DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES AND SPECIES-GROUPS OF ALEIODES (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) IN MEXICO

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Brachystola magna

V.M.A.M. Y

BERLANGA-Simposio Control de Plaga de 9- 10 de marzo del2000. Durango,

Folia Entorno!. Mex., 41(2): 215-227 (2002)

DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES AND SPECIES-GROUPS OF ALEIODES

(HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) IN MEXICO

HUGO DELFÍN-GONZÁLEZ1 AND ROBERT A. WHARTON2

'Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autonóma de Yucatán, Apartado Postal4-116, Col. ltzimná, 97100 Mérida, Yucatán, México.

2

Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station. Texas 77843, U .S.A.

Delf'm-González, H. and R.A. Wharton. 2002. Distribution of species and species-groups of Aleiodes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Mexico. Folia Entorno/. Mex., 41(2): 215-227.

ABSTRACT. A study was made of Aleiodes species recorded in Mexico, and specimens deposited in various collections. Using the criteria of Portier and Shaw (1999), eight species groups were recognized from Mexico, with 21 described and 27 undescribed species recorded. These are first records in Mexico for A. earinos Shaw, A. graphicus (Cresson), A. notozophus Marsh and Shaw andA. politiceps (Gahan). The genus is widely distributed in Mexico, being present in 28 of 31 states. Results are discussed in relation to the richness patterns hypotheses of other authors.

KEY WoRDs: Aleiodes, Mexico, distribution, Rogadinae, parasitoids.

Delfín-González, H. y R.A. Wharton. 2002. Distribución de las especies y grupos de especies de Aleiodes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) en Mexico. Folia Entorno/. Mex., 41(2): 215-227.

RESUMEN. El estudio se realizó con las especies de Aleiodes registradas en México y material depositado en varias colecciones. Utilizando los criterios de Portier y Shaw (1999) se reconocieron ocho grupos de especies presentes en México. Se registraron 21 especies descritas y 27 no descritas. Las especies A. earinos Shaw, A. graphicus (Cresson), A. notozophus Marsh y Shaw y A. politiceps (Gahan) son primeros registros para México. El género muestra amplia distribución en México, estando presente en 28 de los 31 estados. Se discuten los resultados con respecto a las hipótesis de otros autores sobre patrones de riqueza.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Aleiodes, México, distribución, Rogadinae, parasitoides.

Aleiodes

Wesmael, 1838 is a cosmopolitan genus of parasitic wasps. All the species within this genus are koinobiont endoparasitoids of Le-pidoptera, principally nocturnal, from the fami-lies Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Choreutidae, Dre-panidae, Gelechiidae, Geometridae, Hesperii-dae, IncurvariiHesperii-dae, LasiocampiHesperii-dae, Limacodi-dae, LycaeniLimacodi-dae, LymantriLimacodi-dae, LyonetiiLimacodi-dae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Nymphalidae,

Psychi-dae, PyraliPsychi-dae, SphingiPsychi-dae, and Tortricidae (Shenefelt, 1975; Shaw and Huddleston, 1991; Shaw, 1995, 1997; Portier, 1997).

As with other members of the Subfamily Ro-gadinae, the majority of these species insert the ovipositor in the host twice during oviposition. First, to paralyze the host larva by injecting venom into it, and second to introduce their eggs (Shaw, 1983). In

someAleiodes

species the

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Delfin-González and Wharton: Distribution of species and species groups of Aleiodes in Mexico venom injection does not occur, appárently to

reduce the risk of the larva falling to the ground (Shaw and Huddleston, 1991).

Of the few rogadine species studied, most have five larval stages. Of all the braconid spe-cies attacking Lepidoptera, these are the only ones that mummify the host larvae in which they pupate (Shaw and Huddleston, 1991). Aphi-diinae braconids also mummify their host, but they develop exclusively in aphids. In many of the species of Aleiodes, the female wasp ovi-posits in an early instar, with the wasp larva feeding slowly and not killing the host untillater instars. The mummy is usually produced during the final larval stage of the host but sometimes in earlier instars. There are species of Aleiodes that attack from the first to the fourth larval stages (Wallner and Grinberg, 1984; Cave, 1995). The mummified host is fixed to the subs-trate by the parasitoid larva through a hole cut in the host integument. Upon emerging, the a-dults cut an emergence opening with uniform borders in the extreme posterior, dorsal portion of the mummified host (Shaw, 1983; Shaw and Huddleston, 1991). The majority of these spe-cies are solitary parasitoids that can be attracted by light during the night (Shaw and Huddleston, 1991), though sorne gregarious species are known, such as A. stigmator (Prana and O'Neil, 1994) andA. laphygmae (Cave, 1995).

Rogadines are likely important in control of Lepidoptera infestations in forest and agricultu-ra! environments as they are abundant and known species are relatively stenophagous (Shaw, 1995). However, few of these species have been studied for pest control uses (see Wallner et al., 1983; Wallner and Grinberg, 1984; Cave, 1992 and 1995; Prana and O'Neil, 1994).

Palearctic and Nearctic Aleiodes species are well known, whereas there is relatively little

in-formation on Afrotropical, eastern Palearctic and Neotropical species. World-wide, 221 spe-cies are known, of which 91 are distributed in the Americas, principally in the Nearctic region (Shenefelt, 1975; Marsh, 1979; Portier, 1997; Shaw, 1997; Shaw et al., 1997; Marsh and Shaw, 1998; Shaw et al., 1998a and 1998b; Marsh and Shaw, 1999 and 2001). Shaw (1997) estimates that in the Neotropics there are ap-proximately 200 undescribed species. A brief nomenclatura! history of the 16 Aleiodes species reported in México has been published by Del-fín and Wharton (2000). This study constitutes the most complete listing to date, and provides previously unpublished locality reports.

Portier and Shaw ( 1999) review the results of previous studies (Shaw et al., 1997; Marsh and Shaw, 1998; Shaw et al., 1998a and 1998b; Marsh and Shaw, 1999), presenting the synapo-morphies that define 17 Aleiodes species groups as monophyletic. The species in the present study were segregated into groups using these criteria and described in material and methods section. Only the represented species groups were described.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The present study was carried out with mate-rial loaned from the following collections: The Natural History Museum, London (BMNH); Colección Entomológica Regional, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán (CER-UADY); Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, México (CP); Instituto de Biología UNAM, Estación de Bio-logía Tropical Charnela (IBUNAM); Museo de Historia Natural de la Ciudad de México (MHNCM); Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (NHMLA); Texas A&M Uni-versity, Insect Collection (T AMU); Colección de Insectos BenéficosEntomófagos, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (CIBE-UANL);

Uni-versidad Autónoma de Tamaulip: versity of California, Berkeley ( sity of California, Davis (UCD] California, Riverside (UCR); Museum of Natural History, Wa Smithsonian (USNM).

Morphology is referenced usil posed by van Achterberg ( 199: and Wharton (1997). Material \ using the studies of Shaw (199' ( 1997), Marsh and Shaw (199~

(1998a, 1998b), Marsh and Sha material determined by Dr. Seo ted in TAMU.

Of the established Aleiodes (Portier and Shaw 1999), eight in México. The synapomorphs t group are as follows:

l. apicalis (Brullé) species grot meter shorter than ocello-ocul cipital and hypostomal carina bristle patches on terga 4-7 antennal carina0.55X the dista clypeus and the antennae ba fmely granulated or smooth heavily pectinate (Shaw et al. 2. gastritor (Thunberg) species

length of pronotum up to 0.3)

length (Portier and Shaw, 19S 3. seriatus (Herrich-Schaffer)

Comb of bristles on posterior 1 tibia (Marsh and Shaw, 1998) 4. dispar Curtis species group.

row, less or equal to 0.29X lf 5. praetor (Reinhard) species gr vein RS strongly bent, almo cos-tal margin; lateral ocellm greater than the ocello-oc flagellomere 15 short (Sha" Portier and Shaw, 1999). 6. pulchripes (Wesmael) specif

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of Aleiodes in Mexico

•'"'''~'''ur in the Nearctic region Marsh, 1979; Portier, 1997;

et al., 1997; Marsh and

et al., 1998a and 1998b; 1999 and 2001). Shaw (1997) the Neotropics there are ap-undescribed species. A brief

of the 16 Aleiodes species been published by Del-(2000). This study constitutes

listing to date, and provides locality reports. (1999) review the results of

et al., 1997; Marsh and

et al., 1998a and 1998b; 1999), presenting the

synapo-17 Aleiodes species groups The species in the present into groups using these in material and methods

was carried out with mate-the following collections: The

Museum, London (BMNH);

pv•'u5u,a Regional, Universidad

(CER-UADY); Colegio Montecillo, México (CP); UNAM, Estación de

Bio-... a•u"w (IBUNAM); Museo de

de la Ciudad de México History Museum of Los ; Texas A&M Uni-JOJJteciiOn (T AMU); Colección

Universidad León (CIBE-UANL);

Uni-Folia Entomol. M ex., 41 (2) 2002

versidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas (UAT); Uni-versity of California, Berkeley (UCB); Univer-sity of California, Davis (UCD); UniverUniver-sity of California, Riverside (UCR); U.S. National Museum ofNatural History, Washington, D.C. Smithsonian (USNM).

Morphology is referenced using criteria pro-posed by van Achterberg (1993) and Sharkey and Wharton (1997). Material was determined using the studies of Shaw (1997), Shaw et al.

(1997), Marsh and Shaw (1998), Shaw et al.

(1998a, 1998b), Marsh and Shaw, (1999), and material determined by Dr. Scott Shaw deposi-ted in TAMU.

Of the established Aleiodes species groups (Portier and Shaw 1999), eight are represented in México. The synapomorphs that define each group are as follows:

l. apicalis (Brullé) species group. Ocellar día-meter shorter than ocello-ocular distance; oc-cipital and hypostomal carinae joined; dense bristle patches on terga 4-7 (males); inter-antennal carina O. 55 X the distance between the clypeus and the antennae base; mesonotum finely granulated or smooth; tarsal claws heavily pectinate (Shaw et al., 1998a). 2. gastritor (Thunberg) species group. Median

length of pronotum up to 0.3X less than head length (Portier and Shaw, 1999).

3. seriatus (Herrich-Schaffer) species group. Comb of bristles on posterior margin of meta-tibia (Marsh and Shaw, 1998).

4. dispar Curtis species group. Pore wing nar-row, less or equal to 0.29X length/width . 5. praetor (Reinhard) species group. Hind wing

vein RS strongly bent, almost reaching the cos-tal margin; lateral ocellus diameter 2.5X greater than the ocello-ocular distance; flagellomere 15 short (Shaw et al. 1998b; Portier and Shaw, 1999).

6. pulchripes (Wesmael) species group. Tarsal

claw strongly pectinate, with more than ten spines commonly forming the pectin; first me-tasomal terga weakly rugulose to rugulose-costate; third metasomal tergite rugulose to rugulose-costate anterior! y and punctate poste-rior! y; lateral ocelli enormous, from 1.5 to 9.0X the length of the ocello-ocular distance; malar space shorter than mandible base (Shaw

et al., 1997).

7. gasterator (Jurine) species group. Clypeus has abrupt margin, planar ventrad; oral open-ing oval, diameter equal to or slightly greater than malar space; malar space at least equal to basal width of mandible, usually longer; hind wing marginal cell narrowest at base, widen-ing to wwiden-ing apex, vein RS not sinuate (Portier and Shaw, 1999; Marsh and Shaw, 2001)

8. melanopterus (Erichson) species group.

Antenno-clypeal space less or equal to 0.69X the width of oral space; upper clypeus less than 0.42X its width (Portier and Shaw, 1999); oral cavity long and oval, equal orlar-ger than face height; large eyes and ocelli; mesonotum and mesopleuron smooth (Marsh and Shaw, 1999).

RESULTS

Our examination of the Mexican fauna has un-covered 21 described and 27 undescribed spe-cies of Aleiodes. This section includes the mexi-can species of Aleiodes sorted by species group, distribution records for the described species and partial synonymies where appropriate to fa-cilitate retrieval of information published under older names. Complete synonymies can be found in Shaw, 1993, 1997; Shaw et al., 1997; Marsh and Shaw, 1998; Shaw et al., 1998a and 1998b; Marsh and Shaw, 1999 and 2001. Four of the species are first records for Mexico: A.

earinos, A. $raphicus, A. notozophus andA. po-liticeps. Al~ 27 undescribed species are placed

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Delfin-González and Wharton: Distribution of species and species groups of Aleiodes in Mexico in sorne species groups only; there is no more

information about undescribed species as these will be described in separate articles.

Of the 17 established Aleiodes species groups (Fortier and Shaw, 1999), eight are represented in Mexico. Four species (A. fumialis (Shene-felt), A. nigripes (Enderlein), A. scriptipennis (Enderlein) andA. sonorensis (Cameron)) whe-re not placed in species groups, and their status remains uncertain. We have not seen specimens of these species, and none of them was treated in the species groups classification presented by Fortier and Shaw (1999). The corresponding Mexican species are as follows.

l. apicalis (Brullé) species group. Includes A. atriceps, A. molestus and an undescribed species.

Aleiodes atriceps Cresson

Aleiodes atriceps Cresson, 1869:380. Shaw et al., 1998a:65. Delfín and Wharton, 2000:59. Dimorphomastax peculiaris Shenefelt, 1979:

133.

Material examined: NUEVO LEÓN: 1 male, San Roque, Guadalupe (CIBE-UANL); 1 male, Valle Las Puentes, Río La Silla, Monterrey (CIBE-UANL); Río Ramos, Raíces, Allende (CIBE-UANL). TAMAULIPAS: San Carlos, Rincón Murillo (UAT); 1 female, Victoria, La Libertad (UAT). VERACRUZ: 1 male, Río Cazones (CIBE-UANL); 2 females, Jalapa (CP).

Other localities: Mexico (Baja California Sur, Durango, Nuevo León, Sinaloa, Veracruz) and USA (Arizona and Texas) (Fox, 1895; She-nefelt, 1979; Shaw et al., 1998a).

Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur, Durango, Nuevo León, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas and Veracruz) (collected between April-May and

September-November) and USA. Aleiodes molestus (Cresson)

Rogas molestus Cresson, 1872, 4:188. Aleiodes molestus, Shaw et al., 1998a:70.

Material examined: AGUASCALIENTES: 1 female, Aguascalientes 8 miNE (UCB). CHIA-PAS: 1 female, Rancho Sánchez, Las Rosas, in alfalfa (UCB); 1 male, San Cristobal de las Ca-sas (CP). CHIHUAHUA; 1 male, Chihuahua (CIBE-UANL). JALISCO: Rancho La Quinta, Teocaltiche 5600' (UCD). MÉXICO: 1 male, Tonatico (TAMU); 1 male, Sta. María, Valle de Bravo (CP). MICHOACÁN: 1 female, Junga-peo (CP); 1 male, 6 mi N Cheran (T AMU). N A Y ARIT: 1 mal e, Jesús María (UCB). NUE-VO LEÓN: 1 female, 5 mi S Linares (USNM). TAMAULIPAS: 2 females, Hidalgo, Conrado Castillo, bosque de pino (UAT). VERACRUZ: 1 female, Veracruz, with coffee bean (USNM).

Other localities: USA (Arizona, Arkansas, Ca-lifornia, Colorado, South Dakota, Louisiana, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming) and Mexico (She-nefelt, 1975; Marsh, 1979; Shaw et al., 1998a).

Distribution: Mexico ( collected between Fe-bruary-April and June-September) and USA. 2. gastritor (Thunberg) species group.

Inclu-des A. laphygmae.

Aleiodes laphygmae (Viereck) Rogas laphygmae Viereck, 1912, 43:581.

Aleiodes laphygmae, Cave, 1995:38, Delfín and Wharton, 2000:61.

Material examined: 4 males, México(no speci-fic locality), ex: Spodoptera frugiperda in sor-ghum, Collection of SRQF, Stoneville, MS. (USNM).

Other localities: Mexico (Nue' Cuba, Dominican Republic ¡ (Marsh, 1979; Cave, 1995; Del ton, 2000).

Distribution. This species has b southern USA, northern Mexic Central America.

3. seriatus (Herrich-Schaffer). Includes A. nigristemmaticum described species.

Aleiodes nigristemmaticum 1 Rhogas nigristemmaticum End

1920:156. Aleiodes nigristemn 1995:39; Marsh and Shaw, 19 Material examined: OAXACJ mi NW El Cameron (TAMU). \ male, 14 mi NW Tuxpan (U

CIFIED: 1 female, La Aguiler sístmica km 28 (CP).

Other localities: Mexico (Chia~

rida, Mississippi), Costa Rica, H to Rico, Dominican Republic : (Enderlein, (1918) 1920; Cave. and Shaw, 1998).

Distribution: Southeastern Me in July, September and Dece1 USA (Florida, Mississippi), Cen northern South America. 4. dispar Curtis species group

undescribed species. This is the the dispar group (van Achter1 Mexico.

5. praetor (Reinhard) species g1 A. graphicus, A. texanus and ; species.

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groups of

Aleiodes

in Mexico

molestus

(Cresson)

Cresson, 1872, 4:188.

Aleiodes

et al.,

1998a:70.

· AGUASCALIENTES: 1

~It:nu::s 8 miNE (UCB). CHIA-Rancho Sánchez, Las Rosas, in

male, San Cristobal de las Ca-A; 1 male, Chihuahua JALISCO: Rancho La Quinta, ' (UCD). MÉXICO: 1 male, ; 1 male, Sta. María, Valle MICHOACÁN: 1 female, . 1 male, Jesús María LEÓN: 1 female, 5 mi S . TAMAULIPAS: 2 females, Castillo, bosque de pino · 1 female, Veracruz, with USA (Arizona, Arkansas,

Ca-South Dakota, Louisiana, Wyoming) and Mexico

(She-1979; Shaw

et al.,

1998a).

IM1~xic:o (collected between Fe-June-September) and USA.

4 males, México (no

speci-Spodoptera frugiperda

in sor-of SRQF, Stoneville, MS.

Folia Entomol. Mex., 41(2) 2002

Other localities: Mexico (Nuevo León), USA,

Cuba, Dominican Republic and Nicaragua (Marsh, 1979; Cave, 1995; Delfín and Whar-ton, 2000).

Distribution. This species has been recorded in southern USA, northern Mexico (April), and Central America.

3.

seriatus

(Herrich-Schaffer) species group. lncludes

A. nigristemmaticum

and nine un-described species.

Aleiodes nigristemmaticum

(Enderlein)

Rhogas nigristemmaticum

Enderlein, (1918)

1920:156.

Aleiodes nigristemmaticum,

Cave, 1995:39; Marsh and Shaw, 1998:400. Material examined: OAXACA: 1 male, 2. 7 mi NW El Cameron (TAMU). VERACRUZ: 1 male, 14 mi NW Tuxpan (UCB). UNSPE-CIFIED: 1 female, La Aguilera, Carr. Tran-sístmica km 28 (CP).

Other localities: Mexico (Chiapas), USA (Flo-rida, Mississippi), Costa Rica, Honduras, Puer-to Rico, Dominican Republic and Venezuela (Enderlein, (1918) 1920; Cave, 1995; Marsh and Shaw, 1998).

Distribution: Southeastern Mexico (collected in July, September and December), eastern USA (Florida, Mississippi), Central America to northern South America.

4.

dispar

Curtis species group. lncludes two undescribed species. This is the first record of the

dispar

group (van Achterberg, 1985) in Mexico.

S.

praetor

(Reinhard) species group. lncludes

A. graphicus, A. texanus

and an undescribed species.

Aleiodes graphicus

(Cresson)

Ro gas graphicus

Cresson, 1872:188.

Aleiodes

graphicus

(Cresson), Shaw

et al.,

1998b:561. Material examined: JALISCO: 1 female, 16 km N Autlán, at black light (T AMU). SIN A-LOA: 1 male, 5 mi N Mazatlán (UCB).

Other localities: USA (Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, New Mexico, South Dakota, Te-xas and Wyoming) (Shaw

et al.,

1998b).

Distribution. Mexico (collected in July) and USA. First record for Mexico.

Aleiodes texanus

Cresson

Aleiodes texanus

Cresson, 1869, 2:378.

Material examined: SINALOA: 1 male, 4 mi S Villa Unión (UCB).

Other localities: USA (Texas, Illinois and from Massachusetts to Montana) and northern Mexico (Shaw

et al.,

1998b).

Distribution: Mexico (June) and USA. 6.

pulchripes

(Wesmael) species group.

lnclu-des

A. cameronii, A. earinos, A. notozophus,

A. pedalis, A. rossi, A. vaughani,

and seven undescribed species.

Aleiodes cameronii

(Dalla Torre)

Rhogas mexicanus

Cameron, 1887:389,

notAle-iodes mexicanus

Cresson, 1869.

Rhogas

came-ronii

Dalla Torre, 1898, 4:216.

Rogas

came-ronii,

Shenefelt, 1975:1220.

Aleiodes

camero-nii,

Shaw

et al.,

1997: 17. Delfín and Whar-ton, 2000:60.

Material examined: Data published in Delfín and Wharton (2000).

Other localities: Mexico (Oaxaca, Sinaloa and Yucatán) and USA (New Mexico and Texas) (Cameron, 1887; Delfín and Wharton, 2000).

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Delfin-González and Wharton: Distribution of species and species groups of Aleiodes in Mexico Distribution: Shaw et al. ( 1997) recorded this

species from southern USA through Mexico and Costa Rica, without providing specific localities. Mexican records currently known to us are from the states of Oaxaca, Sinaloa and Yucatan.

Aleiodes earinos Shaw

Aleiodes earinos Shaw, 1997 (Shaw et al., 1997:23).

Material examined: BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: 1 male, 9 mi N of Cabo San Lucas (TAMU).

Other localities: USA (Florida, Arkansas, and Texas) (Shaw et al., 1997).

Distribution: Mexico (collected in November) and USA. First record for Mexico.

Aleiodes notozophus Marsh and Shaw Aleiodes notozophus Marsh and Shaw, 1997,

Shaw et al., 1997:29.

Material examined: VERACRUZ: 1 male, Santa Rosa (T AMU).

Other localities: USA (Arizona, California and Florida) and Costa Rica (Shaw et al., 1997).

Distribution: Mexico (July), USA and Costa Rica. First record for Mexico.

Aleiodes pedalis Cresson

Aleiodes pedalis Cresson, 1869:379. Shaw et al., 1997:30. Delfín and Wharton, 2000:63. Other localities: Mexico (Cresson, 1869). Distribution: Mexico; no specific localities pu-blished to date.

Aleiodes rossi Marsh and Shaw Aleiodes rossi Marsh and Shaw, 1997. Shaw et

al., 1997:32.

Other localities: Mexico, (San Luis Potosí, El Salto) (Shaw et al., 1997).

Distribution: Mexico; no more localities pu-blished to date.

Aleiodes vaughani (Muesebeck) Rogas vaughani Muesebeck, 1960:257. Rhogas nigriceps Enderlein, (1918) 1920:155

(not nigriceps Wesmael, 1838). Aleiodes vau-ghani, Cave 1995:40. Shaw et al., 1997: 33. Material examined: CHIAPAS: 1 female, 0-cozocuautla (UCR). OAXACA: 1 female, Te-huantepec, at black light (USNM); 1 male, Oa-xaca (USNM). QUINTANA ROO: 16 females and 1 male, Valle Hermoso Rancho No.3 (UADY). VERACRUZ: 1 male, Córdoba (USNM); 3 females, Cotaxtla, Exp. Sta. Cotax-tla, at light (UCB); 2 females, La Playa Escon-dida 16 km N Santecomapan, Sierra de los Tux-tlas, Malaise trap, (TAMU); 1 specimen (break), Cimmyt, Poza Rica (CP); 1 female, Los Tuxtlas Biol. Stn. (TAMU). YUCATÁN: 1 female, Colonia Yucatán, Kalah Dzonot, light trap (UADY); 7 females, Reserva de Cuxtal (UADY); 1 female and 1 male, Mérida (USNM).

Other localities: southern Mexico (Veracruz) to Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Cuba and Ecuador (Cave, 1995; Shaw et al., 1997; Del-fín and Wharton, 2000).

Distribution: Mexico (collected in May and July-October) to northern South America. 7. gasterator (Jurine) species group. Includes

A. atricornis, A. burrus, A. smithi and five undescribed species.

Aleiodes atricomis (Cresson)

Rogas atricornis Cresson, 1872:188. Marsh and

Shaw, 2001:293.

Rhogas ferrugineus Enderlein, ( Aleiodes ferrugineus, Delfín

2000:60.

Material examined: AGUASe female, 8 mi NE Aguascalient1 male, Calvillo, at light (TA.IV HUA: 1 female, Hwy 45, 5 mi mi SW jet. Hwy 49), 5200 (N HUILA: 39 Km Sur Agua Nue· (IBUNAM); 2 females, 1 mi SE (UCB). COLIMA: 1 female, Ieaves of Citrus (USNM); 18 Clara Canyon, 5 mi W Parrita ( TO FEDERAL: 2 females an Secc. Bosque de Chapultepec males, 2a. Secc. Bosque d (MHNCM). GUANAJUATO: 1 cuaro (CP); 1 male, Tarandacu ducido (CP); 1 female, Tierra E xerófito (CP); 1 male, Roque and 2 males, Purísima de Bus te San Bartolomé(CP); 1 male, La 2 females, Celaya (CP); 1 fen matorral xerófito (CP). GUERR Iguala, at black Iight (UCB); 1 J

Chilpancingo (UCD); 1 male, (CP); 1 male, 6 mi NE Tixtla DALGO: 1 female, Tulancing< CO: 21 females and 1 mal1 (USNM); 2 females, 3 mi SE PI: (UCD); 1 female, 10 km N (T AMU); 1 female, Sierra de ~

Mat. Las Joyas, Arroyo Las Joy 2 males, Zapopan (CIBE-UANl cho La Quinta, Teocaltiche, 560 XICO: 7 females and 13 males, ( m snm (CP); 1 male, Tenango d females and 3 males, Texcoco, (CP); 1 female, Tonatico (CP). ti

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groups of Aleiodes in Mexico

· Mexico, (San Luis Potosí, El ' 1997).

,.~..,,...,.v, no more localities

pu-Wal'l.l!nanz (Muesebeck) Muesebeck, 1960:257. Enderlein, (1918) 1920:155 1838). Aleiodes vau-:40. Shaw etal., 1997:33. · CHIAPAS: 1 fe mal e,

0-0AXACA: 1 female, Te-light (USNM); 1 male, Oa-ANA ROO: 16 females Hermoso Rancho No.3 UZ: 1 male, Córdoba Cotaxtla, Exp. Sta. Cotax-2 females, La Playa

Escon-Jnti~CoJmar>an, Sierra de los Tux-(T AMU); 1 specimen Poza Rica (CP); 1 female, . Stn. (TAMU). YUCATÁN: Yucatán, Kalah Dzonot, light females, Reserva de Cuxtal and 1 male, Mérida

species group. Includes

A. burrus, A. smithi and five

Cresson, 1872:188. Marsh and

Folia Entomol. M ex., 41 (2) 2002

Shaw, 2001:293.

Rhogasferrugineus Enderlein, (1918) 1920:156.

Aleiodes ferrugineus, Delfín and Wharton,

2000:60.

Material examined: AGUASCALIENTES: 1 female, 8 mi NE Aguascalientes (UCB); 1 fe-maJe, Calvillo, at light (T AMU). CHIHUA-HUA: 1 female, Hwy 45, 5 miNE Salaices (15 mi SW jet. Hwy 49), 5200 (NHMLA). COA-HUILA: 39 Km Sur Agua Nueva, 1770 m snm (IBUNAM); 2 females, 1 mi SE Saltillo, at light (UCB). COLIMA: 1 female, Colima, with leaves of Citrus (USNM); 18 females, Santa Clara Canyon, 5 mi W Parrita (UCB). DISTRI-TO FEDERAL: 2 females and 2 males, la. Secc. Bosque de Chapultepec (MHNCM); 3 males, 2a. Secc. Bosque de Chapultepec (MHNCM). GUANAJUATO: 1 male, Inchama-cuaro (CP); 1 male, TarandaInchama-cuaro, pastizal in-ducido (CP); 1 female, Tierra Blanca, matorral xerófito (CP); 1 male, Roque (CP); 1 female and 2 males, Purísima de Bustos (CP); 1 male, San Bartolomé(CP); 1 male, Las Trancas (CP); 2 females, Celaya (CP); 1 female, El Copa!, matorral xerófito (CP). GUERRERO: 1 female, Iguala, at black light (UCB); 1 female, 18 mi S Chilpancingo (UCD); 1 male, 5 km W Tixtla (CP); 1 male, 6 mi NE Tixtla (T AMU). HI-DALGO: 1 female, Tulancingo (CP). JALIS-CO: 21 females and 1 male, Guadalajara (USNM); 2 females, 3 mi SE Plan de Barrancas (UCD); l female, 10 km NE Jalostotitlán (T AMU); 1 female, Sierra de Manantlán Lab. Mat. Las Joyas, Arroyo Las Joyas (IBUNAM); 2 males, Zapopan (CIBE-UANL); 1 maJe, Ran-cho La Quinta, Teocaltiche, 5600' (UCD). MÉ-XICO: 7 females and 13 males, Chapingo, 2260 m snm (CP); 1 maJe, Tenango del Aire (CP); 6 females and 3 males, Texcoco, 2240 m snm, (CP); 1 female, Tonatico (CP). MICHOACÁN: 2 females, 11 mi W Hidalgo (UCD); 3 maJe,

Morelia (CP); 1 male, La Huerta (CP); l maJe, 3 mi E Carapan (UCD). MORELOS: 1 female, Tepoztlán (CP); 1 female, 2.5 km N Estación CEAMISH, 940 m snm (IBUNAM); l maJe, Huejotengo (CP); 1 female, Yautepec (UCD); l female, Cuernavaca (USNM). NAYARIT: 1 male, Jesús María (UCB). NUEVO LEÓN: 1 maJe, Linares, trampa de luz, (UCB). OAXA-CA: 1 female, Puerto Escondido, bosque de ne-blina (CP); 1 male, 8 miNE El Punto (TAMU); 5 females and 2 males, Oaxaca (USNM); 1 fe-maJe, 16 mi NW Totolapan (TAMU). QUERÉ-T ARO: 1 female, 7 mi N Querétaro, light trap (TAMU). SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: 1 female, 17 km NE Ciudad del Maíz, 1250 m snm (IBUNAM); 1 male, 37 mi S San Luis Potosí (UCB). SINALOA: 1 female, Concordia (UCD). SONORA: 1 female, 25 km W Sta. Ana Viejo (UCD). TAMAULIPAS: 1 female, Río Soto La Marina, Soto La Marina, pastizal, en luz negra (UAT); 1 maJe, Hidalgo, Conrado Castillo, bosque de pino (UAT); Gómez Parías, Reserva El Cielo. Est. Los Cedros, 450 m snm (TAMU). VERACRUZ: 1 female, Córdoba (USNM); 1 female, Córdoba, 930 m snm, tram-pa de luz (UCB); 1 male, Orizaba (UCD); 1 maJe, 19 km NW Ciudad Mendoza (UCB); 2 males, 8 mi Coatepec S Jalapa, 4100' (UCB). ZACATECAS: 1 female, and 1 maJe, Concep-ción del Oro, light trap (TAMU); 1 female, 4 miNE Concepción del Oro (TAMU).

Other localities: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalis-co, MéxiJalis-co, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Querétaro, San Luis Po-tosí, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Veracruz and laca-tecas) (collected between May-October and De-cember) and USA (South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico and Arizona) (Enderlein, (1918), 1920; Delfín and

(8)

Delfin-González and Wharton: Distribution of species and species groups of

Aleiodes

in Mexico

Wharton, 2000; Marsh and Shaw, 2001).

Distribution: Widely distributed in Mexico and USA.

Aleiodes burrus

Cresson

Aleiodes burrus

Cresson, 1869, 2:381. Delfín and Wharton, 2000:60. Marsh and Shaw, 2001: 297.

Other localities: Mexico (Cresson, 1869), Canada and USA (Marsh and Shaw, 2001).

Distribution: Mexico; no specific localities pu-blished to date.

Aleiodes smithi

Marsh and Shaw

Aleiodes smithi

Marsh and Shaw, 2001:300.

Other localities: Canada (Ontario), USA (Flo-rida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missou-ri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennesse, Virginia, Wisconsin), Mexico (Colima, Morelos, and Oaxaca) and Costa Rica (Marsh and Shaw, 2001).

Distribution: Widely distributed in North and Central America.

8.

melanopterus

(Erichson) species group. Shaw (1993) used the available genus-group na-me

Eucystomastax

Brues for this group, treating itas a subgenus. The subgeneric rank was sub-sequently abandoned (Marsh and Shaw, 1999), and replaced with the informal rank of species group in conformity with the rest of the cla-ssification of

Aleiodes

as treated by Shaw

et al.

(1997). Includes

A. mexicanus, A. politiceps,

and two undescribed species.

Aleiodes mexicanus

Cresson

Aleiodes mexicanus

Cresson, 1869, 2:378,

Marsh and Shaw, 1999:105.

Aleiodes

(Eucystomastax) mexicanus

Cresson: Shaw, 1993:8.

Material examined: CHIAPAS: 1 maJe, 4 mi SW Simojovel (USNM). MÉXICO:! maJe, Río Blanca (?) (USNM); 1 female, Xilitla, 3500' (USNM). MORELOS: 1 female, Yautepec (UCD). SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: 1 maJe, San Luis Potosí, 16 km NE entronque Rayón-Cárdenas, 1 10m (IBUNAM). TABASCO: 1 female, Tea-pa(BMNH). TAMAULIPAS: 2 fema!e, 3.5 km W Gomez Farías, 550 m snm, b!ack light (TAMU). VERACRUZ: 1 female, 25 mi S Acayucan (USNM); 1 female, Orizaba (UCD); 1 maJe, Córdoba (UCD); 1 maJe, Puente Nacio-nal 6 mi SE Rinconada, at light (UCB); 7 ma-les, Fortín, Col. Godman and Salvin 1904-1 (BMNH). UNSPECIFIED: 1 maJe, México, Col. Godman and Salvin, 1904-1 (BMNH); 1 mal e (BMNH).

Other localities: Mexico (Chiapas, Sinaloa and Veracruz) and USA (Mississippi) (Shaw, 1993; Marsh and Shaw, 1999).

Distribution: Mexico (collected in March, May-July and September-October) and USA.

Aleiodes politiceps

(Gahan)

Rogas politiceps

Gahan, 1917:206.

Aleiodes

politiceps,

Shenefelt, 1975: 1243. Marsh and Shaw, 1999:107.

Material examined: NUEVO LEÓN: 1 le, Allende, Raíces Río Ramos (UCR); 1 fema-le, Allende, Raíces Río Ramos (CIBE-UANL). SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: 1 female, Xilitla, black light(UCD). TAMAULIPAS: 1 male, Río Soto la Marina, Soto la Marina, pastizal, black light (UAT); 1 female, Cd. Victoria, 4 km W Victo-ria, Cañón del Novillo, black light (TAMU).

Other localities: USA (Arkansas, Virginia to Florida, Texas and Tennessee) and Costa Rica

(Gahan, 1917; Muesebeck and Shenefelt, 1975; Marsh and St Distribution: Mexico (collect and September), USA and C record for Mexico.

UNPLACED SPECffiS

Aleiodes fumialis

(Sh

Rhogas fumipennis

Cameron

Rogasfumialis

Shenefelt, 197

fumialis,

Delfín and Whartor Other localities: Mexico (Ca Distribution: Mexico; no speci blished to date.

Aleiodes nigripes

(En

Pelecystoma nigripes

Enderle: 148.

Aleiodes ni gripes,

van A 61.

Other localities: Mexico (Chi (1918) 1920).

Distribution: Mexico; no spec blished to date.

Aleiodes scriptipennis

(l

Heterogamus scriptipennis

E 1920:152.

Aleiodes scriptipe.

Delfín and Wharton, 2000:6 Other localities: Mexico (Chi (1918) 1920).

Distribution: Mexico; no

me

blished to date.

Aleiodes sonorensis

(C

Ro gas sonorensis

Cameron, 18

sonorensis,

Delfín and Whar

(9)

of

Aleiodes

in Mexico

1999:105.

Aleiodes

· CHIAPAS: 1 male, 4 mi . MÉXICO:! male, Río ; 1 female, Xilitla, 3500'

: 1 female, Yautepec POTOSÍ: 1 male, San Luis entronque Rayón-Cárdenas, TABASCO: 1 female,

Tea-ULIPAS: 2 female, 3.5 km 550 m snm, black light UZ: 1 female, 25 mi S ; 1 female, Orizaba (UCD); · 1 male, Puente

Nacio-~vu.aua, at light (UCB); 7 ma-Godman and Salvin 1904-1

. 1 male, México, Salvin, 1904-1 (BMNH); 1 Mexico (Chiapas, Sinaloa and (Mississippi) (Shaw, 1993; 1999).

·NUEVO LEÓN: 1 Río Ramos (UCR); 1 fema-Río Ramos (CIBE-UANL).

1 female, Xilitla, black AS: 1 male, Río Soto Marina, pastizal, black light Cd. Victoria, 4 km W

Victo-black light (TAMU). : USA (Arkansas, Virginia to

Tennessee) and Costa Rica

Folia Entomol. Mex., 41 (2) 2002

(Gahan, 1917; Muesebeck and Walkley, 1951;

Shenefelt, 1975; Marsh and Shaw, 1999). Distribution: Mexico (collected in May, June and September), USA and Costa Rica. First record for Mexico .

UNPLACED SPECIES

Aleiodes fumialis

(Shenefelt)

Rhogas fumipennis

Cameron, 1887, 1:389.

Rogasfumialis

Shenefelt, 1975:1230.

Aleiodes

fumialis,

Delfín and Wharton, 2000:61.

Other localities: Mexico (Cameron, 1887). Distribution: Mexico; no specific localities pu-blished to date.

Aleiodes nigripes

(Enderlein)

Pelecystoma nigripes

Enderlein, (1818) 1920: 148.

Aleiodes nigripes,

van Achterberg, 1991: 61.

Other localities: Mexico (Chiapas) (Enderlein, (1918) 1920).

Distribution: Mexico; no specific localities pu-blished to date.

Aleiodes scriptipennis

(Enderlein)

Heterogamus scriptipennis

Enderlein, (1918)

1920:152.

Aleiodes scriptipennis

(Enderlein), Delfín and Wharton, 2000:64.

Other localities: Mexico (Chiapas) (Enderlein, (1918) 1920).

Distribution: Mexico; no more localities pu-blished to date.

Aleiodes sonorensis

(Cameron)

Rogas sonorensis

Cameron, 1887:390.

Aleiodes

sonorensis,

Delfín and Wharton, 2000:64.

Other localities: Mexico (Sonora) (Cameron, 1887).

Distribution: Mexico; no more specific locali-ties published to date.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS In the Rogadinae, Shaw (1993) hypothesized that

Aleiodes

species are dominant in tempera te zones, while members of the genus

Rogas

are dominant in tropical regions. Available inform-ation for Mexico is largely inadequate for test-ing these hypotheses since known distribution patterns of

Aleiodes

largely reflect sampling ar-tifacts. Thus, known distribution corresponds more to distinct collecting efforts (e.g. Oaxaca-TAMU; Tamaulipas-UAT) than to any biologi-cal patterns (Fig. 1). Nonetheless, the majority of species exhibit a Neotropical distribution. Within Mexico,

Aleiodes

is widely distributed, with records in 28 of the 31 states in the coun-try; the only exceptions being the states of Baja California Norte, Campeche and Tlaxcala (Table 1). Though these records do not permit generalizations, the distribution of the two most di verse species groups,

seriatus

and

pulchripes,

suggest an

Aleiodes

richness pattern correspond-ing to the general hypothesis, namely, more diverse in the tropics than in higher latitudes (Matthews, 1974; Stevens, 1989; Wharton, 1993).

Fourteen species were previously included within the

seriatus

group. Their distribution in-dicates that this group is especially rich in the Americas, with one holarctic species, one pa-learctic, six nearctic, five neotropical and one with wide continental distribution (Marsh and Shaw, 1998). Nine additional species were found during this study and, as a whole, these are predominantly distributed in the tropical regions (Fig. 2).

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Delfín-González and Wharton: Distribution of species and species groups of Aleiodes in Mexico

included in the pulchripes group: five nearctic; four neotropical; and three with wide continen-tal distribution (Shaw et al., 1997). In Mexico, this group has nearctic elements in the northern portian of the country and central plains, as well as neotropical species distributed on the slopes of the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific coast (Fig. 2). The additions from the Mexican fauna bring the totals to three known species with wide continental distribution, seven with nearc-tic affinity, seven with neotropical affinity and one component in the Antilles.

The few available biological records indicate that members of the seriatus species group para-sitize juvenile Noctuidae and Arctiidae (Cave,

1995; Marsh and Shaw, 1998).

The little available information on biology of members of the pulchripes species group

biolo-gy indicates that they attack larvae of Geometri-dae and NoctuiGeometri-dae (Shaw et al., 1997). Appa-rently, the same host groups are used by both temperate and tropical members of these Aleio-des species-groups, since most host records pro-bably come from the Holarctic. As the neotro-pical species groups are studied further, and their distribution and biology better understood, a more accurate distribution hypothesis can be developed for them.

Table 1

Distribution of Aleiodes species in Mexico by state. eonsult text for specific localities. Does not include A. burrus, A. jumialis andA. pedalis as they ha ve no specific state records.

A B e e e e DD G GH J M M M N N

o

p Q Q S S S T T V y

z

G e H H O

o

F G T R G A E I O A L A U R R L I

o

A A E u A S S I A L

o o

00 L X e R Y X E O O p N N B M R e e H S H H

o

A. atriceps X X X X X X A. atricornis X X X X X X XXX XXX X X X X X XX X X X X A. cameronii X X X A. earinus X A. graphicus X X A. laphygmae X A. mexicanus X X X X X X X X A. malestus X X X X X X X X X X A. nigripes X A. nigristemmaticum X X X A. noiozophus X A. politiceps X X X A. rossi X A. scriptipennis X A. smithi X X X A. sonorensis X A. texanus X A. vaug,hani X X X X X Undescribed species 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 8 1 2 5 4 2 2 4 1 3 3

Figure l. Number of Aleiodes spec species. Species are grouped at six 1

(11)

of Aleiodes in Mexico

since most host records

pro-the Holarctic. As the neotro-are studied further, and biology better understood,

r .J!.-•-''L ••• , hypothesis can be

Does not include A. burrus, A.

p Q Q S S S T T V y

z

U R R L 1 O A A E

u

A EOOPNNBMR

e e

o X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Folia Entomol. Mex., 41 (2) 2002

Figure l. Number of Aleiodes species recorded in Mexico by state. States are grouped according to number of recorded species. Species are grouped at six intervals: O species, 1-2. 3-4, 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10.

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Delfin-González and Wharton: Distribution of species and species groups of Aleiodes in Mexico

AKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are particularly grateful to R. Ayala Bara-jas, C. Barr, A. González Hernández, T. Hudd-leston, R. Lomelí Flores, J. Fortier, P. Marsh, F. Noguera, E. Ruíz Cancino, J. Romero Ná-poles, J. A. Sánchez García, M. R. Shaw, S. R. Shaw, D. R. Smith, R. Snelling and R. Zu-parko for loan material or provide useful re-prints of his work. The work has been supported in part by CONACYT under grant 25016-N.

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Recibido: 11 de octubre 2001. Aceptado: 6 de mayo 2002.

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