The Guitar Players Guide to Intervals

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INTERVALS:

INTERVALS:

A

study

A

study

Courtesy of Guitar Chalk Media educational copy and design.

Courtesy of Guitar Chalk Media educational copy and design.

Written by Robert

Written by Robert KittlebergeKittleberger r 

guitarchalk.com

guitarchalk.com

Soli Deo Gloria.

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If I might be so blunt

-If I might be so blunt - guitar is easyguitar is easy..

Because in its own unique way, the guitar offers us a lot of versatility in a Because in its own unique way, the guitar offers us a lot of versatility in a simple format - the fretboard - which can be navigated in small, incremental simple format - the fretboard - which can be navigated in small, incremental pieces called

pieces called intervalsintervals..

So those who understand intervals - even in

So those who understand intervals - even in the most basic sensethe most basic sense - will have a- will have a distinct command and control of their guitar.

distinct command and control of their guitar. They will know what to play, whyThey will know what to play, why they’re playing it and will likely never be at

they’re playing it and will likely never be at a loss for notes.a loss for notes.

 That’s not to say they’ll never make a mistake or struggle with their  That’s not to say they’ll never make a mistake or struggle with their

instrument. instrument.

But a firm knowledge of intervals can

But a firm knowledge of intervals can limit those instances, by providing alimit those instances, by providing a tremendous

tremendous amount of structure.amount of structure.

 They’re the building blocks upon which chords, scales and all other note  They’re the building blocks upon which chords, scales and all other note

combinations are built. If we

combinations are built. If we can learn those blocks everything else will make acan learn those blocks everything else will make a lot more sense.

lot more sense.

So this is the guide to un

So this is the guide to understanding guitar intervals, in their proper context,derstanding guitar intervals, in their proper context, and in a manner that's optimal and useful to the guitar player.

and in a manner that's optimal and useful to the guitar player. But rest easy - you need not be

But rest easy - you need not be a ranking music theorista ranking music theorist to understand thisto understand this material.

material.

You just need to want to learn,

You just need to want to learn, improve and develop a foundationalimprove and develop a foundational understanding of what’s happening on the fretboard.

understanding of what’s happening on the fretboard. If that's the case, intervals are your best starting spot. If that's the case, intervals are your best starting spot. Good luck.

Good luck.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.

1. What are the parts of an interval?What are the parts of an interval? 2.

2. Always two notes?Always two notes? 3.

3. Go-To Interval ChartGo-To Interval Chart 4.

4. Simple ExampleSimple Example 5.

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6.

6. Intervals on Different StringsIntervals on Different Strings 7.

7. What about the perfect fifth?What about the perfect fifth? 8.

8. What does “consonant” mean?What does “consonant” mean?

9.

9. A Better Way to LearnA Better Way to Learn 10.

10. What is a chord?What is a chord? 11.

11. What is a triad?What is a triad? 12.

12. Defining the Seventh ChordDefining the Seventh Chord 13.

13. Major SeventhMajor Seventh 14.

14. Minor SeventhMinor Seventh 15.

15. Dominant SeventhDominant Seventh 16.

16. Diminished SeventhDiminished Seventh 17.

17. Half-Diminished SeventhHalf-Diminished Seventh 18.

18. The ProcessThe Process 19.

19. Getting Started with DyadsGetting Started with Dyads 20.

20. Getting Started with TriadsGetting Started with Triads

Music was my refuge. I could crawl into the space

Music was my refuge. I could crawl into the space between the notes between the notes  and and

curl my back to loneliness. ~ Maya Angelou curl my back to loneliness. ~ Maya Angelou I often mention intervals in

I often mention intervals in my writingmy writing and find myself wanting to link to anand find myself wanting to link to an informational centerpiece that might explain them.

informational centerpiece that might explain them. Such a place should be

Such a place should be simplesimple..

Because intervals are simple. They are useful and wonderfully helpful bits of Because intervals are simple. They are useful and wonderfully helpful bits of knowledge;

knowledge; priceless  priceless to the guitar player. But I didn’t have – to the guitar player. But I didn’t have –  in my possession - in my possession -such a resource to link to, nor was I able to procure one elsewhere - at least such a resource to link to, nor was I able to procure one elsewhere - at least not that was straightforward and easy to understand.

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So this article is meant to be

So this article is meant to be thatthat informational centerpiece for one purpose - informational centerpiece for one purpose - toto teach intervals.

teach intervals.

 That purpose is executed in three parts:  That purpose is executed in three parts:

1.

1. Explain a theoretical topic.Explain a theoretical topic. 2.

2. Lead to and present methods of application.Lead to and present methods of application. 3.

3. Provide all information in the context of the guitar.Provide all information in the context of the guitar.

If you read through and practice the rest of this content, those three things are If you read through and practice the rest of this content, those three things are what you should expect to get in

what you should expect to get in return.return. Simple, right?

Simple, right?

If you're still on-board, allow me to be

If you're still on-board, allow me to be more specific:more specific:

What I’ll Cover What I’ll Cover

We’ll look at intervals from three different angles: We’ll look at intervals from three different angles:

 First: We’ll look at the basic definition of intervals and how to understand themFirst: We’ll look at the basic definition of intervals and how to understand them

in a form

in a formal and theoretical context. This is the “jargon” that you might hear in aal and theoretical context. This is the “jargon” that you might hear in a music theory class, though in a more compact and succinct explanation.

music theory class, though in a more compact and succinct explanation.

 Second:Second: We’ll look at intervals in chords, using seventh chords as ourWe’ll look at intervals in chords, using seventh chords as our

application and example. application and example.

 Third: We’ll loThird: We’ll look at intervals in the context of some of the most basic chords inok at intervals in the context of some of the most basic chords in

existence - dyads and triads. existence - dyads and triads.

Making it through this material means you’ll have

Making it through this material means you’ll have a complete anda complete and applicableapplicable understanding of intervals, so that you can use them for chord construction, understanding of intervals, so that you can use them for chord construction, modal patterns and to provide structure for a

modal patterns and to provide structure for a ll melody.ll melody. Let’s jump in.

Let’s jump in.

Defining an Interval: Basic Definition and Music Theory

Defining an Interval: Basic Definition and Music Theory

So what exactly is an interval?

So what exactly is an interval? We'll look at two basic definitions: We'll look at two basic definitions: In Music Theory:

In Music Theory: The space between any two pitches or notes (according to The space between any two pitches or notes (according to Harmony: Its Theory and Practice 

Harmony: Its Theory and Practice by by Ebenezer ProutEbenezer Prout)).. You can

You can download the PDF version of Prout’s bookdownload the PDF version of Prout’s book if you’d like to read further.if you’d like to read further. On the Guitar:

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For example, the following tab is an

For example, the following tab is an interval:interval:

E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|---

E|--3--5-- These two notes are separated by two

 These two notes are separated by two semitonessemitones (which are also called “half(which are also called “half steps” or one

steps” or one--fret jumps) which are equal to a whole tone or a “whole step.”fret jumps) which are equal to a whole tone or a “whole step.” However, guitar intervals don’t always fall on the

However, guitar intervals don’t always fall on the same string, as the followingsame string, as the following is also an interval: is also an interval: E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|---3--

E|--5---Instead of falling on the

Instead of falling on the sixth string - like the previous example - sixth string - like the previous example - the secondthe second note falls on the fifth string at the third fret.

note falls on the fifth string at the third fret. We’ll touch on this more later, but rea

We’ll touch on this more later, but realize that even on different stringslize that even on different strings there is there is still

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1. What are the parts of an interval?

1. What are the parts of an interval?

A musical interval is made up of two components: A musical interval is made up of two components:

1.

1. The Root Note:The Root Note: Represents the key of the particular pattern. Represents the key of the particular pattern. 2.

2. The Interval(s):The Interval(s): Any note(s) that correspond to a particular root are intervals of Any note(s) that correspond to a particular root are intervals of that root.

that root.

For example, a guitar chord is simply a

For example, a guitar chord is simply a collection of intervalscollection of intervals attached to a attached to a specific root note.

specific root note.  Take the following

 Take the following C major chordC major chord::

E|--- B|--1-- G|--0-- D|--2--  A|-- A|--33-- --

E|--- The root C is the root note at the beginning of the interval sequence  The root C is the root note at the beginning of the interval sequence

(highlighted), while the other three notes are

(highlighted), while the other three notes are all intervals of the root C.all intervals of the root C. Intervals in chords are always

Intervals in chords are always understood in relation to the root note or theunderstood in relation to the root note or the lowest note in a given key.

lowest note in a given key. For instance, the

For instance, the open Gopen G in the C chord example isin the C chord example is notnot the interval of the notethe interval of the note tha

that falls on the second or ft falls on the second or first fret. Rather it’s the interval of the irst fret. Rather it’s the interval of the C that falls onC that falls on the fifth string at the third fret.

the fifth string at the third fret. Why?

Why?

Because that C is the root of

Because that C is the root of the entire chord.the entire chord.

2. Does an interval always involve

2. Does an interval always involve

only

only

two notes?

two notes?

Yes. Yes.

Because any

Because any oneone interval can have onlyinterval can have only one root note and one interval noteone root note and one interval note.. Now, there can be more than one

Now, there can be more than one set set  of intervals within a given pattern or of intervals within a given pattern or chord (depending on how you might break

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interval with more than two parts.

interval with more than two parts. It’s always just oneIt’s always just one note added to a root note added to a root note.

note.

It’ll make more sense once we

It’ll make more sense once we look at some examples.look at some examples.

3. The Go-To Chart

3. The Go-To Chart

 There are a total of 11 different intervals before you get to your first octave,  There are a total of 11 different intervals before you get to your first octave,

which doubles the frequency of the original note. which doubles the frequency of the original note.  Therefore each interval s

 Therefore each interval should have a “hould have a “Number of FretsNumber of Frets” and an “” and an “IntervalInterval Quality

Quality.”.”

You’ll identify intervals by associating the number of frets

You’ll identify intervals by associating the number of frets with thewith the corresponding interval quality and

vice-corresponding interval quality and vice-versa. Here’s a chart that displays thatversa. Here’s a chart that displays that information for all 12 intervals:

information for all 12 intervals:

 The only thing we've omitted is an interval with 0 semitones, or essentially the  The only thing we've omitted is an interval with 0 semitones, or essentially the

same note played twice at the

same note played twice at the same time. This is simply called asame time. This is simply called a unisonunison interval, though it is not often men

interval, though it is not often mentioned or regarded as a common interval.tioned or regarded as a common interval. So how do we read this and translate it to the fretboard?

So how do we read this and translate it to the fretboard? Let’s start with something easy.

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4. A Simple Example

4. A Simple Example

Say you were in

Say you were in music classmusic class and the teacher wanted you to draw a minorand the teacher wanted you to draw a minor second on the chalkboard in guitar tab form.

second on the chalkboard in guitar tab form. What would you do?

What would you do?

First, you know from the above chart that a minor second is

First, you know from the above chart that a minor second is oneone semitone orsemitone or one fret from the root. That means you’ 

one fret from the root. That means you’ ll have a root notell have a root note plus plus a note that fallsa note that falls one semitone from that particular spot.

one semitone from that particular spot. So you’ve got

So you’ve got plenty plenty of options.of options. Here’s one: Here’s one: E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|---

E|--3--4--In this example, the root note is

In this example, the root note is at the third fret (G) and at the third fret (G) and the interval falls at thethe interval falls at the fourth fret, creating one semitone of separation and giving us a minor second fourth fret, creating one semitone of separation and giving us a minor second interval.

interval.

5. What about a major second?

5. What about a major second?

 To create a major second, we simply go back to our interval chart and figure  To create a major second, we simply go back to our interval chart and figure

out how many semitones we n

out how many semitones we need to have separating our interval feed to have separating our interval from our rootrom our root note.

note.

In this case, it’s just

In this case, it’s just twotwo..

You’re probably ahead of me by n You’re probably ahead of me by now.ow. Here’s our major second:

Here’s our major second:

E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|--- E|--3--5--Make sense? Make sense?

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You can continue through the chart in the same fashion. You can continue through the chart in the same fashion.

6. Intervals on Different Strings

6. Intervals on Different Strings

So how do we get situations where

So how do we get situations where intervals land on other strings?intervals land on other strings? It’s harder to visualize, but what’s h

It’s harder to visualize, but what’s happening is the exact same process. appening is the exact same process. Let’sLet’s use the major third interval as our

use the major third interval as our example, since it’s one of theexample, since it’s one of the easiest toeasiest to

illustrate

illustrate..

I’ll show you how to draw one

I’ll show you how to draw one up on a tab sheet up on a tab sheet with the two notes onwith the two notes on separateseparate strings.

strings.

What do we do first? What do we do first?

We can look to our chart (or memorize it - either way is fine) and see that there We can look to our chart (or memorize it - either way is fine) and see that there are

are four four semitones that separate our major third interval from semitones that separate our major third interval from the root note.the root note. So right away we could come up with this tab:

So right away we could come up with this tab:

E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|--- E|--3--7-- This

 This is is  a major third interval. a major third interval. But there’s a problem. It’s a

But there’s a problem. It’s a really long jump from the root note to the really long jump from the root note to the seventhseventh fret, thus an inefficient movement.

fret, thus an inefficient movement. And there’s a better way

And there’s a better way to play it.to play it. If we know our

If we know our fretboard notesfretboard notes,, we can see that the note at the seventh fret is a we can see that the note at the seventh fret is a B. To get a more optimal interval, a

B. To get a more optimal interval, all we have to do isll we have to do is find the same B on thefind the same B on the fifth string fifth string.. E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|---2--

E|--3--- That B falls on the fifth string - at the

 That B falls on the fifth string - at the secondsecond fret - much closer to the root G fret - much closer to the root G at the third fret.

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7. Compound Intervals

7. Compound Intervals

Know that you can identify

Know that you can identify anyany B note on any other string as a major thirdB note on any other string as a major third interval of the root G.

interval of the root G.

For example, the following highlighted note is also a For example, the following highlighted note is also a B:B:

E|--- B|--- G|---G|---44-- -- D|---  A|---

E|--3--- Technically it’s an octave higher, which makes it a

 Technically it’s an octave higher, which makes it a compound intervalcompound interval,, but but  you can still refer to it as a

 you can still refer to it as a major thirdmajor third, with or without regard to the , with or without regard to the octaveoctave difference.

difference.

A compound interval is any interval that occurs after the intervals that fall A compound interval is any interval that occurs after the intervals that fall between the root note and the

between the root note and the first octave (simple intervals).first octave (simple intervals).

 That's a bit of a side note, but still worth banking in your memory.  That's a bit of a side note, but still worth banking in your memory.

Let's move on. Let's move on.

8. What about the Perfect Fifth?

8. What about the Perfect Fifth?

You might have heard the term “perfect fifth” before and noticed it on the You might have heard the term “perfect fifth” before and noticed it on the interval chart.

interval chart.

 This is an important interval to learn, as it forms one of the

 This is an important interval to learn, as it forms one of the most basic powermost basic power

chord shapes

chord shapes in existence.in existence.

You’re almost certain to recognize it. You’re almost certain to recognize it. Arpeggio Form Arpeggio Form E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|---5-- E|--3---Chord Form Chord Form

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E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|--5--

E|--3--In this case we have our root G and the interval note D falling seven semitones In this case we have our root G and the interval note D falling seven semitones above the root.

above the root.

 That seven semitone spread is what gives us our perfect fifth, making it an  That seven semitone spread is what gives us our perfect fifth, making it an

extremely common shape. And why

extremely common shape. And why is it called “perfect?” Music theorists haveis it called “perfect?” Music theorists have long used the term “perfect” to denote two intervals that sounded, and were long used the term “perfect” to denote two intervals that sounded, and were considered to be,

considered to be, perfectly consonantperfectly consonant..

For this reason a perfect fifth can also be referred to as the “consonant For this reason a perfect fifth can also be referred to as the “consonant interval” or “highly consonant.”

interval” or “highly consonant.”

9. What exactly does consonant mean?

9. What exactly does consonant mean?

In music, consonant always describes two notes that

In music, consonant always describes two notes that agreeagree or soundor sound complimentary when played together or close to one a

complimentary when played together or close to one a nother.nother. It’s derived from the audible dichotomy between consonance

It’s derived from the audible dichotomy between consonance and dissonance.and dissonance.  These terms are difficult to properly define, though can be generally thought of  These terms are difficult to properly define, though can be generally thought of

as opposites, where consonance is considered stable

as opposites, where consonance is considered stable and dissonance isand dissonance is considered unstable. It is essentially based on

considered unstable. It is essentially based on the perception of unity orthe perception of unity or cohesiveness between two notes.

cohesiveness between two notes.

You can have both perfect consonances and imperfect consonances: You can have both perfect consonances and imperfect consonances: Perfect

Perfect

1.

1. Unisons and OctavesUnisons and Octaves 2.

2. Perfect Fourths and Perfect FifthsPerfect Fourths and Perfect Fifths

Imperfect Imperfect

1.

1. Major Thirds and Minor SixthsMajor Thirds and Minor Sixths 2.

2. Minor Thirds and Major SixthsMinor Thirds and Major Sixths

Note that you can memorize, understand and use the perfect fifth without fully Note that you can memorize, understand and use the perfect fifth without fully comprehending the idea of a consonant interval.

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I suppose you could think of that

I suppose you could think of that topic as extra credit, and not cructopic as extra credit, and not crucial for real-ial for real-world application.

world application.

Transitioning to Application Transitioning to Application

We’ve been looking at intervals in terms of

We’ve been looking at intervals in terms of their theoretical definition.their theoretical definition.

So now you should know what intervals are and how to explain them using So now you should know what intervals are and how to explain them using formal, conceptual language.

formal, conceptual language. You’re ready to tak

You’re ready to take this knowledge and apply it to e this knowledge and apply it to the fretboard. Our approachthe fretboard. Our approach will be a two-lane road:

will be a two-lane road:

1.

1. We’ll continue to look at music theory as it pertains to basic guitar chords.We’ll continue to look at music theory as it pertains to basic guitar chords. 2.

2. Second, we’ll apply what we already know about intervals to things we do onSecond, we’ll apply what we already know about intervals to things we do on the fretboard.

the fretboard.

O

Once you’ve done this you’ll understand intervals not nce you’ve done this you’ll understand intervals not just in theory, but in ajust in theory, but in a practical sense, having seen how they can actually help you.

practical sense, having seen how they can actually help you. We’ll look at understanding intervals in the context of

We’ll look at understanding intervals in the context of seventh chords, dyadsseventh chords, dyads and triads.

and triads.

Understanding Intervals by Studying Seventh Chords

Understanding Intervals by Studying Seventh Chords

Have you ever wondered what a seventh guitar chord actually Have you ever wondered what a seventh guitar chord actually is is ?? What does that number mean?

What does that number mean? Or what about the

Or what about the theory behind seventh chordstheory behind seventh chords? How does it all work?? How does it all work?

 These are questions you’ve probably asked yourself before simply memorizing  These are questions you’ve probably asked yourself before simply memorizing the chord and moving on. Still, you continue to think, “Isn’t there a better way the chord and moving on. Still, you continue to think, “Isn’t there a better way to learn this outside of

note-by-to learn this outside of note-by-note memorization?”note memorization?” And the answer is

And the answer is yesyes - there is a better way to learn. - there is a better way to learn. In fact going a

In fact going a little deeper with this topic, will show us a lot about intervalslittle deeper with this topic, will show us a lot about intervals and music theory in general.

and music theory in general.

A Better Way to Learn

A Better Way to Learn

Because of the way my

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As a result, I tend to look for ways to understand music at a deeper level and As a result, I tend to look for ways to understand music at a deeper level and “connect the dots,” so to speak. That’s what we’ll do here with seventh chords. “connect the dots,” so to speak. That’s what we’ll do here with seventh chords. Instead of just memorizing them a

Instead of just memorizing them and learning the fingerings, we’re going tond learning the fingerings, we’re going to learn how to build them from the ground up.

learn how to build them from the ground up. In so doing we’ll learn about the

In so doing we’ll learn about the purpose and function of intervals.purpose and function of intervals. Background Information

Background Information

 To understand seventh chords you have to first understand the basic  To understand seventh chords you have to first understand the basic

underpinnings of what a chord is and what a triad is. underpinnings of what a chord is and what a triad is. We’ll consider both of 

We’ll consider both of  the following: the following:

 Formal Definition of a ChordFormal Definition of a Chord 

 Formal Definition of a TriadFormal Definition of a Triad

Once we’ve covered those two concepts, we

Once we’ve covered those two concepts, we can responsibly define and studycan responsibly define and study seventh chords.

seventh chords.

10. What is a chord?

10. What is a chord?

Conventionally a chord is a combination of three

Conventionally a chord is a combination of three or more notes, heard eitheror more notes, heard either simultaneously or in succession like an arpeggio.

simultaneously or in succession like an arpeggio. Webster’s Dictionary 

Webster’s Dictionary defines it like this:defines it like this:

 Three or more mus

 Three or more musical tones sounded

ical tones sounded

simultaneously.

simultaneously.

In contrast, Ottó Károlyi, a senior music

In contrast, Ottó Károlyi, a senior music professor at the University of Stirling,professor at the University of Stirling, recognizes

recognizes two or moretwo or more notes as a musical chord.notes as a musical chord.

 Two or more no

 Two or more notes sounding simultaneously

tes sounding simultaneously

are known as a chord. Károlyi, Otto (1965

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I tend to favor Károlyi’s definition and hold tha

I tend to favor Károlyi’s definition and hold tha t two notes or more should bet two notes or more should be considered a chord. However, both are

considered a chord. However, both are valid explanations.valid explanations.

11. What is a Triad?

11. What is a Triad?

Formally, a triad is a chord made up of three notes which are

Formally, a triad is a chord made up of three notes which are successive thirdsuccessive third intervals

intervals..

But what does that mean? But what does that mean?

Well, we’ve got three notes to work with. And we know that one of them, the Well, we’ve got three notes to work with. And we know that one of them, the lowest one, will be the root note, while the

lowest one, will be the root note, while the others will be correspondingothers will be corresponding intervals.

intervals.

 The next note will be a third (either major or minor) from the root note, while  The next note will be a third (either major or minor) from the root note, while

the last note will be a

the last note will be a fifth (diminished, perfect or augmented).fifth (diminished, perfect or augmented). So a triad includes:

So a triad includes:

 A root note.A root note. 

 Third interval (major or minor) from the root note.Third interval (major or minor) from the root note. 

 Fifth interval (diminished, perfect or augmented) from the root note.Fifth interval (diminished, perfect or augmented) from the root note.

 Take the following major triad example:  Take the following major triad example:

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You’ve got your root, which is easily identified as your

You’ve got your root, which is easily identified as your lowest note. Then yourlowest note. Then your major third which is four semitones a

major third which is four semitones away from the root. So if way from the root. So if you were to startyou were to start at the root note and count up the fretboard

at the root note and count up the fretboard four  four  frets, that note would match frets, that note would match the one at the third fret on the second string.

the one at the third fret on the second string.

We saw this earlier in our major third example from the first chapter. We saw this earlier in our major third example from the first chapter.

Same goes for the perfect fifth, which is seven frets (semitones) from the root Same goes for the perfect fifth, which is seven frets (semitones) from the root note.

note.

Visualize the process by simply counting up f

Visualize the process by simply counting up from the root note on the sarom the root note on the sameme string.

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You can see that the

You can see that the note occurring four frets up from note occurring four frets up from our root note (on theour root note (on the fourth fret) is a C, which means we can use the C on the fifth string at the third fourth fret) is a C, which means we can use the C on the fifth string at the third fret to begin the construction of our

fret to begin the construction of our triad.triad.  This is our formal definition of a triad.  This is our formal definition of a triad.

But there’s a more casual wa

But there’s a more casual way to explain it as well, with some y to explain it as well, with some lingeringlingering authority.

authority.

The Casual Definition of a Triad The Casual Definition of a Triad

20th Century theorists, Howard Hanson and

20th Century theorists, Howard Hanson and Carlton Gamer, expanded theCarlton Gamer, expanded the term to make room for essentially any

term to make room for essentially any group of three notes, orgroup of three notes, or pitches  pitches , that are, that are combined for a chord.

combined for a chord.

 This gives us both a formal and casual definition.  This gives us both a formal and casual definition.

Here’s a graphic to help memorize each one: Here’s a graphic to help memorize each one:

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 Though it’s true that Hanson and Gamer’s definition is valid and easier to  Though it’s true that Hanson and Gamer’s definition is valid and easier to

digest, we need to be aware

digest, we need to be aware of the formal definition of a triad of the formal definition of a triad in order toin order to understand the interval structure of seventh chords.

understand the interval structure of seventh chords.

Up to this point, we’ve prioritized a baseline understanding

Up to this point, we’ve prioritized a baseline understanding of chords andof chords and triads in a general sense, having yet to look at any actual seventh chords. triads in a general sense, having yet to look at any actual seventh chords.

But now, the foundational information has been covered and we can finally get But now, the foundational information has been covered and we can finally get to a seventh chord definition.

to a seventh chord definition.

12. Defining Seventh Chords

12. Defining Seventh Chords

Unlike our previous two definitions, there’s little room for interpretation when Unlike our previous two definitions, there’s little room for interpretation when it comes to determining what a seven

it comes to determining what a seventh chord actually is.th chord actually is. Note that the

Note that the formal definitionformal definition is exclusive. is exclusive.

A seventh chord consists of a triad

A seventh chord consists of a triad plus one more

plus one more

note that forms a seventh interval with

note that forms a seventh interval with that

that

triad’s root note

triad’s root note..

If you understand intervals and

If you understand intervals and triads, it’ll be easier for you to construct atriads, it’ll be easier for you to construct a seventh chord as well, because we're simply adding

seventh chord as well, because we're simply adding oneone more note to anmore note to an established triad.

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It becomes a matter of simply counting

It becomes a matter of simply counting intervals.intervals.  Take the following seventh chord for example:  Take the following seventh chord for example:

You’ve got a root note, major third, perfect f

You’ve got a root note, major third, perfect f ifth and a major seventh ifth and a major seventh that comethat come together to form a

together to form a basic major seventh chordbasic major seventh chord.. And we can get

And we can get there entirely by counting intervals from the root note.there entirely by counting intervals from the root note. Now up to this point we’ve

Now up to this point we’ve only only  used major triads for our examples. used major triads for our examples.

 There are five other common or “Tertian” seventh chords that we’ll cover to  There are five other common or “Tertian” seventh chords that we’ll cover to

make sure we know the process and the way they’re constructed. make sure we know the process and the way they’re constructed.

1.

1. Major SeventhMajor Seventh 2.

2. Minor SeventhMinor Seventh 3.

3. Dominant SeventhDominant Seventh 4.

4. Diminished SeventhDiminished Seventh 5.

5. Half-Diminished SeventhHalf-Diminished Seventh

 The process is the same for each type of chord

 The process is the same for each type of chord –  –  simply build each chord simply build each chord starting with a root note, then add a third, fifth and seventh interval. starting with a root note, then add a third, fifth and seventh interval.

I’ll give you the interval pattern for each chord, since all of them have different I’ll give you the interval pattern for each chord, since all of them have different interval sequences. If you prefer, those sequences can be viewed via the

interval sequences. If you prefer, those sequences can be viewed via the seventh chord wiki page

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13. Major Seventh Example

13. Major Seventh Example

We'll go ahead and build out our

We'll go ahead and build out our major seventh chord on guitar tabs.major seventh chord on guitar tabs. Remember, all we need to start is one triad.

Remember, all we need to start is one triad. Start with this major triad shape.

Start with this major triad shape.

E|--- B|---3-- G|---4--- D|--5---  A|---

E|---By now it should be fairly easy

By now it should be fairly easy for you to spot the root note, third interval for you to spot the root note, third interval andand fifth interval in our triad. Remember,

fifth interval in our triad. Remember, it’s still a major chord, so the intervals it’s still a major chord, so the intervals forfor our major seventh chord will have

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Major Third - Perfect Fifth - Major Seventh Major Third - Perfect Fifth - Major Seventh

If you memorize this, you can create a major seventh chord with any root note If you memorize this, you can create a major seventh chord with any root note of your choice.

of your choice.

So all you’ve got to do now is a

So all you’ve got to do now is add the major seventh interval.dd the major seventh interval. Where do you think it would go? How

Where do you think it would go? How could we figure it out?could we figure it out? Remember that a major seventh

Remember that a major seventh interval is 11 semitones from the root note. interval is 11 semitones from the root note. SoSo we can simply count from the root note on the fourth string at the fifth fret, all we can simply count from the root note on the fourth string at the fifth fret, all the way up the fretboard.

the way up the fretboard.

If you do that you’ll go from the

If you do that you’ll go from the fifth fret to the 16th fret.fifth fret to the 16th fret.

E|--- B|--- G|--- D|----5---16---  A|--[root]---[F#]--

E|--- That means we’re looking for an F# near our original chord. The first note  That means we’re looking for an F# near our original chord. The first note thatthat

comes to mind might be the

comes to mind might be the low F# on the sixth string, but thalow F# on the sixth string, but that’s not at’s not a functional option.

functional option.

However, the F# on the

However, the F# on the high E string is in perfect position to complete ourhigh E string is in perfect position to complete our major seventh chord.

major seventh chord.

E|--2-- B|--3-- G|--4-- D|--5--  A|---

E|---You can apply the same process to any other triad to make it a major seventh You can apply the same process to any other triad to make it a major seventh chord.

chord.

Notice how knowledge of intervals becomes increasingly crucial. Notice how knowledge of intervals becomes increasingly crucial.

14. Minor Seventh

14. Minor Seventh

All of the same principles will apply to the

All of the same principles will apply to the minor seventh chord, where the minor seventh chord, where the onlyonly difference is that third and

difference is that third and seventh intervals will be minor in their seventh intervals will be minor in their relation torelation to the root note.

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Here are the intervals we need to use. Here are the intervals we need to use.

Minor Third - Perfect Fifth - Minor Seventh Minor Third - Perfect Fifth - Minor Seventh

We now have our root note on the sixth string at the fifth fret, meaning our We now have our root note on the sixth string at the fifth fret, meaning our chord is going to be

chord is going to be an Amin7 by the time we’re finished.an Amin7 by the time we’re finished. Our first interval is a minor

Our first interval is a minor third which is three semitones from the third which is three semitones from the root.root.

 The perfect fifth interval is the same as before, now falling on the second string  The perfect fifth interval is the same as before, now falling on the second string

at the seventh fret. at the seventh fret.

E|--- B|--- G|--5-- D|--X--  A|--7--

E|--5--In order to add our minor seventh interval, we need to count ten frets up from In order to add our minor seventh interval, we need to count ten frets up from the root note.

the root note.

 This gives us a G, which we can include in our chord with the G note at the  This gives us a G, which we can include in our chord with the G note at the

eighth fret on the second string. eighth fret on the second string.

E|--- B|--8-- G|--5-- D|--X--  A|--7--

E|--5--15. Dominant Seventh

15. Dominant Seventh

A dominant seventh chord will be

A dominant seventh chord will be composed of a root, plus the followingcomposed of a root, plus the following intervals:

intervals:

Major Third - Perfect Fifth - Minor Seventh Major Third - Perfect Fifth - Minor Seventh

Let’s start with an E at the seventh fret on the fifth string. Let’s start with an E at the seventh fret on the fifth string.

E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|--7--

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E|---Our major third and perfect fifth should be easy by now, leading us to the Our major third and perfect fifth should be easy by now, leading us to the following shape: following shape: E|--7-- B|--x-- G|--x-- D|--6--  A|--7--

E|---Now we need to add our

Now we need to add our minor seventh, which will be a minor seventh, which will be a D note, considering ourD note, considering our root E. root E. E|--7-- B|--x-- G|--G|--77-- -- D|--6--  A|--7--

E|--- The seven, highlighted in red, is our D note, completing the dominant seventh  The seven, highlighted in red, is our D note, completing the dominant seventh

chord. chord.

16. Diminished Seventh

16. Diminished Seventh

Figuring out the diminished seventh will be slightly trickier because you’ll have Figuring out the diminished seventh will be slightly trickier because you’ll have two diminished intervals to deal with.

two diminished intervals to deal with.

Minor Third - Diminished Fifth - Diminished Seventh Minor Third - Diminished Fifth - Diminished Seventh Our diminished fifth (also know as

Our diminished fifth (also know as a Tritone), is going to be six semitones froma Tritone), is going to be six semitones from the root note or one less than

the root note or one less than what we were becoming accustomed to with what we were becoming accustomed to with thethe perfect fifth.

perfect fifth.

 The sound it creates is dissonant, which you may recall we mentioned earlier is  The sound it creates is dissonant, which you may recall we mentioned earlier is

simply the opposite of consonant. simply the opposite of consonant.

E|--x-- B|--x-- G|--6-- D|--D|--44-- --  A|--3--

E|--5--In order to add our diminished seven

In order to add our diminished seventh note, we’ll need to goth note, we’ll need to go nine semitonesnine semitones

above the root note

above the root note,, which in this case is A. 10 semitones would get us to G, so which in this case is A. 10 semitones would get us to G, so one less will be F#, which

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17. Half-Diminished Seventh

17. Half-Diminished Seventh

 The half diminished seventh requires the following three intervals from the  The half diminished seventh requires the following three intervals from the

root: root:

Minor Third - Diminished Fifth - Minor Seventh Minor Third - Diminished Fifth - Minor Seventh So this chord will actually be a

So this chord will actually be a bit easier to understand than the bit easier to understand than the diminisheddiminished seventh, since we have two minor intervals instead of two diminished intervals. seventh, since we have two minor intervals instead of two diminished intervals. We’ll start with our root note here:

We’ll start with our root note here:

E|--- B|--- G|--- D|---  A|---

E|--3--Remember that a diminished fifth

Remember that a diminished fifth is six semitones above the root.is six semitones above the root.

E|--- B|--- G|--6-- D|--x--  A|--x--

E|--3--Now we can add our minor third and seventh intervals. Now we can add our minor third and seventh intervals.

E|--- B|--- G|--6-- D|--3--  A|--1--

E|--3-- The same principles can be applied to the

 The same principles can be applied to the minor major seventhminor major seventh chord and the chord and the augmented major seventh

augmented major seventh chord, which are n chord, which are not listed here, but are stillot listed here, but are still consid

considered Tertian. As long as ered Tertian. As long as you know the intervals, you’re good to go.you know the intervals, you’re good to go. Want to see them all in one place?

Want to see them all in one place? Here you go:

Here you go: Major Seventh:

Major Seventh: Major Third - Perfect Fifth - Major Seventh Major Third - Perfect Fifth - Major Seventh Minor Seventh:

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Dominant:

Dominant: Major Third - Perfect Fifth - Minor SMajor Third - Perfect Fifth - Minor Seventheventh Diminished:

Diminished: Minor Third - Diminished Fifth - Diminished Seventh Minor Third - Diminished Fifth - Diminished Seventh Half-diminished:

Half-diminished: Minor Third - Diminished Fifth - Minor Seventh Minor Third - Diminished Fifth - Minor Seventh Minor Major Seventh:

Minor Major Seventh: Minor Third - Perfect Fifth - Major Seventh Minor Third - Perfect Fifth - Major Seventh Augmented Major:

Augmented Major: Major Fifth - Augmented Fifth - Major SeventhMajor Fifth - Augmented Fifth - Major Seventh

If you know the intervals you can discern and even build your own chords If you know the intervals you can discern and even build your own chords pretty quickly. So instead of looking up a bunch of seventh guitar chords and pretty quickly. So instead of looking up a bunch of seventh guitar chords and simply memorizing, you can make them from scratch.

simply memorizing, you can make them from scratch. Pretty cool, right?

Pretty cool, right?

Instead of having a surface knowledge and not

Instead of having a surface knowledge and not reallyreally know what you’re playing,know what you’re playing,  you know why every single note in these chords exists, namely because you  you know why every single note in these chords exists, namely because you

know the four components that make up a seventh chord and the properties of know the four components that make up a seventh chord and the properties of each interval.

each interval. Let’s go ahead

Let’s go ahead and review: and review:

 RootRoot 

 Third IntervalThird Interval 

 Fifth IntervalFifth Interval 

 Seventh IntervalSeventh Interval

It’s not easy, at least not for the average music student. It’s not easy, at least not for the average music student. But most things worth learning, like music theory,

But most things worth learning, like music theory, aren’t easy.aren’t easy. If you commit to learning the process

If you commit to learning the process and giving it time, all this stuff and giving it time, all this stuff willwill become second nature.

become second nature.

18. The Process

18. The Process

 That process is critically important because it's repeatable.  That process is critically important because it's repeatable.

Instead of memorizing the actual chords, we've memorized the mechanism by Instead of memorizing the actual chords, we've memorized the mechanism by which we get to

which we get to anyany chord.chord.

So for easy memorization of the process: So for easy memorization of the process:

1.

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2.

2. Understand the definition and formal components of a triad (root, thirdUnderstand the definition and formal components of a triad (root, third and fifth interval).

and fifth interval). 3.

3. Learn how to count intervals from the root notes (by the number ofLearn how to count intervals from the root notes (by the number of semitones - use the chart provided).

semitones - use the chart provided). 4.

4. Build your seventh chords by finding a root note and adding theBuild your seventh chords by finding a root note and adding the

appropriate intervals depending on the commons name (major, minor, appropriate intervals depending on the commons name (major, minor, diminished, etc.) of the chord you want.

diminished, etc.) of the chord you want.

Easier said than done, but it’s all

Easier said than done, but it’s all there. there. And once you learn it,

And once you learn it, you’ll be ahead of most who just you’ll be ahead of most who just rely on raw chordrely on raw chord memorization - with no interest in

memorization - with no interest in music theory - to get by.music theory - to get by.

Simple Guitar Chords: Dyad and Triad Theory

Simple Guitar Chords: Dyad and Triad Theory

I mentioned that we would be

I mentioned that we would be using dyads and triads to illustrate our using dyads and triads to illustrate our chordschords and apply our intervals.

and apply our intervals.

Dyads and triad (which we've already

Dyads and triad (which we've already covered in part) are the next covered in part) are the next step abovestep above intervals in terms of fretboard building blocks. They're the si

intervals in terms of fretboard building blocks. They're the si mplest and mostmplest and most basic guitar chords you can learn.

basic guitar chords you can learn.

We define the two types of chords this way: We define the two types of chords this way:

 Dyad:Dyad: A chord made up of  A chord made up of only two notes - only two notes - a root note and one interval.a root note and one interval. 

 Triad:Triad: A chord made up  A chord made up of three notes - a of three notes - a root note and two intervals.root note and two intervals.

 Though the theory 

 Though the theory gets more involvedgets more involved,, we can start with this basic we can start with this basic understanding of our two chord types and go from there.

understanding of our two chord types and go from there. We've already covered triads, so let's focus on

We've already covered triads, so let's focus on dyads.dyads.

We'll say that a dyad is any interval that can be interpreted as reasonably We'll say that a dyad is any interval that can be interpreted as reasonably consonant.

consonant. Fair enough? Fair enough?

Let's look at some examples. Let's look at some examples.

19. Basic Dyads to Start With

19. Basic Dyads to Start With

We want to start simple, so we’ll look at

We want to start simple, so we’ll look at two different types of dyads, which two different types of dyads, which areare distinguished by the interval of each chord.

distinguished by the interval of each chord.

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 Octave DyadOctave Dyad

So the distance between the

So the distance between the root note and the second note in root note and the second note in the chord willthe chord will determine what type of dyad it is

determine what type of dyad it is just like in any interval that just like in any interval that we might use.we might use. Major Fifth or "Perfect" Dyad

Major Fifth or "Perfect" Dyad

A major fifth is the term used to designate one such interval, which is seven A major fifth is the term used to designate one such interval, which is seven frets away from the root note. Her

frets away from the root note. Here’s the tab.e’s the tab.

E|--- B|--- G|--7-- D|--5--  A|---

E|---I’ve chosen to put my root note on the fourth string at the fifth fret, but you can I’ve chosen to put my root note on the fourth string at the fifth fret, but you can start this root note on

start this root note on anyany fret on either the sixth, fifth, fourth or second stringfret on either the sixth, fifth, fourth or second string and play the same configuration.

and play the same configuration.

 The note at the seventh fret is a perfect fifth and the only note that  The note at the seventh fret is a perfect fifth and the only note that

accompanies the root. accompanies the root.

 This is your first, basic dyad.  This is your first, basic dyad.

Octave Dyad Octave Dyad

An octave dyad looks almost the sam

An octave dyad looks almost the same, except our interval is one octave he, except our interval is one octave higherigher than the root note, which means it’s the same note at a higher pitch.

than the root note, which means it’s the same note at a higher pitch. Here’s the tabbed example.

Here’s the tabbed example.

E|--- B|--- G|--7-- D|--x--  A|--5--

E|---D Major E|---Dyad Shape D Major Dyad Shape

 The major sound you get from the basic shape of a D chord is also a moveable  The major sound you get from the basic shape of a D chord is also a moveable

dyad. dyad. E|--- B|--3-- G|--2--

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D|---  A|---

E|---We omit the root D and instead

We omit the root D and instead allow the A at the allow the A at the second fret to function as oursecond fret to function as our root (or we assume the root D as a ghost note). If we move the note at the third root (or we assume the root D as a ghost note). If we move the note at the third fret (D) up to the fifth (E), we have another useable dyad.

fret (D) up to the fifth (E), we have another useable dyad. Again, a perfect fifth:

Again, a perfect fifth:

E|--- B|--5-- G|--2-- D|---  A|---

E|---20. Triadic Chords

20. Triadic Chords

 There are a lot of different ways to configure a triadic chord, though most are  There are a lot of different ways to configure a triadic chord, though most are

simply an expansion on commonly used

simply an expansion on commonly used dyads. For example, if you take the dyads. For example, if you take the DD major dyad shape we just covered

major dyad shape we just covered and add the root note, you and add the root note, you get a fairlyget a fairly common triadic chord with a D root.

common triadic chord with a D root.

E|--- B|--3-- G|--2-- D|--0--  A|---

E|--- To transpose the chord to a new fret, simply move the root note to the desired  To transpose the chord to a new fret, simply move the root note to the desired

key. key. E|--- B|--6-- G|--5-- D|--3--  A|---

E|---Commonly Used Major and Minor Triadic Chords Commonly Used Major and Minor Triadic Chords

 There are a lot of different chords that are made up of three notes. We’ll  There are a lot of different chords that are made up of three notes. We’ll givegive

most of these chords in the key of C, though keep in mind they can be moved most of these chords in the key of C, though keep in mind they can be moved to any fret.

to any fret.

Like dyads, each chord form

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In many cases, a triadic chord can be a stripped down version of a more In many cases, a triadic chord can be a stripped down version of a more commonly known open chord. Take the open C major for example.

commonly known open chord. Take the open C major for example.

E|--- B|--1-- G|--0-- D|--2--  A|--3-- E|---We have four notes here, but we can omit the highest one on the first fret (C) We have four notes here, but we can omit the highest one on the first fret (C) since we’re already getting a C from since we’re already getting a C from the root note on the third fret.the root note on the third fret. Now our triadic shape looks like this, and Now our triadic shape looks like this, and we can more easily move it we can more easily move it to otherto other frets: frets: E|--- B|--- G|--0-- D|--2--  A|--3-- E|--- Thus, if we transpose the root of the chord to the fifth fret, we’d get the  Thus, if we transpose the root of the chord to the fifth fret, we’d get the following shape: following shape: E|--- B|--- G|--2-- D|--4--  A|--5-- E|--- Try picking through each shape one after another.  Try picking through each shape one after another. E|--- B|--- G|---0---2-- D|---2---4---  A|--3---5---

E|---Let’s look at a few more

Let’s look at a few more triadic shapes.triadic shapes. The Power Chord Triadic Shape

The Power Chord Triadic Shape

One of the most frequently used chords would be a power chord made up of One of the most frequently used chords would be a power chord made up of three notes.

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 The first is the root note, followed by a perfect fifth interval and then an octave  The first is the root note, followed by a perfect fifth interval and then an octave

of the original root note. of the original root note.

E|--- B|--- G|--- D|--10--  A|--10--

E|--8--- This chord can be easily moved and can work with a root note on either the  This chord can be easily moved and can work with a root note on either the

sixth or fifth string. sixth or fifth string.

You can change the interval of the chord (the note in the middle) if you want to You can change the interval of the chord (the note in the middle) if you want to give the chord a different tone. Instead of adding a perfect fifth, add a major give the chord a different tone. Instead of adding a perfect fifth, add a major third, which will fall on the seventh fret.

third, which will fall on the seventh fret.

E|--- B|--- G|--- D|--10--  A|--7---

E|--8---The Major Barre Chord Triadic Shape The Major Barre Chord Triadic Shape If you start a

If you start a barre chord with the root note on the barre chord with the root note on the fifth string, a typical majorfifth string, a typical major shape will look like this.

shape will look like this.

E|--3-- B|--5-- G|--5-- D|--5--  A|--3--

E|---If we omit the root note and the high G on the first string, we get a nice triadic If we omit the root note and the high G on the first string, we get a nice triadic chord where the root is a

chord where the root is a ghost note or assumed (C in this ghost note or assumed (C in this case).case).

E|--- B|--5-- G|--5-- D|--5--  A|---

E|--- This chord can be easily barred with one finger. You can also move the notes  This chord can be easily barred with one finger. You can also move the notes

on the second and third

on the second and third strings to come up with a fstrings to come up with a few other useable triadicew other useable triadic chords.

chords.

Here are a few options that don’t change the key. Here are a few options that don’t change the key.

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E|--- B|--6-- G|--5-- D|--5--  A|--- E|--- B|--8-- G|--5-- D|--5--  A|--- E|--- B|--8-- G|--7-- D|--5--  A|---

E|---The Minor Barre Chord Triadic Shape The Minor Barre Chord Triadic Shape

 To make this chord minor is quite easy. Simply move the note at the fifth fret  To make this chord minor is quite easy. Simply move the note at the fifth fret

on the second string down one semitone to the fourth fret. on the second string down one semitone to the fourth fret.

E|--- B|--4-- G|--5-- D|--5--  A|---

E|---The D Minor Triadic Chord Shape The D Minor Triadic Chord Shape

In a similar manner, we can use the D chord shape, where the ghost note is a In a similar manner, we can use the D chord shape, where the ghost note is a root D to find another useful

root D to find another useful triadic chord.triadic chord.

E|--1-- B|--3-- G|--2-- D|---  A|---

E|---All together, this gives you 17 different movable

All together, this gives you 17 different movable shapes that you can work shapes that you can work with.with. Not only that, but they’re

Not only that, but they’re reallyreally simple and useful. You’ll use these simple and useful. You’ll use these smallsmall chords in varying forms, regardless of

chords in varying forms, regardless of how good or technical you get on how good or technical you get on thethe guitar.

guitar.

Often it’s the simple shapes and patterns that end up being the most useful. Often it’s the simple shapes and patterns that end up being the most useful.

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Practice these, memorize them and make them a part of your chord Practice these, memorize them and make them a part of your chord vocabulary.

vocabulary.

Building from Intervals

Building from Intervals

So you've seen how you can take intervals and use them to build out your So you've seen how you can take intervals and use them to build out your knowledge of chords and improve your ability to navigate

knowledge of chords and improve your ability to navigate the fretboard.the fretboard. My advice to you is to get good at

My advice to you is to get good at understanding and applying this conceptunderstanding and applying this concept before

before you set out to memorize more chords and scales. you set out to memorize more chords and scales. Odds are that you won't find

Odds are that you won't find the chord and scale memorization process the chord and scale memorization process nearlynearly as challenging if you understanding intervals and basic chord construction. as challenging if you understanding intervals and basic chord construction. It's an incremental learning method.

It's an incremental learning method. Start with the most basic elements

Start with the most basic elements and build out your knowledge from there.and build out your knowledge from there.

Know

Know

What

What

to Memorize

to Memorize

Becoming a good musician means you're going to

Becoming a good musician means you're going to spend some time memorizing,spend some time memorizing, either intentionally or simply because of repeated exposure.

either intentionally or simply because of repeated exposure. But it benefits a music student greatly

But it benefits a music student greatly if they knowif they know whatwhat to memorize, asto memorize, as opposed to trying to retain every chord, scale a

opposed to trying to retain every chord, scale a nd element of theory they mightnd element of theory they might see.

see.

 That can be extremely frustrating and taxing on one's motivation.  That can be extremely frustrating and taxing on one's motivation.

What guitar players need to memorize is often more succinct and nuanced. What guitar players need to memorize is often more succinct and nuanced. Intervals, dyads and triads are great examples of this. Because instead of Intervals, dyads and triads are great examples of this. Because instead of learning

learning tonstons of different chords, we learn a simple process that shows us howof different chords, we learn a simple process that shows us how they're created. That's where your memory effort should show up, and not they're created. That's where your memory effort should show up, and not necessarily to digest tons of diagrams from a chord library.

necessarily to digest tons of diagrams from a chord library. Am I saying don't memorize chords?

Am I saying don't memorize chords? No, of course not.

No, of course not.

But I am saying that you should be smart about how you memorize them and But I am saying that you should be smart about how you memorize them and that you should take the time

that you should take the time to understand the processes and smallerto understand the processes and smaller building blocks behind the shapes.

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Further Reading

Further Reading

In addition to

In addition to Prout's bookProut's book,, I'd recommend taking a look at I'd recommend taking a look at Memorize the GuitarMemorize the Guitar

Fretboard 

Fretboard by John C. Boukisby John C. Boukis

It's a great instructional on fretboard notes an

It's a great instructional on fretboard notes an d intervals with tons of exercisesd intervals with tons of exercises and good, succinct information.

and good, succinct information.

Interval Studies and Lead Guitar Technique 

Interval Studies and Lead Guitar Technique by Barrett Tagliarino is also a goodby Barrett Tagliarino is also a good follow up.

follow up.

Additionally, you can refer to the three

Additionally, you can refer to the three articles from which this material wasarticles from which this material was primarily derived from:

primarily derived from:

1.

1. Guitar Intervals ExplainedGuitar Intervals Explained

2.

2.  The Comp The Complete Guidlete Guide to Actuae to Actually Underslly Understanding Sevtanding Seventh Chordenth Chordss

3.

3. Simple Guitar Chords Using Dyads and TriadsSimple Guitar Chords Using Dyads and Triads

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Want to learn more guitar?

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So many of the details involved with learning guitar tend to elude us.details involved with learning guitar tend to elude us. You know, the depth topics and

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