02 PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION

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02 PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology As a Discipline – Development of Psychology as a Discipline – Root

Meaning and Definition, Branches of Psychology – Abnormal Psychology / Psychopathology. Child Psychology / Developmental Psychology, Physiological Psychology, Psychology, Animal Psychology / Comparative Psychology, Social Psychology. Applications of Psychology-Industry, Advertising, Medicine, Crime detection and Rehabilitation, Military Science, Education.

Methods of Psychology – Methods of Psychology – Introspection, Observation,

Experimentation, Case study, Field Survey.

Schools of Psychology – Early Schools of Psychology – Structuralism,

Functionalism, Later Schools of Psychology – Behaviorism, Gestalt School, Psycho – analytic Schools, Humanistic Schools, Synthesis of Schools.

Educational Psychology – Educational Psychology an Applied Field, Scope of

Educational Psychology.

FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIOUR

Genetic Determinants of Behaviour – Cell as a Unit of Existence, Hereditary

Mechanism- Basic Units of Heredity – Genes Chromosomes, DNA. Mendel‟s Laws of Heredity. Implications of Heredity.

Introduction to Human Nervous System – Peripheral Nervous System – Structure

and Functions. Central Nervous System – Structure and Functions. Autonomic Nervous System – Structure and Functions.

Bioche mical Determinants of Behaviour – Role of Endocrine Glands, Role of

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Environmental Determinants of Behaviour – Environmental Factors – Pre-natal

Environment, Social Heritage, Family Environment, Psycholo gical Needs, School Experiences.

DIMENSIONS OF DEVELOPMENT -1

Basic Concepts of Growth and Development – Concepts of Growth and

Development, Stages and Dimensions of Development, Principles of Deve lopment, Implications to Parents and Teachers.

Methods of Study of Growth and Development –Approaches to the study of

Growth and Development – Phylogenetic and Ontogenetic Approach, Stage Approach, Dimensional Approach. Methods of Study of Growth and Development- Longitudinal Method, Cross- Sectional Method.

Development Tasks – Concept of Developmental Tasks, Factors Influencing

Developmental Tasks, Developmental Tasks of Different Stages, Implications for Parents and Teachers.

Physical and Motor Development – Aspects of Physical Development, Trends in

Physical and Motor Development. Motor Development - Loco Motor Skills. Manipulatory Skills, Factors Influencing Physical and Motor Development, Implications for Education.

Social Development – Theory of Erickson – Importance of Social Development,

Factors Influencing Social Development, General Trends in Social Development – Infancy to Adolescence, Ericksons Theory of Social Development – Eight Stages of Psycho Social Development, Implications for parents, Teachers, & Society.

Emotional Development – Concept of Emotions, Neurological Basis of Emotions,

Trends in Emotional Development, Factors Influencing Emotional Development, Developing Emotional Maturity and Competence – Concept of Emotional Quotient. Aesthetic Development, Implications for Education.

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Cognitive Development – Theories of Piaget and Bruner – Concept of Cognitive

Development, General Trends of Cognitive Development, Piaget‟s Theory of Cognitive Development – Piaget‟s Concept of Intelligence, Stages of Cognitive Development Characteristics. Bruner‟s view on Cognitive Development, Factors Influencing Cognitive Development, Educational Implications.

Moral Development – Theories of Piaget and Kohlbe rg – Concepts and Nature of

Moral Development, Piaget‟s Theory of Moral Development, Kohlberg‟s Theory of Moral Development, General Descriptions and Trends, Factors Influencing Moral Development, Difficulties in Moral Development, Educational Implications.

Language Development - Nature and Aspects of Language Development –

Development of Meaning (Semantics), Development of Syntax, Development o f Structure. Trends in Language. Development – Elements of Language and Vocabulary Sound patterns, Spoken Forms and Written Forms / Modes; Errors in Speech and Writing, Factors Influencing Language Development, Implication of Language Development.

Behavioural Characte ristics and Proble ms of Childhood and Adolescence -

Characteristics and Problems of Early Childhood, Characteristics and Problems of Later Childhood, Characteristics and Problems of Puberty, Characteristics and Problems of Adolescence, Role of Family, Society and School.

THEORIES OF LEARNING - 1

Learning – Concepts and Types – Learning Concepts of Learning and Performance,

Types of Learning – Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor.

Classical Conditioning Pavlov – Classification of Learning Theories, Nature of

Classical Conditioning, Principles of Classical Conditioning, An Assessment of Pavlov‟s Theory, Educational Implications.

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Ope rant Conditioning – Skinner – Skinner‟s Experiments, Nature of Operant

Conditioning. Basic Concepts and Principles, Shaping the Behaviour: Progressive Approximation and Cumulative, Schedules of Reinforcement (Frequency of Strength), Applications of Operant Conditioning – Behaviour – Modification, Programmed Instruction. Comparison of Classical and Operant Conditioning, Assessment of Skinner‟s Contribution, Educational Implications.

Drive Need Reduction Theory – Nature of Hull‟s Theory, Concept of Intervening

Variables (S.O.R.) Reinforcement, Through Drive / Need Reduction – Rein for cement: Primary and Secondary. Habit Formation – Habit Strength, Habit Family, Habit Family Hierarchy. Essence of Hull‟s Theory; Same Selected Postulates, Implications of the Theory.

Contiguity Theory – Guthrie – Basic Concepts and Principles, Stereo Type and

Variation, Assessment of Guthrie‟s Theory, Educational Implications.

Observational Learning – Bandura and Others – Nature of Observational

Learning, Principles of Personal Learning, Processes in Observational Learning, Assessment and Educational Implications of Bundura‟s View.

THEORIES OF LEARNING - 11

Cognitive – Field Theory – Tolman – Tolman‟s Place; Learning Experiments and

Cognitive Interpretations, Importance of S-S Relations / Expectancies and Confirmation Hypotheses, Sign Learning and Cognitive Map (Structure). Latent Learning and Performance, Interpretations / Reinterpretations of Behaviourist Learning, Educational Implications.

Gestalt – Theory – Kohler, Wertheimer and Yerkes – Gestalt – or Wholistic

Approach, Insight Learning-Kolher, Productive Thinking – Wertheimer, Learning Set and Problem Solving – Yerkes, Assessment of Gestalt Theory, Educational Implications.

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Discovery Learning Bruner – Natural Ways of Learning; Activity Exploration and

Discovery, Principles of Learning – Readiness for Learning, Selection, Sequencing and Structuring, Goal Setting Task Orientation. Importance of Reinforcement, Goal Achievement, Modes of Representation, Analyses of Process (Meta Cognition). Charactiristics of Discovery, Kinds of Thinking – Intuitive, Analytical and Synthetic, Inductive and Deductive, Lateral and Reflective, Convergent and Divergent, Critical / Evaluative and Creative. Assessment of Bruner‟s views.

Meaningful Reception Learning-Ansubel – Rote Vs Meaningful Learning,

Meaningfulness-Criteria, Expository Teaching / Meaningful Reception Learning, Advance Organizers, Principle of sub sumption, Meaningful – Reception Learning Vs Discovery Learning, Assessment of Ausubel‟s views, Educational Implications.

Hierarcly of Learning Types - Gagne – Hierarchical Model, Concept of Capability,

Conditions of Learning, Cumulative Model of Eight Learning Types Gagne (1965-Version). Revised Types of Learning (1975 Version), Assessment of Gagne‟s Model, Educational Implications.

Information Processing Theory – Learning as Information Processing, A Model of

Information Processing (Atkinson – Shiffrin Model) – Concept of Input, Control Processing, Executive Control, Output – Processes, Stages in Information Processing – Mechanisms and LTM. MRL and Active Information Processing, Implications for Education.

Humanistic Views on Learning – Nature and Role of Learner, Teacher as

Facilitator, Roger‟s Stress on Self Learning, Humanistic Emphasis / Preferences – Self – Discovery, guided Discovery, Self Appropriation, Assessment and Implications of Humanistic View.

SPECIFIC TYPES OF LEARNING

Learning of Concepts and Concept Hierarchies – Meaning of Concept and

Concept Hierarchies, A Model of Concept Learning (The W isconsin Model), Strategies in Concept Learning (Bruner), Learning of Concepts: Steps in Teaching

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Concepts and concept Hierarchies – Testing for knowledge of concepts, Testing o f Pre-requisites, Selecting Basic Approaches to Teaching a Concept. Choosing examples for Concept Teaching, Providing Appropriate Practice to Learn Concepts.

Learning of Principles – Meaning of Principles, Learning of Principles / Rules,

Steps in Teaching Principles – Specifying the – Objective, Testing for Pre-requisite Knowledge, Selecting Approaches to Principle teaching –Motivation to Learn, Composing of Principle, Practice and Post – test. Principles and Steps in Building of Learning Hierarchy.

Learning of Pe rceptual – Psycho Motor Skills – Meaning and Nature of Perceptual

– Motor Skills, Training Principles for Perceptual Motor Skills – Information About the Task, Conditions of Practice. Phases and Steps in Skill Learning – Classification of Motor Skills and Physical Abilities, Phases in Skill (Perceptual – Motor) Learning, Steps in Teaching Skills.

Learning of Problem Solving – Nature of Problem, Concept of Problem Solving,

Steps in Problem Solving, Methods for Teaching Problem So lving – Programmed Approach, Simulation Procedures, On the Job Training, Criteria C hoose Methods. Problem Solving Strategies – Brain – Storming and Posting, Means – Ends Analysis, Progressive Deepening, Trouble – Shooting. Remedying Problem Solving Difficulties.

Learning of Cognitive Strategies – Meaning of Cognitive Strategies and Tactics,

Concepts of Meta Cognition and Executive Control, Kinds o f Cognitive Strategies. Factors Influencing Learning of Cognitive Strategies. Guidelines for Developing Cognitive Strategies – External Conditions to Facilitate the Learning of Cognitive Strategies ( Mental Procedures), Training in Learning Cognitive Strategies.

Learning of Attitudes and Values – Meaning and Nature of Attitudes –

Characteristics of Attitudes. Meaning and Nature of Values-Characteristics of Values. Value and Attitude, Factors Influencing Development of Attitudes and Values, Strategies for Developing Attitudes, Strategies for Developing Values.

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ISSUES TO RELATING TO LEARNING

Individualized Instructional System Programme d Instruction – Need for

Individualised Instruction, Historical Background of Programmed Instruction, Meaning of Programmed Instruction, Principles of Programmed Instruction, Styles of Programming – Linear Programming, Branching Programming, Methetics, Development of a Programme; Steps, Advantages and Limitations of Programmed Instruction.

Individualised Instruction (II) Mastery Learning and Modular Approach –

Mastery Learning Concept and Principles – Mastery Learning Assumptions. Requisites of Mastery Learning – Mastery Learning Strategy (MLS), Sequence of Activities in Mastery Learning, Teaching for Mastery Learning. Merits and Limitations of Mastery Learning –Merits of Mastery Learning, Limitations of Mastery Learning. Effectiveness of Mastery Learning, Learning Module – Concept and Principles – Characteristics of a Learning Module.

Remembe ring and Forgetting – Nature of remembering, Information Processing

Model of Memory, Three Types of Memory – Information storage (SIS), Short Term Memory (STM), Long Term Memory (LTM), Factors Influencing Memory, Methods and Strategies for Effective Remembering, Nature and causes of Forgetting, Explanation and Prevention.

Transfer of Learning – Nature of Transfer of Learning, Theories of Transfer Formal

Discipline Theory, Identical Elements Theory (Thorndike), Generalisation Theory (Judd), Transposition Theory, (Gestalt), Teaching for Transfer.

Motivation in Learning – Concept and Nature of Motivation, Theories of

Motivation – Achievement and Competency, Meta-Motivational Theory (Maslow), Cognitive View of Motivation – Competency Motive (R.W.White), Cognitive Motive, Social Motive, Affiliation Motive. P lace of Motivation is Learning Different Views, Mesures for Enhancing Motivation, Ego-Involvement.

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Group Dynamics – Meaning of Group Dynamics, Characteristics of a Group.

Class-room as a Social Group – Affiliation, Interpersonal Relations, Group Leadership, Co-Operation and Competition. Social Emotional Climate, Group Processes In class room, Socio-Metric Techniques – Sociometry – Peer Group Assessment / “Guess Who”.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities Intelligence, Aptitudes – Concept of

Intelligence – History of Mental Testing, Nature of Intelligence – Definitions of Intelligence, Capacity, Ability and Achievement, Guidelines for Using Mental Tests, Examples of Test – Items of Intelligence (Kamat‟s), Non-verbal and Performance Tests, Individual and Group Tests, Concept of Intelligence Quotient. Theories of Intelligence – Spearman‟s Theory of Intelligence, Thurstones Group Factor Theory, Guilford‟s Structure of Intellect-Model, Gardner‟s Theory of Multiple Intelligence, Sternberg‟s Triarchic Theory, Cattell‟s Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence. Norm – Referenced and Criterion – Referenced Testing, Emergence and Definition of Aptitudes, Ability, Aptitude and Achievement, Aptitude Tests – DAT and Others.

Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities; - II Creativity, Cognitive Styles –

Nature of Creativity, Components and Dimensions of Creativity, Developmental Stages of Creativity, Conditions favourable for Creativity, Factors Inhibiting Creativity, Characteristics of Creative Children, Creativity in Classroom Situations, Cognitive Styles, - Concepts and Types.

Individual Differences in Attitudes and Values – Nature of Attitudes – Prejudices

of Attitude, Change of Attitude, Range of Attitude. Measurement of Attitudes – Social Distance Scale, The Thurston Method, The Likert Technique, Semantic Differential Scale. Values – Psychoanalytic Perspective, Intrinsic and Instrumental Values, Sale Value and Real Value. Tests of Values.

Individual Differences in Interests – Concept of Interest, Kinds of Interests,

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Blank, Kuder Preference Record, The Thurstone Interest Schedule, Guilford – Schneidman Zimmerman Interest Survey, Interviewing.

Management of Individual Difference s – Nature of Individual Differences,

Individual Differences and the Teacher, Managing Individual Differences, Special Measures – Homogeneous Grouping / Ability Grouping, Intra-class Grouping, Differential Curricula, Individualised, Instruction Measures – The Dalton Plan, Winnetka Plan, Carroll Model, Mastery Learning, Formative and Summative Evaluation, Suggestions for teaching using Mastery Learning, Approach, Keller Plan / Personalised System of Instruction, Criterion – Referenced Testing and Norm referenced Testing, Programmed Instruction.

Education of Exceptional Children – Special Education, The Gifted – An

Exceptional child - Characteristics of the Gifted, Teaching Strategies, Grade Acceleration, Grade Enrichment, Ability Grouping or Homogeneous Grouping. The Mentally Retarded-Etiology of Educable Mental Retardation, Teaching – Learning Strategies for the Mildly Retarded, Etiology of Trainable Mental Retardation, Severe Mental Retardation, Profound Mental Retardation. Underachievement, Slow Learners or Academically Backward Pupils, Learning Disability – Dyslexia - Teaching Strategies, Problem of Dyslexics . Brain – Damaged Children - Epilepsy, Cerebral Palsy. The Visually Impaired – Definition, Types of Visually Impaired, Identifying Visual Impairment. Education of Visually Impaired. Hearing Impaired – Definition, Types of Hearing Impaired, Symptoms of Hearing Defect, Impaired Hearing, Educating Hearing Impaired Children, Hearing Impaired Children in Regular Classes, Speech Handicapped – Causes of Defective Speech, Helping Children with Speech Defects. The Orthopaedically Handicapped.

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY -I

Personality-Basic Concepts And Approaches – Concepts of definitions of

Personality – Personality, Character and Temperament, Physical, Physiological and Social Bases to Personality. Approaches to the Study of Personality – Types Appreach, Trait Approach, Factor Approach.

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Type Theories of Personality – Type Theories – Body Humour (Fluid, Types

(Hippocrates), Body Types and Temperament Types (Kretschmer) Body Typer and Temperament Types (Sheldon), Value Types (Sprangler). An Assessment of Type Theories.

Trait Theories – Allport, Guilbord, Cattell and Eysenck. – Trait, Factors and

Dimensions of Personality, Basic Approach of Trait Theories, Allport Theory – The Theory of Trait, Personality Development – Functional Autonomy, Development of Self. Guilford‟s Theory – Traits of Personality, Hierarchical Structure of Personality. Eysenck‟s Theory - Dimensions of Personality, Hierarchical Structure of Personality. Cattell‟s Primary Factor, Secondary Level Variables, An Assessment of Trait Theories.

Psychoanalytic Theories – Freud – Freudian Theory of Personality –Id, Ego and

Superego. Conscious, Preconscious / Sub – conscious, Unconscious – Structure. Integration of the Two, Selected Mechanisms and Other Dynamics of Personality.

Psychoanalytical Theories – Jung and Adler – Jung‟s Analytical Psychology –

Racial / Collective Unconscious, Extraversion – Introversion. Adler‟s Individual Psychology – Social Interest – Concept of Compensation, Basic Motives of Personality – Dependence to Striving for Superiority, Compensation-Autonomy / Power, Style of Life.

NEO-Frendian Vie ws of Personality – Erikson, Horney and Fromm – Neo –

Frendians, Erikson‟s View – Erikson‟ Emphasis, Social Conflicts, Psycho-Social Stages and Personality Develop ment. Karen Horney‟s View. Concept of Basic Anxiety, Neurotic Needs, Behaviour Tendencies, Principles of Personality Development, Personality Types. Erich Fromm‟s view – Personality as Social Character, Five Basic Needs, Mechanisms of Escape, Personality Types. An Assessment of Neo-Freudian Views.

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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY -II

Humanistic View of Personality Roger’s Self Theory and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Nature of Personality – Roger‟s Emphasis, Concept of Self and

Development of Self-Concept. Motives in Personality; Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs, Implications for Education.

Methods of Assessing Personality – Illustrative Personality Descriptions, Methods

of Assessing Personality – Observation – Rating of Personality, Interview, Questionnaire or Inventory Method, Projective Method – Rorschach Int-blot Test, Thematic Apperception test (TAT) Children‟s Apperception Test (CAT), Sentence Completion Test. Situational Tests, An Assessment of Methods of Assessing Personality – An Overview.

Concept of Mature Personality and Sthitapragna – Synthesis of Personality

Theories, Concept of Mature personality, Bhagavad Gita‟s Concept of „Sthita Pragna‟.

Value of Yoga and Meditation – Concentration and Meditation, stages of

Consciousness, Spectrum of Consciousness (Ken Wilbur), Yoga – Patanjalis Eight fold Steps, Meditation – Meaning and Techniques, Value of Yoga and Meditation.

ADJUSTMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH

Adjustme nt and Mental Health Basic Concepts – Concepts of Adjustment and

Mental Health, Human Needs and Strivings, Types of Conflicts, Frustration and Stress, Problems of Present – Day World.

Mechanisms of Adjustment – Concepts of Adjustment and Mechanism, Task

Oriented Reactions, Defence – Oriented Reactions, Implications for Parents and Teachers.

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Common Forms of Mental Disorders – Meaning of Mental Disorders, Causes of

Mental Disorders, Classification of Mental Disorders,

Mental Hygiene – Need for Mental Hygiene, Aspects of Mental Hygiene, Methods

of Therapatic Treatment. Role of Family in Mental Health, Role of School in Mental Health, Role of Community in Mental Health.

Guidance – Educational and Vocational – Concept of Guidance, Need for

Guidance, Types of Guidance – Educational Guidance, Vocational Guidance, Personal Guidance. Pupil Appraisal in Guidance.

Counselling – Meaning of Counselling, Counselling-Stages, Approaches to

Counselling – Directive Counselling, Non-directive Counselling. Eclectic Counselling.

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