Audubon Zoo, 1993  Case Analysis


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Cohort B

Audubon Zoo, 1993

Case Analysis

Rodrigo de Almeida Barreto Edwin Hagan-Emmin Dimitra Patrikarakou Joseph Biedenharn Olufunlola Pearce Kimihiro Tateishi Trevor Budd Cohort B

Introduction Discussion Questions:

0. What is the strategy of the zoo and how has it


1. Who are the main stakeholders in the zoo, their

main objectives & relative influence?

2. In what way does the structure of the zoo affect the

influence of its stakeholders?

3. How does the zoo manage its important external

relationships for realising its strategic objectives?

4. How do the current managerial structure, staffing


hinder the zoo director’s plans?

Cohort B


Audubon Zoo:

Aims/Strategic objectives – Joe Biedenharn Structure/Stakeholders - Edwin Hagan-Emmin Effectiveness/Conclusion – Trevor Budd

Cohort B

Executive Summary

We aim to demonstrate that:

The Mission has guided the strategic direction of the zoo

The strategy of the zoo has changed very little The open structure of the zoo prevents any

singular stakeholders having dominant influence The current strategy & structure of the zoo will continue to be effective in the future as long as it:

Remains innovative in line with the mission Builds on its core competencies

Continues to reflect the values of both its members & volunteers

Cohort B


Focus of National Concern in early 1970s “Animal ghetto”


“An animal concentration camp”

$5.6m zoo improvement plan launched 1972 Recommended by the Bureau of

Governmental Research in 1971

Launched by the Audubon Park Commission 1972

Finally approved by the New Orleans City

Planning Commission 1973 Cohort B

1972 - 1993

Physical facilities grew from 14 to 58 acres Purpose remained to “entertain”

Introduction of admission charges in 1972 saw attendance increase dramatically

Friends of the Zoo (FOTZ)

Founded with 400 voluntary members; elected 24 member board in 1974/5

Aim: to increase support and awareness initially but soon expanded to involve funding, operating and governing the zoo

Cohort B

1972 - 1993

FOTZ, oversaw: Policies

Set membership guidelines

Concessions, fundraising & marketing

Volunteers staffed many of the zoo programs Zoo area patrollers


Assisted in commissary, animal healthcare, wild bird rehab, etc.

Audubon Park Commission: Set actual policy

Controlled operations Set zoo hours

Set admission prices Etc.

Cohort B

1972 - 1993

FOTZ became the “Audubon Institute” in 1988 to reflect its growing interests:

Fundraising: “Adopt an animal”, “Zoo-to-do” Membership: 400 in 1974, peaked at 3800 in 1990

Concessions: 1976 profits were $1,500, peaking at $700,000 in 1988

Cohort B

1972 - 1993

Award winning advertising campaigns In 1984 only 36% were tourists

Promotional programs

Educational activities: Junior zoo keepers, Student internships & Zoomobile, for external events


Attributed to FOTZ, continuing attendance increases and creativity in special events & programs

Corporate support high; In 1989 the fundraising goal was $1,500,000

Cohort B

1972 - 1993

By the late 1980’s:

Virtually spotless - adequate staffing & pride 93% of visitors gave a high approval rating One of the top 3 zoos of its size in the U.S.A. Almost financially self sufficient by 1987

Organisation expanded with a full compliment of professionals & managers

Cohort B External Environment Internal Situation CEO, Top management team Organization Design Effectiveness Outcomes Role of an organisation`s Mission


Core of a company’s Strategic Direction Purpose – ‘Why the Company Exists’ Values – ‘What the Company Believes In’

Strategic Direction

Strategic Direction

Cohort B

The mission of the Audubon Institute is to

cultivate awareness and

appreciation of life and the earth’s

resources and to help conserve and

enrich our natural world


Audubon Institute Mission Statement

Strategic Direction

Cohort B Membership FOTZ Staff Local Community Stakeholders

Whose interests should the Mission address? City / State



High Ideals

Strategic Direction

Cohort B

Strategic Direction

The Institute’s primary objectives: (integral part of the mission statement)

Conservation: To participate in the global effort to conserve natural resources by developing and maintaining captive stocks of endangered plants, animals, and marine life, and by cooperating with related projects in the wild.

Education: To impart knowledge and understanding of the interaction of nature and man through programs, exhibits, and

publications and to encourage public participation in global conservation efforts.

Research: To foster the collection and dissemination of scientific information that will enhance the conservation and educational

objectives of the facilities of the Audubon Institute.

Economics: To ensure long-range financial security by sound fiscal management and continued development, with funding through creative means to encourage corporate, foundation, and individual support.

Leadership: To serve as a model in the civic and professional communities. To foster a spirit of cooperation, participation, and rise.

Cohort B



Expansion of Programs and


Marketing and Advertising

Raising Awareness

Grow Financial Resources

Encourage Participation

Educational Programmes, etc.

Cohort B

Fulfilling the mission statement

Entertainment, breeding animal species,

conducting research and educating the public It hasn’t changed in principle, however it now:

Has increased focus on partnering with the community

Strives for never ending innovation to stimulate attendance, visitors & staff (inc. to motivate) Aims to be completely self-funding with an increased focus on its economic position Strategy & how has it changed?

Strategic Direction

Cohort B


Organisation Design

In what way does the structure of the zoo affect the influence of different stakeholders?

STRATEGY / STRUCTURE External Environment Internal Situation CEO, Top management team Organization Design Effectiveness Outcomes Strategic Direction Cohort B

Organisation Design

The zoo`s operational structure is hierarchical Weber study in organisation growth as most efficient structure

The collaborative nature of the organisation structure tempers unrestricted influence


Organisations bounded by mission and culture will have specific mechanisms for restricting dominant influence

A notion of Power Equilibrium between

stakeholders fostered via an open organisation structure Cohort B MISSION Audubon Structure Stakeholders Local Community

Friends of the Zoo City/State


The zoo is a collection of varied stakeholders with differed levels

of influence

Organisation Design


Cohort B

What bonds the stakeholders – Internal & External? MISSION



The Structural Glue!

Cohort B External Environment Internal Situation CEO, Top management team Organization Design Effectiveness / Conclusion Strategic Direction


Has mission, strategy & structure

been effective?

Cohort B

How Effective? Very!!!

By 1987, Audubon Zoo had managed to become an almost self-sufficient organization: the small

amount of money received from government grants amounted to less than 10% of the budget.

If non-profit organizations’ effectiveness is a matter of comparison, Audubon Zoo is again effective:

“Delegates from the American Association of

Zoological Parks and Aquariums ranked the Audubon Zoo as one of the top three zoos of its size in



Cohort B

Increase in the number of both Paid and Member Admissions

Cohort B

Increase in the number of Memberships

Cohort B



strategy and mission Internal & External

Stakeholders’ Interests reflected


Further emotional investment of Stakeholders

Cohort B


Audubon zoo has been extremely successful & will continue to be extremely successful as:

There is a strong sense of Mission guiding overall strategy, which has changed very little The structure of the zoo, with its many

stakeholders, controls their individual influence & facilitates the aims of the Director

The current strategy & structure of the zoo will continue to be effective in the future if:

It follows its core competencies and the values of both it’s members & volunteers Remains innovative

Cohort B

Audubon Zoo, 1993

Case Analysis




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