very!!!
By 1987, Audubon Zoo had managed to become an almost self-sufficient organization: the small
amount of money received from government grants amounted to less than 10% of the budget.
If non-profit organizations’ effectiveness is a matter of comparison, Audubon Zoo is again effective:
“Delegates from the American Association of
Zoological Parks and Aquariums ranked the Audubon Zoo as one of the top three zoos of its size in
Increase in the number of both Paid and Member Admissions
Increase in the number of Memberships
strategy and mission Internal & External
Stakeholders’ Interests reflected
in the MISSION STRATEGY STRUCTURE
Further emotional investment of Stakeholders
Audubon zoo has been extremely successful & will continue to be extremely successful as:
There is a strong sense of Mission guiding overall strategy, which has changed very little The structure of the zoo, with its many
stakeholders, controls their individual influence & facilitates the aims of the Director
The current strategy & structure of the zoo will continue to be effective in the future if:
It follows its core competencies and the values of both it’s members & volunteers Remains innovative