Dissertation presented as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree
Master of Music (Performance)
Faculty of Humanities
University of Cape Town
Supervisor: Prof. James May
The copyright of this thesis vests in the author. No
quotation from it or information derived from it is to be
published without full acknowledgement of the source.
The thesis is to be used for private study or
non-commercial research purposes only.
Published by the University of Cape Town (UCT) in terms
of the non-exclusive license granted to UCT by the author.
I, the undersigned, declare that this dissertation is my own, unaided work. It is being submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music (Performance). It has not been previously submitted in its entirety or in part for any degree or examination at any other university.
... .Liesl StoI'tZ
The French flute tradition is remarkable and is admired by flautists, teachers and students of the flute all over the world. The dissertation researched the development of this tradition from the pre-Baroque period through to the modern era and tried to determine the underlying factors that stimulated its development specifically in France.
The first key was added to the flute in France and with this the Hotteteres created the blueprint for the modern flute of today. During the Classical period the conservative French retarded the development of the instrument and the repertoire for the flute by initially rejecting additional keys. But Thomas Lot became famous throughout Europe for his four-piece, one-keyed flutes and Fran~,ois Devienne composed wonderful chamber music. During the Romantic period, Godfroy and Lot became the first manufacturers of the Boehm flute in the world and the French produced brilliant flautists, such as Paul Taffanel, Philipe Gaubert, George Barerre and Louis Fleury. Some regard Paul Taffanel as the most prominent flautist of the nineteenth century and Altes, Taffanel and Gaubert wrote important flute methods, which were used, and still are, by flautists all over the world.
Brilliant French flautists and teachers of the twentieth century are Marcel Moyse, Rene Le Roy, Jean-Pierre Rampal, Michel Debost, Pierre-Yves Artaud (to name but a few) and the French style of flute playing achieved world wide recognition during this century. Jean-Pierre Rampal established the flute as solo instrument and Francis Poulenc's Sonata for flute and piano and Syrinx by Claude Debussy form part of every flautist's repertoire.
The research indicates that various factors stimulated the development of such a strong tradition. These are: the cultural environment in general; the presence of outstanding families of flute crafters over many years, especially from the village of Le Couture-Boussey; the establishment of the Conservatoire National Superieur de Musique de Paris in 1795; the centralised system of music education; as well as the French language.
Dedicated to my parents, Andre and Betsy and my sister, Christelle
Upon completion of this dissertation I would like to thank the following people and institutions :
Prof. James May, my supervisor, for his guidance, motivation, effort and patience.
The South African College of Music, University of Cape Town, for ftnancial support.
Eva Tamassy, who planted the ftrst seed, for her encouragement through all the years.
Shigenori Kudo, who introduced me to the French flute tradition.
Pierre-Yves Artaud, for his willingness to answer many questions.
Peter-Lukas Graf, for his example and his trust in me.
My parents, for their support and love.
________________________________________ CONTENTS1. 1 Orientation 1.2 Problem Statement 1.3 Methodology CHAPTER! INTRODUCTION
PARTl1 3 5
THE ROLE OF FRENCH FLUTE MANUFACTURERS, FLAUTISTS,
TEACHERS AND COMPOSERS FROM THE PRE-BAROQUE
THROUGH TO THE MODERN ERA
FRENCH MANUFACTURERS, FLAUTISTS, TEACHERS AND COMPOSERS OF THE PRE-BAROQUE AND BAROUQUE PERIODS
2.2 Pre-Baroque Period 2.3 Baroque Period
2.3.1 Flute Crafters and the Instrument 22.214.171.124 The Hotteterre Dynasty
126.96.36.199 Other French Baroque flute crafters 2.3.2 Flautist-Teachers
188.8.131.52 Flautists employed by Louis XIV
184.108.40.206 Flautists under the patronage of the aristocracy 2.3.3 French Composers of the Baroque
220.127.116.11 Background overview 18.104.22.168 Composers and repertoire
6 6 8 8 10 13 16 17 18 20 20 22
2.4 Summary and Conclusion 31
FRENCH FLUTE MANUFACTURERS, FLAUTISTS, TEACHERS AND COMPOSERS OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD.
3. 1 Introduction
3.2 Th~ Conservatoire National Superieur de Musique de Paris 3.3 The acceptance of additional keys
3.4 Manufacturers and the Instrument 3.4. 1 The Hotteterres
3.4.2 Charles Delusse 3.4.3 Claude Laurent 3 .4.4 Thomas Lot
3.4.5 Clair Godfroy Aine
3.5 French Classical Flautists-Teachers and Composers
3.5.1 Background Overview
3.5.2 Flautists - Teachers and Composers 22.214.171.124 Charles Delusse
126.96.36.199 Franyois-Joseph Gossec 188.8.131.52 Felix Rault
184.108.40.206 Johan Georg Wunderlich 3.52.5 Franyois Devienne 220.127.116.11 Antoine Hugot
18.104.22.168 Benoit-Tranquille Berbiguier 3.6 Summary and Conclusions
CHAPTER 4 32 33 33 36 36 36 36 38 38 39 39 41 41 42 42 42 42 44 45 46
FRENCH MANUFACTURERS, FLAUTISTS, TEACHERS AND COMPOSERS OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
4. 1 Introduction
4.2 Manufacturers and the Instrument 4.2.1 Theobald Boehm
4.2.2 French Manufacturers and Modifications to the Boehm flute 22.214.171.124 Borne - Julliot
126.96.36.199 Buffet - Crampon 188.8.131.52 Godfroy and Lot 184.108.40.206 Herouard Freres 220.127.116.11 Louis Lot
18.104.22.168 Jean-Louis Tulou
4.3 French Romantic Flautists-Teachers and Composers 4.3.1 Background Overview
4.3.2 Flautists-Teachers and Composers 22.214.171.124 Jean-Louis Tulou
126.96.36.199 Louis Drouet
188.8.131.52 Paul-Hippo lite Camus 184.108.40.206 Victor Coche
220.127.116.11 Josephe-Henri Altes 18.104.22.168 Paul Agricole Genin 22.214.171.124 Jules Demersseman 126.96.36.199 Paul Taffanel 188.8.131.52 Philippe Gaubert 4.3 .3 Flautists-Teachers 184.108.40.206 Joseph Guillou 220.127.116.11 Vincent Dorus 18.104.22.168 Adolphe Hennebains 22.214.171.124 Georges Barrere 126.96.36.199 Louis Fleury 4.4 Summary and Conclusions
49 49 49 53 53 54 55 58 58 59 60 60 64 64 64 65 66 67 67 67 68 69 69 69 70 71 72 72 73
FRENCH MANUFACTURERS, FLAUTISTS, TEACHERS AND COMPOSERS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
5.1 Introduction 75
5.2 Manufacturers and the Instrument 76
5.2.1 Louis Lot 76
5.2.2 Marigaux and Couesnon 77
5.2.3 Jack LefT flutes 77
5.2.4 Other minor modifications 78
188.8.131.52 Jean Barjon 78
184.108.40.206 Michel Parmenon 78
220.127.116.11 Thibouville-Iamy & Cie 78
18.104.22.168 Louis-Ferrand Vique 79 5.3 Flautists-teachers 79 5.3.1 Marcel Moyse 79 5.3.2 Gaston Crunelle 83 5.3.3 Rene Ie Roy 83 5.3.4 Jean-Pierre Rampal 84 5.3.5 Mi chel Debost 86 5.3.6 Maxence Larrieu 86 5.3.7 Alain Marion 86 5.3.8 Jean-Claude Gerard 87 5.3.9 Pierre-Yves Artaud 88 5.3.10 Philippe Bernold 89 5.3.11 Patrick Gallois 90 5.3 .12 Emmanuel Pahud 9]
5.4 Modern French Composers 91
5.4.1 Background Overview 91
5.4.2 Composers and Repertoire 92 22.214.171.124 Gabriel Faure 92 126.96.36.199 Claude Debussy 93 188.8.131.52 Albert Roussel 94 184.108.40.206 Maurice Ravel 94 220.127.116.11 Philippe Gaubert 95 18.104.22.168 Les Six 96 22.214.171.124 La Jeune France 98 126.96.36.199 Pierre Boulez 101 188.8.131.52 Jacques Ibert 102 184.108.40.206 0 Jean Rivier 103 220.127.116.11 Eugene Bozza 103 18.104.22.168 Jean Franyaix 104 22.214.171.124 Henri Dutilleux 104 126.96.36.199 Jean-Michel Damage 104
5.5 Summary and Conclusion 106
ELEMENTS OF THE FRENCH FLUTE TRADITION
THE QUALITIES, RELEVANCE AND INTERNATIONAL DISSEMINATJON OF THE FRENCH FLUTE TRADITION
6.1 Introduction 107
6.2 Defining the French Style of Flute Playing 107
6.3 Unique Qualities of the French Style 109
6.3.1 Tone 109
6.3.2 Vibrato 110
6.3.3 Articulation 1 I I
6.3.4 Breath control 112
6.4 Factors that enhanced the standard of French flute playing 112
6.4.1 The Cultural Environment 113
6.4.2 The System of Music Education in France 113
6.4.3 The C.N.S.M. lIS
6.4.4 The Ecole Normale de Musique de Paris: Alfred Cortot 116
6.4.5 The French Language 116
6.4.6 Flute Crafters/Manufacturers 117
6.5 The Intemational Dissemination of the French Flute Tradition 118
6.5.1 Tours 120
6.5.2 Emigration 121
6.5.3 Master Classes
6.5.5 Foreign Flautists who studied in France
188.8.131.52 American 184.108.40.206 English 220.127.116.11 German 18.104.22.168 Japanese 22.214.171.124 Italian 126.96.36.199 Spanish 188.8.131.52 Swiss
6.5.6 The French-model flute
122 123 123 123 123 123 123 123 124 124 124
6.6 The status of French or French-trained Flautists Internationally 125
6.6.1 French Trained Flautists on Juries ofInternational Competitions 125
6.6.2 The Performance of French Trained Flautists in International Competitions 126
6.7 Summary and Conclusion
Bibliography CHAPTER 7 GENERAL CONCLUSION 127 129 131
Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Appendix 6 Appendix 7
List of Appendices
Flute Manufacturers of the Baroque French Compositions of the Baroque Flute Manufacturers of the Classical Period French Compositions of the Classical Period Flute Manufacturers of the Romantic Period French Compositions of the Romantic Period French Compositions of the Twentieth Century
The flute became popular in France with the troubadours. These poet-composers were very popular especially in Provence, Southern France (Grout & Palisca; 1998:84). In the study of early French musical life, the troubadours are of great importance. They were active for about two centuries, from the end of the eleventh to the end of the thirteenth century. During the troubadour times, the three-holed flute, known as the galoubet, was popular and used in lighter music and according to Bate (1975:71) this flute is still the main accompaniment to folk dances in France.
From the twelfth- to the fourteenth century, France was Europe's most important centre of musical culture, which coincides with the period of great intellectual development under the influence of the University of Paris and of the wonderful blossoming of French Gothic architecture (Scholes; 1989:382). From the middle of the fourteenth century France was for many years involved in terrible wars and also experienced great domestic turmoil.l However, what really is remarkable, is that Paris remained the cultural city of
Toff (1996:225) claims that Paris was still the musical capital of Europe from the mid-eighteenth century until the outbreak of the French revolution in 1789. She furthermore refers to a report in The Almanach Musical according to which Paris, with a population of 500,000, had 194 composers, sixty-three singing teachers, ninety-three violin teachers,
1 Between 1353 and 1453 France was involved in the War of Hundred Years with England. In the second half of the
sixteenth century France had religious wars which ended when Hendrik IV became the first Bourbon Icing. (He was a
Protestant, but accepted the Catholics and the situation stabilised.)
and thirty flute teachers in~ 1783. There were also fifty-three luthiers, eighteen clavecin makers, eight fortepiano makers, and eight woodwind crafters! This environment stimulated the development of a strong music tradition.
The transverse flute took hold firstly in France, which is logical, given its French invention and then, by the turn of the eighteenth century, also in Gennany (Toff; 1996: 188). However, the transverse flute passed through several structural phases (Carse; 1939: 101). At first it was a simple tube or reed which was blown across one end. During the middle ages and renaissance it consisted of a cylindrical tube which was closed at one end, blown across a side mouth hole and was provided with six evenly spaced finger holes. It
was mainly in the tonality of D and G. Cross fmgerings made the playing of chromatic notes possible within the two-octave range.
During the Baroque era the cylindrical tube changed to a conical one that had a contracting bore through the body with six finger holes and one key, the D#-key. French flute crafters added the first key and made an exceptional contribution towards the development of the instrument. The Frenchman Thomas Lot became world famous for his four-piece one-keyed flutes.
Manufacturers increasingly thought that by adding more keys, finger-technique would benefit. Some French flautists objected to this, which retarded the development of the instrument and as a result the flute was standardised much later than the violin. Eventually more keys were added and the four-keyed flute came into being during the eighteenth century.
During the Romantic era at first the eight-keyed flute was the standard instrument and then Theobald Boehm came with his invention in 1832. But it was his 1847-model, as modified by French manufacturers, which stood the test of time.
In the Baroque period, most flautists composed their own music. This was done until the Romantic period, where most of the general repertoire for the flute was by French-flautist
composers. Also in the twentieth century, the contribution of French composers to the repertoire for the flute, is enormous. France also produced brilliant flautists who became great virtuosos and toured extensively and spread the flute tradition far beyond the borders of France. And flute students from all over the world go to Paris to learn from the great teachers.
French crafters/manufacturers2 , flautists, teachers and composers all contributed to the development of the French flute tradition. The establishment of the Conservatoire National Superieur de Musique de Paris (generally known as C.N .S.M.) in 1795 also had a profound influence on the development of this amazing tradition.
1 .2 Problem Statement
As with fashion, art or cuisine, there are many different styles of flute playing. However, Nancy Toff (1996: 100) claims that the supremacy of the French woodwind playing has been recognised for more than a hundred years, but that the style only achieved international predominance during the twentieth century. She adds: "Today, if there can be said to be an International Style of flute playing, it is an outgrowth of the French style. "
Several foreign flautists openly admired and adopted the so-called French style, amongst them the legendary Sir Geoffrey Gilbert3 (Floyd; 1990:8), who claimed that a lasting impression was made on him after he heard several concerts and recording sessions of Marcel Moyse and Rene Le Roy. Many world-renown flautists of today, such as William Bennett (English), Peter-Lukas Graf (Swiss) and Paula Robison (American), to mention but a few, were trained in France.
2 Initially flute makers were instrument crafiers rather than formal manufacturers.
3 Geoffrey Gilben was a well-known English flautist, once principal flute of the London Philharmonic and international performer.
Many questions come to the fore, such as why such a strong flute tradition developed in France; what factors contributed to the development of this tradition and how relevant is it in the today's globalised world.
The goals of this dissertation are therefore:
to provide a broad overview· of the development of French flute tradition over the years;
to summarise the contribution of the most important French flute crafiers, flautists, teachers and composers;
to detennine the factors which stimulated this development;
to highlight the special qualities of the French style of flute playing; to explain the dissemination of this tradition to various other countries; to comment on the relevance of the French tradition today.
The research consists mainly of a study of the existing literature on the French flute tradition and the so-called French flute school. Infonnal discussions were held with Shigenori Kudo, Pierre-Yves Artaud, Peter-Lukas Graf and Jean Ferrandes.4 A
questionnaire regarding the relevance of the French tradition in recent times was compiled and forwarded bye-mail to various internationally acclaimed flautists.
The dissertation is divided into two sections. PART ONE, consisting of chapters two to five, provides a broad overview of the contribution of French flute crafiers/manufacturers, flautists, teachers and composers to the development of the flute tradition. The discussion is in chronological order from the middle-ages through to the modem period. The very important role of the Conservatoire National Superieur de Musique de Paris and other institutions are also briefly commented on.
4 The author studied with these teachers in France and Italy from 1995 to 2001.
PART TWO, consisting of chapter six and seven, discusses the relevance of the French flute tradition in the global world of today. It summarises the special qualities of the French style and the factors that enhanced the development of the strong tradition. It also explains the international dissemination of the tradition and evaluates its position today.
The role of French Flute Manufacturers, Flautists,
Teachers and Composers from the Pre-Baroque through
to the Modem Era
FRENCH MANUFACTURERS, FLAUTISTS, TEACHERS AND COMPOSERS OF THE PRE-BAROQUE AND BAROQUE PERIODS
Up to this stage in the history of the flute, there were various types of flutes such as recorders, flageolets, galoubets (French tabor pipe). There is much evidence that the flute was a popular instrument especially suitable for soft and charming music. Flutes featured prominently in many poems and several paintings, which can be seen in castles throughout France today.
The aim of this chapter is to show how flute crafters, flautists, teachers and composers of the sixteenth- to the mid-eighteenth centuries contributed towards the development of the French art of flute playing. The chapter is divided into two broad sections, the pre-Baroque and the pre-Baroque periods.
Unfortunately, the names of French flute crafters of this era are largely unknown and there also exists practically no information on the construction of the instruments, on the repertoire, performers or performing techniques of these early times (Powell; 2002). The fIrst instrument makers appeared during the seventeenth century in the community of the turners or batons de chaises. They made both end-blown (flauto diretto or recorder) and
side-blown (transverse) flutes.5
5 According to Carse (1939:102) the Renaissance cylindrical flute was made from wood, closed at the one end and
blown across a side mouth hole. It was provided with six evenly spaced finger holes and was in the tonality of D or G.
Cross fingerings made it possible to play almost all the chromatic notes within the two-octave range.
Claude Rafi (1515-1553), a French instrument crafter who made flutes and recorders and worked in Lyon, was regarded as one of the most celebrated artisans of the sixteenth century (Howard et al; 1984:777). He is first mentioned in 1515 in the archives of Lyons as 'fleustier' (flautist). Only a handful of Rafi originals survived, including end-blown flutes such as a tenor recorder conserved at Bruges, Belgium and another in Eisenach, Germany, as well as a tenor and a small bass recorder in Bologne, France (pottier; 2002).
The manufacturing business of Mathurin (also named Methelin or Mathieu) de la Noue flourished in Lyon in the first part of the sixteenth century. He later moved to Paris where he lived in Rue de la Megisserie until his death in 1544. He made Jlustes d'allamand coupees, (two-jointed German flutes), fifes, chalumeaux and oboes (Carroll; 1999:49; Pottier; 2002). The construction of the instruments in two parts enabled the player to slide the two parts together, thereby changing the pitch of the instrument. His attempt to make the flute tuneable was a remarkable development in the history of the flute.
The far-sighted Frenchman, Marin Mersenne (1588-1649), realised that the flute could be made fully chromatic by the addition of keys. He even provided an illustration of what such keys might look like. However, the flute acquired its first key more than fifty years later (Toff; 1996:43).
The flautists of this era were most probably troubadours (See p. 1.) who also composed their own songs. According to Guillebert de Metz, Chenenudy was probably the first French flautist of which the name is known (Duchamel; 1953:44).
Compositions of this period were mainly for festive occasions, such as weddings and feasts. Troubadours composed music with no specific instrumental indications and melodies could be played by violin, flute or oboe accompanied by a lute. Musicians probably improvised freely while performing. According to Baines (1943:234) the flute was used for soft music composed by troubadours as accompaniment for their love songs. Examples are songs by Josquin des Pres and Clement Jannequin.
Pierre Attaingnant, the first French printer of music (Grout & Palisca; 1998:250), published two volumes of songs namely Chansons musicales a quatre parties (1533) and
Vingt & Sept chansons musicales a quatre parties (1533). Some of these were marked as being particularly suitable for performance by flutes or consorts of recorders (Carroll; 1999:48; Howard et al; 1984:776).
The Frenchman Simon Gorlier published the only pedagogical treatise of the sixteenth century: the so-called Livre de tabulateur de flutes d'Allemand, in Lyons in 1558. These texts (later called methods) were to playa very important role in the development of the French tradition. Unfortunately no copies of Gorlier's treatise survived.
2.3 Baroque Period
This section is divided into three subsections in which the contribution of French flute crafters, flautist-teachers and composers is discussed.
2.3.1 Flute Crafters and the Instrument
A very remarkable group of artiste-ouvriers who served the French Court during the reign of Louis XN (1643-1715) are known to have reformed many of the early
woodwind instruments (Bate; 1975:78). These instrumentalists and crafters were influenced by, but also influenced, the changing musical values and norms of their time.
In the early seventeenth century the instrument was just less than two feet in length, in the tonality of D (Getreau; 1991 :32) and it had no keys. Johann Joachim Quantz, famous German flute player and teacher of Frederick the Great, wrote in 1752 in his Versuch that the D#-key, the first key the flute acquired, was first added in France (See pll), and that
it was then (1752) not yet a hundred years old. Although it is unclear at what exact time the one-piece Renaissance flute became the one-keyed conical Baroque flute, it appears that the Baroque flute existed in France well before the end of the seventeenth century (Carse: 1939:84).
The French flute of the late seventeenth century had the following features: its construction in made from either wood or ivory, three sections (and later four), a cylindro-conical bore that was pierced by seven holes; the closed D#-key that controlled the seventh fmger hole and the tonality of D major (Howard et al; 1984:777). Chromatic notes were, for example, produced by means of complicated fmgerings or by the obstruction of half of a hole (Fleury; 1923:525). The conical flute thus replaced the medieval cylindrical flute and became the standard instrument through much of the eighteenth century.
It is not until the year 1707 that there is evidence of the regular use of the transverse flute in France (Fleury; 1923:524). It must not however be taken for granted that the new instrument achieved its supremacy at once and that it immediately replaced the direct flute in the orchestra. For some time the direct- and transverse flutes were used together. 6
Notices can be found in numerous scores stating "for transverse or direct flute", yet this duality did not continue for long. 7
Around 1700 to 1720 the three-piece, one-keyed flute, commonly called the Hotteterre flute, was the standard. (See pp. 10-12.) This three-piece transverse flute had a cork stopper in its head-joint, which could be adjusted by the player in order to tune the instrument. The cork was usually covered by a decorative crown, which made access a complicated process when a quick adjustment was required.
A major development occurred in the early 1720s in France, when the four-piece flute made its appearance. The middle joint of the flute was divided in two sections, each with three holes .
6 The direct flute, end-blown flute or "Flauto diretto", is a type of recorder.
7 It can be accepted that from Haydn onwards the side-blown instrument is intended, though Mozart used the flageolet and so did Gluck.
Because the flute then had four sections, manufacturers could supply a set of inter-changeable joints or corps de rechange8 for the upper sections of the body (Howard et al;
1984:778). Easy access to the cork now became necessary for every time a different
corps de rechange was used, the position of the cork had to be altered (Carroll; 1999:54).
Unfortunately, this crucial period in the development of the transverse flute is poorly documented. As a result it is extremely difficult to determine which individual craftsman is responsible for each of the vital woodwind inventions that originated during this time, all of them apparently in France and according to Baines (1943:276) probably within the circle of Parisian crafters.
Various other sources, such as Tula Giannini (1993: 1), stress the importance of La Couture-Boussey in the fabrication of woodwind instruments. In this Normandy village of La Couture-Boussey, woodturning, especially for musical instruments, was a local craft, and it was in this village that the modem firms of Buffet, Lot, Thibouville and Godfroy also originated. In this region of France, bordering the royal residences of Anet and Versailles, water and fine wood, as essential elements of woodwind manufacture, were plentiful.
The following section explains the immense contribution of the Hotteterre-family to the development of the flute. Several of the earliest surviving one-keyed conical flutes in collections in Berlin, Graz and Leningrad are actually signed Hotteterre (Bate; 1975:79).
2.3 .1.1 The Hotteterre Dynasty
The Hotteterre-family, from La Couture-Boussey, was by family tradition wood turners and crafters and players of the small bagpipes or musettes. These instruments were popular at dances, weddings, and other occasions and which, although in a more refined form, had become highly fashionable in Court circles.
8 Corps de rechange or alternate joints were used for playing at different pitches.
The family played a crucial role in the development of wind instruments and in particular the flute, recorder, oboe and bassoon (Baines; 1943:276). Twelve members of the Hotteterre family were crafters and operated from the sixteenth- to the end of the eighteenth century. Jacques, known as Ie Romain, (c. 1667-1760)9 was the principal figure in the remodelling of the Baroque transverse flute (Toff; 1996:43; Tranchefort; 1989:469). He was famous as manufacturer and musician who played the flute, oboe, bassoon and musette and served in the Chambre du Roy (The King's Chambers) up to 1747.
Jean-Babtiste (d.1770) and Nicolas, two of his four sons, were flute crafters as well as musicians. Jean-Babtiste succeeded his father at the King's Chambers. The third generation of Hotteterres was the most outstanding with five manufactures and one turner. Finally the fifth generation ends at the end of the old regime with the two artisan sons of Philippe. They were Philippe (1714-1773) and Louis (1717-1801).10
The Hotteterres' skill and experience in the drilling and fine-tuning of small wooden tubes are beyond question, but how they became involved with the remodelling of almost all the important woodwinds of their time is less certain (Getreau: 1991; 32). It seems that they were the first to construct the tube of the flute in three relatively short sections united by tenon and socket joints, similar to the stocks and drone tubes of their bagpipes.
The Hotteterre's also tried to make the instrument more expressive and improve its intonation. They achieved this by making the bore conical and the mouth- and finger holes smaller, and in this way increased the dynamic and colour range. Making the flute conical in stead of cylindrical made the third octave possible and also permitted crafters to drill the holes closer together which in turn made the stretch between the fingers smaller, and improved intonation (Getreau; 1991:32). Jean Hotteterre apparently also
9 According to Giannini (1993:34) Jacques Hotteterrre's dates are 1728-1763.
10 The third generation of Hotteterres included Jeannot (1648-1732); Louis II (d. 1692) the son of Louis; Martin (1712),
son of Jean; Nicolas I (1637-1694); Louis II (d.1716); Nicolas II (1653-1727); and the son of Louis II, Philippe Hotteterre (1681-1736) (Getreau; 1991 :31).
invented the closed D#-key, which controls the seventh finger hole in 1660 (Howard et al; 1984:777).
The typical ornamental appearance of the instruments was largely due to fashionable Renaissance turnery applied to the thickenings left in wood or ivory. This was not only for decoration purposes, but also strengthened the sockets where the various joints met. Boxwood was the favourite material used from the seventeenth century to the early nineteenth, although many instruments were also made from ivory, ebony or some other hardwood.
Although these developments were decisive for the popularity of the transverse flute at the end of the seventeenth century, it did not overcome the problems inherent in the instrument. The flute was, according to Howard et al. (1984:779), the least successful of the Hotteterre family's experiments with woodwind instruments. For example, the cross-fmgerings on the flute were less effective than it was on the oboe, recorder and bassoon because they resulted in poor intonation. Flautists had to find ways to compensate, i.e. by lipping, alternative fmgerings, turning the flute in- and outward, which changed the tone quality drastically.
A strange, internal bore with a broken profile further characterised Hotteterre's three-piece flute. The diameter could change from joint to joint. Cone and cylinder could meet end to end, or the bores of two joints could make an abrupt step where they meet. The four-piece Hotteterre flute of the 1720s was simply a refinement of the older one-keyed conical flute in three pieces (Howard et al; 1984:779).
It is remarkable that all Hotteterre joints have remained in the modern flute, but the strange bulbous feature of their bores was abandoned. Although these bores gave the satisfactory musical results desired at the time, it is very unlikely that their specific profiles were the result of deliberate experimentation. It is more likely that this manner of construction came naturally to the Hotteterres because of Jean Hotteterre being a bagpiper and bagpipe maker. (Baines; 1943: 277)
The influence of the Hotteterre family on woodwind instrument development and construction was monumental. It can be said that they created the blueprint for the modem woodwind instruments of today (Carroll; 1999: 19).
184.108.40.206 Other French Baroque Flute Crafters
This section provides a very brief overview of other noteworthy French crafters of the one-keyed baroque flute.
Pierre N aust (1660-1709)
The workshop was in rue de L'Abre Sec, St Germain (Giannini; 1993:1). He is recognised as one of the great woodwind makers of the Baroque period. He made three-piece flutes and used a wide variety of materials. He made flutes under his own mark
'NAUST' and his flutes showed workmanship of the highest order (Giannini; 1993:4) and his workshop supplied instruments to leading French musicians. Naust's daughter, Jean, inherited the workshop from her father, but got married to Thomas Lot in 1734.
Of his seven surviving instruments two are made from ivory, one with silver mounts, one is in ebony with silver mounts and three are in boxwood, of which one has ivory mounts. 11 The flute d 'amour in the museum of the C.N. S.M. is a very good example of his
Jean Lissieux (1670-1740)
He probably also originated from La Couture and was a well-established flute crafter (Giannini; 1993:6). He was married to Anne Lot and after her death to Antoine Delerabelee's sister, Madelaine. Jean's flutes were two-piece constructions with cylindrical bores, six finger holes and still no keys.
11 See Appendix I for examples of Naust instruments.
Antoine Delerablee (b 1686; d 1734)
He was an instrument maker who was initially employed in Pierre's Naust workshop (Giannini; 1993:6). After the death of Naust he run the workshop for some time together with leanne Naust. Antoine made instruments that compared well with that of his master, and he supplied instruments to musicians such as 'Philidor and Blavet.
Jean-Jacques Rippert (1696-1716)
Rippert's instruments show further innovation in the turnery around the joints and at the end cap. Whereas some of his flutes include the Hotteterre type turnery that is complex and bulbous both at the head and the foot, some show some simple head caps and joint turnery. This turnery served two purposes, as decoration and more importantly as a way to strengthen the socket and tenon joint. Of Rippert's four ,surviving flutes two are in boxwood and of the remaining two, one is in pear wood and the other in ivory.
Thomas Lot (c. 1708-c. 87)
Many members of the Lot family, originally also from La Couture Boussey, were involved in instrument crafting. However, Thomas Lot inherited the workshop of Pierre Naust, through his marriage to Jean Naust, In the Baroque period, Lot was one of the
most noteworthy flute crafters. He made four-piece, one-keyed instruments (Carroll; 1999:53).12
Charles Bizey (c.1716-c.1755)
Bizey was one of the five foremost flute crafters in Paris in 1752. He owned a shop in rue Dauphine since 1749 and also made four-piece, one-keyed flutes. Only three of his flutes are still in existence (Giannini; 1993:38).13
Pierre laillard (1663-1731)
Born in Bourg-en-Bresse, he was an apprentice with Pierre Boissierl4 in Paris from
1678-1683 and was one of the best crafters of his time. He emigrated to England in 1678-1683 where
12 See Appendix 1.
13 See Appendix 1.
he changed his name to Peter Bressan and made both three- and four-piece flutes (pottier; 2002; Carse; 1939:88,113). More than forty of his flutes are kept in collections and museums in Europe.
Philippe de la Vigne (1690-1750)
According to Constant Pierre, he was apparent! y arrested in 1723 and in 1741 for the illegal crafting of eight musettes, two violins, a recorder, the lower part of a transverse flute and the possession of fifty-five tools for their fabrication. He surely made flutes, however, none of his instruments survived (Pottier; 2002).
Descoteaux (alias Francois Pignon) (c 1646-1728)
His studio was in rue Faubourg Saint-Antoine, Paris, but none of his instruments survived.
Louis J. Babtiste Fortier (early 1700's)
He was a craftsman from Rouen and made one-keyed flutes from ebony with IVOry mounts (Fairley: 1982; 43).
Jean Nicolas Leclerc (d. 1752)
He was another noteworthy Parisian maker during the first half of the eighteenth century and was succeeded by Gilles Lot, his son-in-law (Fairley; 1982:74).15
About some of these manufacturers of the Baroque period (such as Chevalier and Dupuis or Depuis), there is no further information but for their names. The number of crafters alone is, however, absolutely remarkable and clear proof of the substantial contribution of these early French craftsmen to the building of the flute tradition. They provided the instruments, were in some cases also the flautists and composers and they encouraged composers to provide the music.
14 Unfortunately no information could be found on Boissier.
15 According to Giannini (1993:47) Jean Leclerc died in the Lot's house in La Couture in 1752.
In conclusion, it is clear that by the early eighteenth century, the new one-keyed conical Baroque flute had become a favourite instrument of both virtuoso and amateur flautist.
2.3.2 Flautists-Teachers 16
Before the French Revolution (1789), music education in France was essentially provided by choir schools, located throughout France. Unfortunately, girls had no access to these schools, and therefore private instruction was their only opportunity to receive music education.
Although not perfect, the training at these schools made it possible for some of the really talented young provincial musicians to embark on decent careers. In France a handful of skilled flautists, such as Jacques Hotteterre, gave lessons to amateur musicians.
The flautists of the Baroque mostly used the one-keyed conical flute or Jluste d 'allemand
(German flute) as developed by the early Hotteterres. Many of them were either amateur players or flautist-composers. Flautists at this time were either employed by Louis XIV (a great music lover) or were under the patronage of the aristocracy and hardly penetrated outside the limits of the court. Concerts took place in the apartments of Versailles or in those of the aristocracy and were private affairs, to which only a very privileged few had access.
However, since 1725 flautists also performed at prestigious public concerts, such as at the
Concerts Spiritueis, a concert series created by Anne Danican Philidor (Perreau; 2001:39).
The Concert Spirituals could be regarded as a musical democratisation in the form of public concerts held at the Tuilleries-gardens in Paris, which created contact between artists and the general public and spread the taste for instrumental music into an environment, which until then, was only familiar with opera. According to Powell (2002) virtuoso flautists gradually achieved popularity and travelled to other cities and countries to perform as soloists (See Chapter 6).
Flautist-teachers also started to compile pedagogical treatises, called methods, which provided information on technique, as well as on ornamentation and articulation. The following sections discuss the most important flautist-teachers in chronological order. The fIrst section mentions flautists employed by Louis XIV, whilst the second elaborates on flautists under the patronage of the aristocracy.
220.127.116.11 Flautists employed by Louis XIV
Since the late seventeenth century, several French flautists were connected with the court of Louis XIV and became famous virtuosos.
Philbert Rebille (1667-1717) and Rene Pignon Descoteaux (c.1646-1728) were popular and celebrated flautists (Quantz; 2001 :30). They were appointed at the King's Court and the Grande Ecurie .17 Rebille was the very fIrst esteemed player of the one-keyed conical
transverse flute (Rockstro; 1967: 137).
Jacques Hotteterre (1667-1760), also known as Le Romain, is regarded by Bate (1969:80) as the most distinguished member18 of the Hotteterre family. He was appointed as
musician at the court of Louis XIV (till 1722), and was possibly the fIrst flautist to play the one-keyed conical flute in the orchestra of the Paris Opera in 1681. It is therefore
16 The term flautist-teachers is used where flautists were also important teachers. This also applies to
17 'La Grande Ecurie' literally means The Great Stables. It was one of the musical organisations that operated under
the patronage of Louis XIV (CarrolI; 1999:91).
18 According to Rockstro (1928:536). it was Louis, not Jacques. Other sources, however, state that 'Jacques' was the
most popular of the Hotteterres and that it was he who wrote the famous Principes and was employed by Louis XIV.
logical to assume that he was also the first to play this new flute in Lully's ballet, Le Triomphe de I'Amour (Toff; 1996:192).
Les Principes de La FLute Traversiere Op.4, by Jacques Hotteterre (Ballard Edition) is the only significant method of the first phase of the Baroque. It is regarded as the best work of its kind for the whole century. It is largely due to this work that Hotteterre became known as the father of French flute pedagogy (Toff; 1996:194). It was the first French treatise intended for the one-keyed flute and was reprinted several times and greatly imitated and plagiarised. Since Les Principes dates the definite acceptance of the transverse flute by French musicians (Fleury; 1923:524).
In his method, Hotteterre gives information on the practise of wind instruments. He elaborates on articulation (which is limited to the two syllables 'tu' and 'ru'), provides detailed indications about ornaments, trills, port-de-voix and accents, which is very important for the sound interpretation of French music from this era (Tranchefort; 1989:469).
Hotteterre's second treatise, L 'art de preLuder sur La flute traversiere, La flute a bee, sur Le hautbois, et autres instruments, Op. 7, provides, apart from exercises and etudes, also important information on meter and rhythmical alteration. It is a theoretical work, accompanied by preludes of different characters, and provides an interesting approach to the art of improvisation in the eighteenth century (Tranchefort; 1989: 469).
Michel de la Barre (1675-1743) was the last great flautist of the reign of Louis XIV (Fleury; 1923:530). De la Barre, who studied with Philbert Rebille and Rene Pignon Descoteaux joined the King's Court in 1705. He served in the 'Grande Eeurie' from 1702-1705 and was a member of the Royal chamber orchestra, the Opera and the
Aeademie de Musique.
18.104.22.168 Flautists under the patronage of the aristocracy
These flautists were the proteges of various French noblemen and had to entertain at private parties.
Jean-Babtiste Loeillet (1680-1730)
This flautist-composer went to Paris in 1702 and was one of the most noted amongst the early players of the one-keyed flute. Unfortunately he moved to London in 1705 and changed his name to John Loeillet of London.
Anne Danican Philidor (1681-1728)
Anne was a Parisian born flautist-composer whose major contribution was the foundation of the Concerts Spirituels. (See p 15.)
Pierre Gabriel Buffardin (1690-1768)
Regarded as one of the most distinguished flute players of his time, he was also one of the fIrst to adopt the new one-keyed conical flute. At the time when he was principal flautist in Dresden, Quantz19 was greatly impressed with his playing and studied with him for four months (Duchamel; 1953:47). Buffardin had flutes made to his own designs and is credited with the introduction of the register. He was especially known for his neatness and speed of execution. (J .S. Bach wrote his Partita in a minor for Buffardin.)
Jean-Christoph Naudot (c. 1690-1762)
This Parisian flautist and contemporary of Blavet, was the protege of the Count d'Egmont, Duke de Gueldre (Fleury; 1923:533) and possibly also performed at the
Concerts Sprituels. He was an excellent musician, and after Quantz visited Paris, he mentioned Naudot with much approval in his autobiography.
19 Johan Joachim Quantz was a remarkable German flautist-composer and was in the service of Frederick the Great for
over thirty years. His book, The true An of Flute playing, is extremely valuable, offering general information on
musical theories of the period.
Michel Blavet (1700-1768)
Urged by the Duke de Levis, Michel went to Paris in 1723 and soon became the frnest flute player in France. He was fIrstly employed by the Prince de Carignan and afterwards by the Count de Clennont, as director of his musical establishment (Rockstro; 1967:549). Blavet also appeared as soloist at the Concert Spiritueis in 1726 and was appointed as principal flute in the Orchestra de ['Opera in 1740 and kept this position up to 1760. What is really remarkable is that despite playing the flute left-handed, he was still regarded as the most able flautist of his time (Rockstro; 1967:549). Quantz visited Paris in 1726 and heard Blavet, Lucas, Naudot and other players of the one-keyed transverse flute, but considered Blavet to be the best (Duchamel; 1953:50).
2.3.3 French Composers of the Baroque
22.214.171.124 Background overview
The growth of the repertoire for the flute followed closely on the transfonnation of its structure, which took place in France in the late seventeenth century. (See pp. 7-9.) Toff (1998: 194-200) distinguishes between three different phases.
The fIrst phase of French Baroque flute music (1600-1725) is characterised by the amateur market that required music and French composers were quick to deliver. Composers dedicated their flute compositions to their rich and powerful pupils who were members of the aristocracy.
The early repertoire written for the one-keyed conical flute consisted mainly of elaborately ornamented folk songs, perfonned with singers, lutes, and other instruments (powel; 2002). According to Fleury (1923:519) other compositions were airs from operas, ballets and oratorios, transcribed for solo flute, for flute and bass, and for two flutes without bass. This means that one or two treble instruments were played over a fIgured bass.
This unaccompanied flute duet was a favourite amongst amateurs and served, like the much rarer unaccompanied solo, both artistic and pedagogical purposes. Toff explains
(1996: 193): "It was either contrapuntal, with the two parts relatively equal throughout, or homophonic, with the parts generally fitted into progressions of parallel thirds and sixths." This fonn continued well into the eighteenth century, long after the suite and sonata had declined in popUlarity.
The flute solo sonata underwent the most noticeable decline of any genre of flute music. Most of the sonatas published in Paris at this time were by foreign writers, such as Johan Babtiste Wendling and Christian Cannabich and the Italian Giuseppe Sammartini.
The second phase of French Baroque flute compositions (Toff; 1996:194) started at about 1725 and lasted until about 1740. It is characterised by events following the death of Louis XIV in 1715, such as fewer court concerts and the shifting of perfonnances from the court of Versailles to the city of Paris.
During this period French virtuoso flautist-composers taught and perfonned mostly for the aristocracy and bourgeois public. They took full advantage of the music publishing business and public concerts and thus no longer owed their livelihoods to royal patronage but in stead to the functioning of the free market.
The third phase of the French Baroque flute began in the early 1740s (Toff; 1996:200) when, despite its popularity, composers lost interest in the flute. This situation reflected a growing musical sophistication when composition and perfonnance became separate professions. This was due to the greater technical demands on perfonners, the enrichment of harmonic framework, the expansion of fonnal structures and more refined concepts of orchestration. Furthennore, the evolution of the musical style was in many ways more suited to the expressive capabilities of string instruments, than to the relatively less brilliant flute.
During the Baroque period the flute was known as an instrument which imitated bird-song or which was used for decoration. It was not yet regarded as a virtuoso instrument. Composers wanted their music to sell and therefore pieces had to be more impressive.
The very refined style of French baroque had to give way to works of technical display. This occurred as a result of the infiltration of the Italian style.
The flute was in the beginning stages of its development and incapable of performing efficiently because of some major mechanical obstacles. The first problem of poor intonation was largely due to varied distances between note-holes. In addition, the corps de rechange (inter-changeable joints) used by players, was not always of equal length and naturally influenced the pitch. Playing solo posed no problem, but together with other instruments it became a real problem. Secondly, the flute only had one key and difficult cross fmgerings were used to produce chromatic notes. It could only play in the tonality ofD and G.
However, the flute acquired a new role in the Baroque orchestra, with a large number of wind instruments and the flutes played an important role (Fleury; 1923:516). According to Howard et al (1984:784), the earliest orchestral appearances of the flute dates back to 1680 when it was used in French ballets and operas. Examples are Lully's ballet
Triomphe de ['amour of 1781, Charpentier's Medee of 1694 and Destouches' Isse of 1697. The flute entered the orchestra of the Chapel Royal by 1691 and soon appeared in orchestras throughout Europe (Howard et al; 1984:784).
126.96.36.199 Composers and Repertoire
In the pre-baroque, composers wrote music with many possible instruments in mind and melodies could be played either by the violin, flute, recorder, or oboe. From the mid-seventeenth century though, composers became interested and more inspired by the improved flute. As the instrument developed, so did the repertoire, which led to a whole generation of virtuoso flautists. In contrast to the pre-baroque music became a profession, as some musicians had to make their living from it. As a result composers, and actually all musicians, became much more serious and sophisticated.
Flute compositions of the mid-eighteenth century France reflected the larger musical trends of the era, as the rococo style emerged. Influenced by the new symphonic style,
composers tried out triadic themes, melodic arpeggiation and figuration, slower harmonic rhythm, an expansion of range and tonality, and in general, a fussier, more ornamented style (Fleury; 1923:536).
The following paragraphs discuss the compositions of the Baroque according to Toff's structure (See p.19).
The first phase (1600-1725)
(a) Pierre Gaultier (c. 1643-97)
His collections of suites and trios are amongst the earliest examples of compositions especially written for flute.
(b) Marin Marais (1656-1728)
Marais, regarded by some as leader of the French school of bass viol, published
his Pieces en trio pour les flutes, violin, et dessus de viole in 1692 (Toff;
(c) Jacques Hotteterre (1667-1760)
He contributed significantly to the flute repertoire. His output comprises of two books with pieces for flute and bass and he was the first composer to write flute and harpsichord pieces in which the keyboard parts were fully recognised.
Hotteterre composed the only unaccompanied flute music of this era, such as the two short Echo movements at the end of his Pieces, Op.2, the preludes in his L 'art de preluder, and some arrangements of airs which were published by c.1721. He
also composed two suites for unaccompanied flute and his music displays grace and special refinement. The elegant ornamentation is perfectly integrated in an elaborated and convincing style (Tranchefort; 1989: 469).
His Pieces Op.2, edited and published by Ballard and dedicated to Louis XIV,
includes two duos for unaccompanied flutes, three suites of pieces for flute and
continuo and short Echo movements for solo flute (Tranchefort; 1989:469). The work starts with two duos for flute in dialogue.
In 1712 Hotteterre published two additional works: A collection of trio sonatas Op.3 and a first suite of duos without basso continuo for flute, recorder, violes, etc. He arranged sonatas composed by Italians, such as Albinoni and Valentine, but only published his first original flute sonatas in 1715 (Toff; 1996:194).
His second book of flute pieces, Op.5 was published in 1715 just after the Op.2 pieces. Here he reunited pieces of different movements for flute and bass and described it as sonatas (Tranchefort; 1989:470). He also wrote a book of trio sonatas for transverse flutes, a second suite of pieces Op. 6 and a third suite, Op. 8. He was largely responsible for the eventual supremacy of the sonata over the suite, publishing eight sonata books for two flutes and sets for flute and continuo between 1724-1733.
(d) Michel de la Barre (1675-1743)
The flood of eighteenth century flute music really started with Michel de la Barre, the most perfect representative of French flute composition of the seventeenth century (Fleury; 1923:528). His considerable output for the flute overshadows that of his contemporary, Hotteterre.
His works include a series of three books oftrios in the grand Versailles taste, and clearly imitated Marin Marais's trios of 1692 (Perreau; 2001 :41). These trios comprise of dance suites assembled according to tonalities. The interpreters can choose the movements they prefer to play. The first book of 1694 was a set of trios for two violins or flutes and bass (Carroll: 1999; 56).
La Barre's Pieces for flute and continuo, were the first chamber music especially intended for the flute and also the first solo flute pieces officially published in Europe (Howard et al; 1984:784). They are mostly in suite form and their
simplicity of line and elegance of articulation suited his performing style well. In the preface La Barre gives specific instructions for articulation and ornamentation. He was again a pioneer in 1707 when his third book, which includes sonatas for two flutes and bass, was the first such score to be published in Europe (Toff; 1996: 194).
La Barre's compositions include fourteen books of flute and continuo music, flute duets and trio sonatas (Carroll; 1999:56). Between 1709 to 1725, he composed almost twenty-one suites for two flutes without bass, stylistically directly inspired by his own trios (Perreau; 2001:41).
La Barre's instrumental suites consist of slow Preludes, rather pompous Allemandes and pathetic Sarabandes, very much in the style of Lully. However, with frequent introduction of ornaments, he changed their solemnity. All his scores are extraordinary and the simple combination of one or two flutes with basso continuo was quite unusual at that time (Fleury; 1923:529).
The suite of La Barre and Hotteterre with its flexible form became a French national trademark. After 1700 the French style was infiltrated by the Italian, which resulted in the suite being superseded by the sonata (Toff; 1996: 194).
(e) Michel Pignolet de Monteclair (1667-1737)
He was one of the first composers to use the flute or pairs of flutes, as accompanying or obligato instruments in cantatas (Carroll; 1999:56). His compositions include various unaccompanied flute duets and a set of concertos for flute and continuo. An example example of his work is the Serenade ou Concert
divisee en trios suites.
(f) Philidor brothers
Fran90is-Danican Philidor (1689-1718) was born in Versailles and composed
Pieces pour La flute in two volumes. Pierre-Danican Philidor, (1681-1731) was also a flautist and composed three books of suites for two flutes.
The Second Phase (1725-1740)
This period was greatly characterised by the influence of the sonata on many composers. The most important amongst them are Joseph Bodin de Boismortier, Jacques Christoph Naudot, Jean-Marie Leclair, Michel Blavet and Michel Corette (Howard et aL; 1984:784).
(a) Joseph Bodin de Boismortier (1689-1755)
De Boismortier was born in Thionville. He took composition lessons from Joseph Valette de Montigny and later joined the Concerts SpiritueLs and the Acal/emie RoyaL de Musique. He composed for all instruments that were popular at that time, but the flute was his favourite. Between 1724 and 1729 he composed more pieces than Hotteterre and La Barre together in their entire lifetimes (perreau;
Most of his compositions are for flute, and include various duos, trios without basso continuo, solos, duos with basso continuo, concertos, sonatas, a method, as well as many other significant works. His compositions were mainly aimed at the amateur market and as a result he avoided difficult tonalities. The movements of his trios are much shorter and harmonically less complicated than those of his predecessors.
His flute sonatas display a new virtuosity, with a lighter and more singing technique. The four or five movements of the sonatas include gracious rondos in the French style, musettes, gavottes and several slow and light movements. De Boismortier remained committed to certain melodic and decorative elements of the French style at a period when Italian music influenced many French composers (Tranchefort; 1989: 140). But the Italian style soon influenced
everything and gradually De Boismortier abandoned the French style and tenderness gave way to great virtuosity, which only the violin was capable of earlier. The flute became a real rival for the violin, which is most notable in his Op.9, Op.17 and Op.44.20
His duos, (such as Op.l, Op.2, Op.6 and Op.8 ) were much more popular among flautists than his trios. It seems that he wanted to democratise this type of duo in which he stressed the principle of galante and refmed conversation, a special intimacy between two interpreters, who are equally important (Perreau; 2001 :41). De Boismortier never reduced the second flute to mere accompaniment. This system of imitation was a golden rule in his duos, which were later imitated by contemporaries such as Jean-Daniel Braun, Jacques-Christoph Naudot and Michel Corette (Perreau; 2001 :39).
De Boismortier composed the fIrst solo French concertos for any instrument (Perreau; 2001:41) and also wrote a valuable method, Principes de laflute Op.40, which unfortunately was lost.
He wrote Diverses Pieces pour une FLUte Traversiere seule avec des Preludes sur tous les tons et des seconds dessus ajoutes to serve as studies for the amateur flautist. This album consists of several short, easy duos in which he avoided strange tonalities, which may be difficult to sight-read for the beginner. All the duos have a sub-title (Tranchefort; 1989: 140) and are classifIed according to tonalities, from C major to C# minor.
In 1733 he composed Quatre petites suites
adeux flutes traversieres prop res pour ceux qui veulent commencer
ajouer de la Clef de g. reo Sol, sur la second ligne.
Here, De Boismortier anticipates Blavet who made transcriptions of his own duos for flute (composed in 1728) in 1741, in the key of G as they are known today. De Boismortier seems to have been a real innovator in many areas.
20 See Appendix 2.
De Boismortier's contemporaries adopted the new Italian style of virtuosity, and produced purely virtuoso works in order to show off the technical possibilities of the flute.
(b) Jean-Christoph Naudot (c. 1690-1762)
His output includes duets, sonatas for flute and bass, trio sonatas for two flutes and continuo and some excellent concertos for flute and strings (Carroll; 1999:61). His main contribution to the French flute repertoire was the publication of the first printed set of solo concertos. In his seven-part concertos he anticipates the concerti grossi which were to flourish in French music a few years later. His numerous and varied compositions place him in the first rank of the lesser masters of the instrumental composition of the Baroque.
(c) Jean-Marie Leclair (1697-1764)
Leclair, who founded the French violin school, composed many pieces for flute (Toff; 1996: 199), most probably as a result of his association with Michel Blavet at the Concerts Spirituel.
His Sonatas (such as Op.2 and Op.9) reflect French and Italian elements because movements of the piece genre or dances are mixed with movements indicated by Italian tempo markings. He used the special technical resources of the Italian violin school, but his music also required the use of French notes inegales. His compositions mostly had written-out instead of improvised ornamentation, which differ from the Italian. In most of his compositions, Leclair was particularly sympathetic towards the limited technical abilities of amateur flautists.
(d) Michet Blavet (1700-1768)
Blavet's work comprises, in particular, three books of six sonatas for flute and bass, which were published between 1728 and 1740. He was well aware of the technical limitations of the transverse flute and never wrote anything that