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Introduction to Oil and Gas in

Introduction to Oil and Gas in

Introduction to Oil and Gas in

Introduction to Oil and Gas in

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago

Dr. David Alexander

(2)

History of Trinidad & Tobago’s Energy

Sector

• 1866 - First successful onshore oil well

• 1904 - Mines department formed , now MOEEI

• 1908 - Commercial onshore oil production

• 1910 - First export of oil from Brighton

• 1968 - Commercial oil discovered off Mayaro

• 1972 – National Petroleum (NP) formed

(3)

History of Trinidad & Tobago’s

Energy Sector

• 1975 - National Gas Company (NGC)

• 1978 - Highest oil production 230,000 bopd

• 1980’s - Natural Gas based

Petrochemical Plants established at Pt Lisas

• 1990’s - Significant gas discovered east coast marine area

• 1999 - First cargo LNG exported from Pt. Fortin

(4)

Importance of the Petroleum Sector

• Trinidad and Tobago’s Population - 1. 3 million • Petroleum Jobs - <5% of

direct employment

• Energy sector provides approximately 75% of foreign currency

(5)

Trinidad & Tobago’s Production Profile

T&T Oil & Gas Production Profile:- 1970 to 2008

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year G a s R a te ( m m s c fd ) 0 50 100 150 200 250 O il R a te ( m b o p d ) Gas Rate (mmscfd) ALNG 5

(6)
(7)

Petroleum Engineering

What is petroleum engineering

?

• Petroleum engineering is a field of engineering concerned with the activities related to the

production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas.

(8)

Vision

• Vision of the UTT is to be an entrepreneurial university that:

– produces graduates with broad integrated skills – maximises the benefit of new and emerging

technologies; and

– undertakes R&D activities aimed to keep Trinidad and Tobago in the vanguard of niche technologies of key importance to the nation

(9)

Mission

• To be an entrepreneurial university designed

– discover and develop entrepreneurs

– commercialise research and development

– spawn companies for wealth generation and sustainable job creation

towards the equitable enhancement of the quality of life of all individuals, families and communities of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and the

(10)

The UTT Brand

• World class standards – Education with a global vision

• Industry-ready graduates • Seamless articulation

• Entrepreneurship inside • Partnering with industry

(11)

Accreditation

Energy Institute of the UK B.Sc. Petroleum Engineering 2004 - 2007 M.Sc. Petroleum Engineering 2007 - 2015 M.Sc. Petroleum Technology 2006 – 2007 B.A.Sc. Petroleum Engineering 2011- 2015 M.Eng. Petroleum Engineering 2010 – 2015 M.Sc. Reservoir Engineering 2011- 2015

(12)

National Engineering Technician’s Diploma

(N.E.T.D.)

Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.)

Master of Science (M.Sc.) Master of Engineering (M.Eng.)

Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Programme

Levels

(13)

National Engineering Technician’s

Diploma (NETD)

Entry Requirements:

• Passes in at least 5 subjects at CXC General Proficiency (Grades I, II or III) inclusive of

Mathematics, English Language, Chemistry and Physics

Duration of Study:

(14)

Entry Requirements

Pass in CAPE I and II and/or Cambridge ‘A’ level subjects: Mathematics and either Chemistry or Physics

and

Pass in CAPE Communication Studies and Caribbean Studies and/or Cambridge General Paper

and

O-Level/CSEC Physics and Chemistry OR

Diploma Petroleum Engineering

Duration of Study: 3 Years Full Time / 4 1/3 Years Part-Time

14

(15)

B.A.Sc. Programme

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Common to all B.A.Sc. Disciplines Petroleum Engineering 75% Research & Design 8% Humanities & Social Science 17% Industry outplacement – Term 3

Petroleum Engineering 70% Research & Design 15% Humanities & Social Science 15% Industry outplacement – Term 3

B.A.Sc. Graduate 108 credits

Credits 36

36

(16)

Entry Requirements

UTT B.A.Sc. Programme Duration of Study:

1 Year Full Time / 1 1/3Years Part-Time

16

(17)

Year 4

Petroleum Engineering 33% Research & Design 50% Humanities & Social Science 17%

M. Eng. Graduate 144 credits

36 credits

(18)

MATH110B Engineering Mathematics 1 SCMT110B Scence. of Material PROG110B Programming 1 VEGR110B Visualization COMM110B Communication Skills ENGS110B Eng. Seminars MATH110B Engineering Mathematics 11 ENSD110B Engineering Systems Dynamics ELEC110B Introduction to Electrical Systems THRM110B Thermodynamics 1 PDWK110B Professional Development Workshop LIFE110B Life Sciences LWDP110B Laboratory Workshop PSWK110B Problem Solving Workshop PENG210B Into. Petroleum Engineering GEOS210B Intro. Geoscience WLOG210B Basic Well Logging LBWD210B Laboratory Workshop BPRE210B Business Practices MATH210B Engineering Mathematics 111 MATH220B Engineering Mathematics IV ENVM310B Environmental Management SDRK220B Sedimentary Rocks PBMS220B Phase Behaviour FFPM220B Fluid Flow in Porous Media PJMT220B Project Management DRLG310B Drilling Engineering PROD310B Production Engineering RESV310B Reservoir Engineering PETR220B Petro-physics 1 GSTS310B Intro. Geostatistics QHSE310B Quality Assurance PEDP320B Petroleum Design Project NGAS320B Natural Gas Engineering GEOL320B Pet. Geology WTST320B Well Testing FNMT320B Financial Management PROD410B Production Engineering IMOR410B Improved Oil Recovery RESM410B Reservoir Simulation 1 RMAL410B Research Methods CTLN410B Contract Law & Negotiation DRLG410B Drilling Engineering 11 PERP420B PGE Project PERA420B Petroleum Economics

Year 1 (36) Year 2 (36) Year 3 (36) Year 4 (36)

B.A.Sc./M.Eng. Petroleum Engineering Pre-Requisites

(19)

BSc Graduates

Engineering Disciplines

Geoscience Disciplines

Physics and Mathematics

Chemistry

MSc Petroleum Engineering

Student Qualifications

(20)

MSc Degree in Petroleum

Engineering Course Outline

(21)

Industry Overview for Petroleum Engineering (2 Credits) Basic Well Logging for Masters (2 Credits) Production Operations for Petroleum Engineering (2 Credits) Fundamentals of Petroleum Geoscience (4 Credits) Drilling Practices (2 Credits) Basic Reservoir Engineering (3 Credits) Drilling, Completions and Workovers (2 Credits) Shaly Sand Petrophysics (3 Credits) Introduction to Natural Gas Engineering (2 Credits)

1

st

Term – 22 Credits

(22)

Introduction to

Research for Petroleum Masters (3 Credits) Gas Reservoir Management (2 Credits) Reservoir Characterization (3 Credits) Advanced Well Logging (5 Credits) Thermal Heavy Oil Recovery (5 Credits) Applied Reservoir Simulation (2 Credits) Applied Pressure Transient Analysis (2 Credits) Natural Gas Engineering for Masters (3 Credits) Petroleum Risk and Decision Analysis (2 Credits)

2

nd

Term – 27 Credits

(23)

Project Thesis Overview

Field Development Study

Reservoir Evaluation Study

Well Performance Study

Petroleum Related Study

(24)

Project Thesis Review

Year Corporate Support

EOG Repsol bpTT BGTT Petrotrin UTT

2011 2 2 2

2012 3 2 6 1

(25)

Entry Requirements:

• Bachelor’s degree in Petroleum Engineering from an approved university or equivalent;

• Other applicants who do not have the above necessary

prerequisites and/or the equivalent of the above training will be required to take courses as deemed necessary by the Programme Professor, from those offered in UTT’s B.A.Sc. or M.Eng Programme prior to entry

• Mature student entry: Applicants with significant industry

experience and practice will be considered as determined by the Programme Professor.

Duration of Study: – 1 Year Full-time

Master of Science (M.Sc.)

Reservoir Engineering

(26)

Programme Overview:

• Offered to students who possess a Bachelors Degree in Petroleum Engineering;

• Provides hands-on training in the use of software

applications for Reservoir Simulation, Well Test Analysis and Fluid Flow from Reservoir to Surface

• Prepares graduates for a specialized career in reservoir engineering.

Master of Science (M.Sc.)

Reservoir Engineering

(27)

Advanced Engineering Mathematics Advanced Petroleum Geoscience Modern Petroleum Management Reservoir Characterization

Term 1

Term 2

Term 3

Advanced Reservoir Engineering Advanced Reservoir Simulation Advanced Well Test Analysis Improved Oil Recovery

M.Sc. Reservoir Engineering

Project 16 credits

Credits

16

(28)

Entry Requirements:

• Taught Master’s Degree from an approved university with a B average GPA.

• Bachelor’s degree from an approved university with a B+ average or Upper Second Class Honours or

equivalent GPA.

• Other qualifications and experience deemed to be suitable by the Board for Post Graduate Studies, Research and Development

• A student initially registered for an M.Phil. may be upgraded to a Ph.D. program

(29)

MSc by Employment Type

2005 – 2011(87 graduates)

(30)

B.Sc / B.A.Sc/M.Eng by Employment Type

2006 – 2011(40 Graduates)

(31)
(32)

MSc by Service Company

Schlumberger; 5

Baker; 5 Kenson Group of company; 0

Tucker; 1 weatherford; 1 baroid; 0 Tuscany Drilling; 0 Schlumberger Baker

Kenson Group of company Tucker weatherford baroid Tuscany Drilling MSc Company by Company

(33)
(34)

B.Sc/B.A.Sc /M.Eng by Service Company

Schlumberger; 0

Baker; 3

Kenson Group of company; 1 Tucker; 0 weatherford; 0 baroid; 2 Tuscany Drilling; 1 Schlumberger Baker Kenson Group of company Tucker weatherford baroid Tuscany Drilling

(35)
(36)
(37)

Petroleum Engineering

As A Career

(38)

Role of Petroleum Engineer

• Economic & environmentally safe

production of petroleum resources

• Maximum possible recovery of petroleum

from a reservoir

(39)

Petroleum Geologist

• Petroleum geologists

look at the structural and

sedimentary aspects of

the stratum / strata to

identify possible oil

traps. Petroleum

geologists make the

decision on where

drilling occurs.

(40)

Reservoir Engineers

• Reservoir engineers work to optimize production of oil and gas via proper well placement, production levels, and

enhanced oil recovery techniques

• Develop, control and operate petroleum reservoirs for

maximum recovery of oil & gas

(41)

Reservoir Engineers

• Reservoir engineers work to optimize production of oil and gas via proper well placement, production levels, and enhanced oil recovery techniques

• Develop, control and operate petroleum reservoirs for

maximum recovery of oil & gas

(42)

Drilling Engineers

• Drilling engineers manage the technical aspects of drilling both production and injection wells.

• Select equipment & material for a drilling rig

• Prepare cost estimates for drilling wells

• Supervise drilling operations

(43)

MWD/LWD & Logging Engineer

• Measure and

record well

variables, for

reservoir

characterization.

43

(44)

Cementing Engineer

• Responsible for specialized cementing operations

• Cementing is performed by circulating a cement slurry through the inside of the casing and out into the

annulus through the casing shoe at the bottom of the casing string.

(45)

Drilling Fluids Engineer

• Mud engineer (correctly called a Drilling Fluids Engineer, but

sometimes referred to as the "Mud Man", though women also do this job today) works on an oil well drilling rig, and is responsible for the drilling fluid, also known as drilling mud which lubricates the drill bit and clears cuttings from the borehole.

(46)

Completion & Workover Engineers

• Design & supervise

the installation of

equipment needed

to transport oil &

gas from the

reservoir to the

surface.

(47)

Production Engineers

• Production engineers manage the interface

between the reservoir and the well

– including perforations, sand control, artificial lift,

downhole flow control, and downhole monitoring

equipment

• Responsible for optimizing gas & oil rates for the well

(48)

Energy in Trinidad and Tobago

Energy in Trinidad and Tobago

Energy in Trinidad and Tobago

Energy in Trinidad and Tobago

(49)

Agenda

• Government revenue and expenditure • Trends in oil and gas price

• Main contributors to GDP

• T&T as an oil producer (global context) • Reason for slump in oil prices

• Overview of Natural Gas sector in T&T • Recent developments

(50)

T&T Energy, Non-Energy and Total GDP

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3

Energy GDP (TT$ Billions, 2000 Prices) Non Energy GDP (TT$ Billions, 2000 Prices) GDP (TT$ Billions, 2000 Prices)

(51)

General oil price trend – 1 year

(52)

General oil price trend – 10 years

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Europe Brent Spot Price FOB (Dollars per Barrel)

(53)

General oil price trend - 50 years+

(54)

Though the Energy Sector Remains

the Main Contributor to GDP

54

Sector 1966 1972 1981 1989 1994 2002 2008 2012p Agriculture 6.7 7.1 2.6 2.5 2.2 1.4 0.4 0.6 Petroleum 26.5 20.8 35.7 27.2 29.9 26.2 50.8 43.7 Manufacturing 7.0 10.7 5.0 9.6 7.8 8.0 4.0 6.0 Electricity and Water 1.8 1.9 0.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 0.9 1.3 Construction 4.3 7.7 14.6 8.9 7.6 7.3 8.3 5.0 Transport, Storage and

Communications

14.0 12.9 9.7 9.3 8.3 10.1 4.0 5.4

Distribution 18.2 15.4 11.6 17.4 13.7 16.5 12.1 13.8 Finance, Insurance and Real

Estate

7.4 7.0 11.0 11.3 12.4 15.8 8.9 11.0

Government 8.4 11.3 8.8 11.9 2.1 1.6 7.1 8.7 Other services 7.3 7.1 5.1 7.0 13.6 11.4 3.1 4.3

Sectoral Composition of GDP At Current Market Prices (%),

(55)

Global production of oil

2012 2013 2014

(million barrels per day)

Non-OPEC Production 52.76 54.13 56.00

OPEC Production 37.00 36.03 35.96

Total World Production 89.76 90.16 91.96

T&T Production 0.08 0.08 0.08

(56)

T&T Oil Production

81200 BPD

(57)

Oil Production

• Mature Fields

• Aging Infrastructure

(58)

Reasons for global slump in oil prices

A number of forces in the international petroleum markets have set off this downward trend, namely:

• The application of new technology which has increased Shale oil and gas production in North America;

• the economic slowdown which has reduced oil demand by some of the world’s largest oil consumers, including China, Japan, and Europe, • geopolitical objectives, and

• the surplus of oil available in the market with continuing production by oil producing countries.

(59)

Reasons for global slump in oil prices

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

U.S. Field Production of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000

Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand

(60)

Average price to produce oil from

various sources

Cost of producing one additional barrel of oil

Regions Dollars per barrel ($/bbl)

Arctic 115 to 122

Brazil Ethanol 63 to 69

Central and South America 29 to 35

Deepwater Offshore 54 to 60

EU Biodiesel 106 to 113

EU Ethanol 98 to 105

Middle East Onshore 10 to 17

North Sea 46 to 53

Oil Sands 89 to 96

Former Soviet Union Onshore 18 to 25

Russia Onshore 15 to 21

US Ethanol 80 to 87

US Shale Oil 70 to 77

(61)

Breakeven point for select North

American Oil Plays

(62)
(63)

Natural Gas Price

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 U S $ /M M B T U

Natural Gas Price: Henry Hub (US$/MMBTU)

(64)

Natural Gas Utilization

3854 MMSCFD

(65)

T&T LNG Exports to Various Markets

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Asia Pacific

(66)

Natural Gas Market

• Challenges from US Shale Gas

• Consuming 1.4 to 1.5 TCF per year

(67)
(68)

Oil and gas reserves

• Proven crude oil reserves - 728 million barrels -24.93 years

(69)

Investments

• 2014 - US $3.3 billion

2015 – US $3.2 billion

2016 – US $ 3.0 billion

• Juniper US $2.1 billion

Platform to be built at Labidco

Production start up 2017

• Starfish

Production start up 2014

(70)

Drilling Activity

• 2010 – 1132 Rig days • 2013 – 2485 Rig days • Active drilling

programme critical for sustaining production

(71)

Exploration Success

• Recent Successes

East Galeota Field - 27 MMBO Trinmar Cluster 6 - 48 MMBO Savonette – 4 - 1 TCF

Trinity TGAL-1 - 26 MMBO Repsol TSP - 40 MMBO

• Exploration Success in mature fields is

encouraging

• Continuous Spending is required

(72)

Deep Water Activity

(73)

Downstream Activity

• US $850 million Methanol to Di-Methyl Ether

plant

• Technical concept is at advanced stage

• Plant will produce methanol from natural gas

• Methanol will be taken to di-methyl ether to

replace propane and diesel

(74)

Support Services

Galeota Energy Port Providing logistical support for:

T&T East Coast Suriname

Guyana

(75)

Transportation Fuel

• Meeting the challenge of the fuel subsidy

through:

Conversion from liquid fuel to CNG

35 Fueling stations in T&T by 2016

Use of hybrid vehicles

(76)
(77)

What's constant in Energy?

• These taxes would apply to companies

involved mainly in the Production and Refining

Business

of

Petroleum

and

Petroleum

products.

There have been no changes made

to the following

:

– Petroleum Profits Tax rate of 50% on profits

from Land and Shallow Water Blocks.

– Unemployment Levy rate of 5%.

– Petroleum Profits Tax rate of 35% on profits

from Deep Water Blocks.

(78)

What's new under taxes?

From January 1, 2014:

• Under the Supplemental Petroleum Tax regime, an

Investment Tax credit took effect from January 1, 2011, which allowed companies to claim 20% of expenditure on development activity for mature fields and

enhanced oil recovery projects as a credit against their

Supplemental Petroleum Tax liability.

• This credit was only available for use in the financial year within which the expense was incurred; however, any unused credits would now be allowed to be carried forward for one year.

(79)

What's new for Exploration?

• The existing initial and annual allowances would

be replaced by a new

allowance of 100% of

exploration costs to be written off in the year the

expenditure is incurred

.

• This allowance would be applicable over the

period 2014 to 2017.

• From 2018,

the allowance would be amended

to

provide for write off of 50% of the exploration

costs in the first year of expenditure, 30% in the

second year and 20% in the third year.

(80)

What's new for Development?

• The existing initial and annual allowances

would be replaced by a new allowance of 50%

of costs in the first year of expenditure, 30% in

the second year and 20% in the third year.

• This allowance would be applicable to both

plant and machinery and the drilling of wells.

(81)

What's new for Workovers and

Qualifying Side-tracks?

• An allowance of

100% of the total costs

of

work-overs and qualifying side-tracks to be

written off in the year incurred.

(82)
(83)

With Seven Sectors Targeted for

Diversification

• Down Stream Energy.

• Tourism.

• Food Sustainability.

• Information Communication Technologies

(ICT).

• Culture and the creative industries.

• Maritime industries.

• Financial Services.

(84)

The Future?

Agricultural Industrial Knowledge based After knowledge based? 84

(85)

Conclusion

• Energy Sector drives the economy

• Diversification efforts needs to continue

• T&T to become knowledge base hub

• Paradigm shift needed to extract full value

from our hydrocarbon resources

– R&D into new and unconventional methods – Hub for generating competent professionals

(86)

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