• No results found

# The multiplicative Zagreb indices of graph operations

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2020

Share "The multiplicative Zagreb indices of graph operations"

Copied!
14
0
0

Full text

(1)

## operations

1

2

2

3

### and Ismail Naci Cangul

2*

*Correspondence:

cangul@uludag.edu.tr

2Department of Mathematics,

Faculty of Arts and Science, Uluda ˘g University, Gorukle Campus, Bursa, 16059, Turkey

Full list of author information is available at the end of the article

Abstract

Recently, Todeschiniet al.(Novel Molecular Structure Descriptors - Theory and Applications I, pp. 73-100, 2010), Todeschini and Consonni (MATCH Commun. Math. Comput. Chem. 64:359-372, 2010) have proposed the multiplicative variants of ordinary Zagreb indices, which are deﬁned as follows:

1 =

1

(G) = vV(G)

dG(v)2,

2 =

2

(G) = uvE(G)

dG(u)dG(v).

These two graph invariants are calledmultiplicative Zagreb indicesby Gutman (Bull. Soc. Math. Banja Luka 18:17-23, 2011). In this paper the upper bounds on the multiplicative Zagreb indices of the join, Cartesian product, corona product, composition and disjunction of graphs are derived and the indices are evaluated for some well-known graphs.

MSC: 05C05; 05C90; 05C07

Keywords: graph; multiplicative Zagreb index; graph operations

1 Introduction

Throughout this paper, we consider simple graphs which are ﬁnite, indirected graphs with-out loops and multiple edges. SupposeGis a graph with a vertex setV(G) and an edge set

E(G). For a graphG, the degree of a vertexvis the number of edges incident tovand is denoted bydG(v). A topological indexTop(G) of a graphGis a number with the property that for every graphHisomorphic toG,Top(H) =Top(G). Recently, Todeschiniet al.[, ] have proposed the multiplicative variants of ordinary Zagreb indices, which are deﬁned as follows:

=

(G) = v∈V(G)

dG(v),

=

(G) = uv∈E(G)

dG(u)dG(v).

Mathematical properties and applications of multiplicative Zagreb indices are reported in [–]. Mathematical properties and applications of multiplicative sum Zagreb indices are reported in []. For other undeﬁned notations and terminology from graph theory, the readers are referred to [].

In [, ], Khalifehet al.computed some exact formulae for the hyper-Wiener index and Zagreb indices of the join, Cartesian product, composition, disjunction and symmetric

(2)

diﬀerence of graphs. Some more properties and applications of graph products can be seen in the classical book [].

In this paper, we give some upper bounds for the multiplicative Zagreb index of various graph operations such as join, corona product, Cartesian product, composition, disjunc-tion,etc.Moreover, computations are done for some well-known graphs.

2 Multiplicative Zagreb index of graph operations We begin this section with two standard inequalities as follows.

Lemma (AM-GM inequality) Let x,x, . . . ,xnbe nonnegative numbers.Then

x+x+· · ·+xn

n

n

xx· · ·xn ()

holds with equality if and only if all the xk’s are equal.

Lemma (Weighted AM-GM inequality) Let x,x, . . . ,xnbe nonnegative numbers and

also let w,w, . . . ,wnbe nonnegative weights.Set w=w+w+· · ·+wn.If w> ,then the

inequality

wx+wx+· · ·+wnxn

w

w

xw

x

w

 · · ·x

wn

n ()

holds with equality if and only if all the xkwith wk> are equal.

LetGandGbe two graphs withnandnvertices andmandmedges, respectively.

The joinG∨Gof graphsGandGwith disjoint vertex setsV(G) andV(G) and edge

setsE(G) andE(G) is the graph unionG∪Gtogether with all the edges joiningV(G)

andV(G). Thus, for example, KpKq=Kp,q, the complete bipartite graph. We have

|V(G∨G)|=n+nand|E(G∨G)|=m+m+nn.

Theorem  Let Gand Gbe two graphs.Then

(G∨G)≤

M(G) + mn+nn

n

n

×

M(G) + nm+nn

n

n

()

and

(G∨G)≤

M(G) +nM(G) +mn

m

m

×

M(G) +nM(G) +mn

m

m

×

mm+ nn(m+m) + (nn)

nn

nn

, ()

where nand nare the numbers of vertices of Gand G,and m,mare the numbers of

edges of Gand G,respectively.Moreover,the equality holds in()if and only if both G

and Gare regular graphs,that is,G∨Gis a regular graph and the equality holds in()

(3)

Proof Now,

(G∨G) =

(ui,vj)∈V(G∨G)

dG∨G(ui,vj)

=

ui∈V(G)

dG(ui) +n

vj∈V(G)

dG(vj) +n

=

ui∈V(G)

dG(ui)

+ 

ndG(ui) +n

 

vj∈V(G)

dG(vj)

+ 

ndG(vj) +n

 

and by () this above equality is actually less than or equal to

ui∈V(G)(dG(ui)

+ ndG(ui) +n

 )

n

n

×

vj∈V(G)

(dG(vj)+ ndG(vj) +n)

n

n

=

M(G) + mn+nn

n

n

×

M(G) + nm+nn

n

n

.

Moreover, the above equality holds if and only if

dG(ui)

+ ndG(ui) +n

=dG(uk)

+ ndG(uk) +n

 

ui,ukV(G)

and

dG(vj)

+ n

dG(vj) +n

=dG(v)+ ndG(v) +n

vj,vV(G)

(by Lemma ), that is, forui,ukV(G) andvj,vV(G),

dG(ui) –dG(uk)

dG(ui) +dG(uk) + n

and

dG(vj) –dG(v)

dG(vj) +dG(v) + n

.

That is, forui,ukV(G) andvj,vV(G), we getdG(ui) =dG(uk) anddG(vj) =dG(v). Hence the equality holds in () if and only if bothGandGare regular graphs, that is,

G∨Gis a regular graph.

Now, since

(G∨G) =

(ui,vj)(uk,v)∈E(G∨G)

dG∨G(ui,vj)dG∨G(uk,v),

we then obtain

=

uiuk∈E(G)

dG(ui) +n

dG(uk) +n

vjv∈E(G)

dG(vj) +n

dG(v) +n

×

ui∈V(G),vj∈V(G)

dG(ui) +n

dG(vj) +n

(4)

and by ()

uiuk∈E(G)(dG(ui)dG(uk) +n(dG(ui) +dG(uk)) +n)

m

m

×

vjv∈E(G)(dG(vj)dG(v) +n(dG(vj) +dG(v)) +n)

m

m

×

ui∈V(G),vj∈V(G)(dG(ui)dG(vj) +ndG(vj) +ndG(ui) +nn)

nn

nn

. ()

However, from the last inequality, we get

=

M(G) +nM(G) +mn

m

m

×

M(G) +nM(G) +mn

m

m

×

ui∈V(G)di

vj∈V(G)d

j +nn

vi∈V(G)di+nn

vj∈V(G)d

j +nn

nn

nn

=

M(G) +nM(G) +mn

m

m

×

M(G) +nM(G) +mn

m

m

×

mm+ nn(m+m) + (nn)

nn

nn

.

Furthermore, for both connected graphsGandG, the equality holds in () iﬀ

dG(ui)dG(ur) +n

dG(ui) +dG(ur)

+n=dG(ui)dG(uk) +n

dG(ui) +dG(uk)

+n

for anyuiur,uiukE(G); and

dG(vj)dG(vr) +n

dG(vj) +dG(vr)

+n=dG(vj)dG(v) +n

dG(vj) +dG(v)

+n

for anyvjvr,vjvE(G) as well as

dG(ui)dG(vj) +ndG(vj) +ndG(ui) +nn

=dG(ui)dG(v) +ndG(v) +ndG(ui) +nn

for anyuiV(G),vj,vV(G); and

dG(ui)dG(vj) +ndG(vj) +ndG(ui) +nn

=dG(uk)dG(vj) +ndG(vj) +ndG(uk) +nn

for anyvjV(G),ui,ukV(G) by Lemma . Thus one can easily see that the equality

holds in () if and only if forui,ukV(G) andvj,vV(G),

dG(ui) =dG(uk) and dG(vj) =dG(v).

Hence the equality holds in () if and only if bothG andG are regular graphs, that is,

(5)

Example  Consider two cycle graphsCpandCq. We thus have

(CpCq) = (p+ )q(q+ )p and

(CpCq) = (p+ )(p+)q(q+ )(q+)p.

TheCartesian product GG of graphsG andG has the vertex setV(G×G) =

V(G)×V(G) and (ui,vj)(uk,v) is an edge ofGGif

either ui=ukandvjvE(G),

or uiukE(G) andvj=v.

Theorem  Let Gand Gbe two connected graphs.Then

(i)

(GG)≤

nM(G) +nM(G) + mm

nn

nn

. ()

The equality holds in()if and only if GGis a regular graph.

(ii)

(GG)≤

 (nm)nm

nM(G) + mm

nm

× 

(nm)nm

nM(G) + mm

nm

. ()

Moreover,the equality holds in()if and only if GGis a regular graph.

Proof By the deﬁnition of the ﬁrst multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

(GG) =

(ui,vj)∈V(GG)

dG(ui) +dG(vj)

=

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)

dG(ui) +dG(vj)

.

On the other hand, by ()

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)(dG(ui)

+dG(vj)

+ dG(ui)dG(vj))

nn

nn

. ()

But asui∈V(G)dG(ui)

=M(G) and

vj∈V(G)dG(vj)

=M(G), the last statement

in () is less than or equal to

ui∈V(G)(dG(ui)

vj∈V(G) +

vj∈V(G)dG(vj)

+ d

G(ui)

vj∈V(G)dG(vj))

nn

nn

which equals to

nM(G) +nM(G) + mm

nn

nn

(6)

Moreover, the equality holds in () if and only if dG(ui) +dG(vj) =dG(uk) +dG(v)

for any (ui,vj), (uk,v)∈V(GG) by Lemma . Since bothG andG are connected

graphs, one can easily see that the equality holds in () if and only ifdG(ui) =dG(uk),

ui,ukV(G) anddG(vj) =dG(v),vj,vV(G). Hence the equality holds in () if and

only if bothGandGare regular graphs, that is,GGis a regular graph. This completes

the ﬁrst part of the proof.

By the deﬁnition of the second multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

(GG) =

(ui,vj)(uk,v)∈E(GG)

dG(ui) +dG(vj)

dG(uk) +dG(v)

.

This actually can be written as

(GG) =

ui∈V(G)

vjv∈E(G)

dG(ui) +dG(vj)

dG(ui) +dG(v)

×

vj∈V(G)

uiuk∈E(G)

dG(ui) +dG(vj)

dG(uk) +dG(vj)

or, equivalently,

(GG) =

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)

dG(ui) +dG(vj)

dG(vj)

×

vj∈V(G)

ui∈V(G)

dG(ui) +dG(vj)

dG(ui) .

After that, by () we get

(GG)≤

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)dG(vj)(dG(ui) +dG(vj))

m

m

×

vj∈V(G)

ui∈V(G)dG(ui)(dG(ui) +dG(vj))

m

m

. ()

Moreover, since

ui∈V(G)

dG(ui) = m,

vj∈V(G)

dG(vj) = m and

ui∈V(G)

dG(ui)

=

M(G),

vj∈V(G)

dG(vj)

=

M(G).

By () the ﬁnal statement in () becomes

=

ui∈V(G)

M(G) + mdG(ui)

m

m

×

vj∈V(G)

M(G) + mdG(vj)

m

m

≤ 

(m)nm

ui∈V(G)(M(G) + mdG(ui))

n

(7)

×  (m)nm

vj∈V(G)(M(G) + mdG(vj))

n

nm

()

= 

(nm)nm

nM(G) + mm

nm

× 

(nm)nm

nM(G) + mm

nm

.

Hence the second part of the proof is over.

The equality holds in () and () if and only ifdG(vj) =dG(v) for anyvj,vV(G)

anddG(ui) =dG(uk) for anyui,ukV(G) by Lemmas  and . Hence the equality holds

in () if and only if bothGandGare regular graphs, that is,GGis a regular graph.

This completes the proof.

Example  Consider a cycle graphCpand a complete graphKq. We thus have

(CpKq) = (q+ )pq and

(CpKq) = (q+ )(q+)pq.

Thecorona product G◦Gof two graphsGandGis deﬁned to be the graph

ob-tained by taking one copy of G (which has n vertices) and n copies ofG, and then

joining theith vertex ofGto every vertex in theith copy ofG,i= , , . . . ,n.

Let G = (V,E) and G = (V,E) be two graphs such that V(G) = {u,u, . . . ,un},

|E(G)|=m andV(G) ={v,v, . . . ,vn}, |E(G)|=m. Then it follows from the

deﬁni-tion of the corona product that G◦G hasn( +n) vertices and m +nm+nn

edges, where V(G ◦ G) ={(ui,vj),i = , , . . . ,n;j = , , , . . . ,n} and E(G ◦ G) =

{((ui,v), (uk,v)), (ui,uk) ∈ E(G)} ∪ {((ui,vj), (ui,v)), (vj,v) ∈ E(G),i = , , . . . ,n} ∪

{((ui,v), (ui,v)),= , , . . . ,n,i= , , . . . ,n}. It is clear that if G is connected, then

G◦Gis connected, and in generalG◦Gis not isomorphic toG◦G.

Theorem  The ﬁrst and second multiplicative Zagreb indices of the corona product are computed as follows:

(i)

(G◦G)≤

nn

n

nn

M(G)n

M(G) + m+n

nn

, ()

(ii)

(G◦G)≤

M(G) +nM(G) +n

m

mM

(G) +M(G) + 

m

nm

×

mm+nn+ mn+ mnn

nn

nn

, ()

where M(Gi)and M(Gi)are the ﬁrst and second Zagreb indices of Gi,where i= , ,

re-spectively.Moreover,both equalities in()and()hold if and only if G◦Gis a regular

(8)

Proof By the deﬁnition of the ﬁrst multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

(G◦G) =

(ui,vj)∈V(G◦G)

dG◦G(ui,vj)

=

ui∈V(G)

dG(ui) +n

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)

dG(vj) + 

=

ui∈V(G)

dG(ui)

+ ndG(ui) +n

 

×

vj∈V(G)

dG(vj)

+ dG(vj) + 

n

ui∈V(G)(dG(ui)

+ n

dG(ui) +n)

n

n

×

vj∈V(G)(dG(vj)

+ dG(vj) + )

n

nn

by () ()

= 

nn

n

nn

M(G) + nm+nn

n

M(G) + m+n

nn

.

The equality holds in () if and only ifdG(ui) =dG(uk),ui,ukV(G) anddG(vj) =

dG(v),vj,vV(G), that is, both G andG are regular graphs, that is,G◦G is a

regular graph.

By the deﬁnition of the second multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

(G◦G) =

(ui,vj)(uk,v)∈E(G◦G)

dG◦G(ui,vj)dG◦G(uk,v)

=

uiuk∈E(G)

dG(ui) +n

dG(uk) +n

×

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)

dG(ui) +n

dG(vj) + 

×

ui∈V(G)

vjv∈E(G)

dG(vj) + 

dG(v) + 

=

uiuk∈E(G)

dG(ui)dG(uk) +n

dG(ui) +dG(uk)

+n

×

ui∈V(G)

dG(ui) +n

n

vj∈V(G)

dG(vj) + 

n

×

vjv∈E(G)

dG(vj)dG(v) +

dG(vj) +dG(v)

+ 

n

M(G) +nM(G) +nm

m

m

×

m+nn

n

nn

×

m+n

n

nn

×

M(G) +M(G) +m

m

nm

(9)

The above equality holds if and only ifdG(ui) =dG(uk) for anyui,ukV(G) anddG(vj) =

dG(v) for anyvj,vV(G), that is, bothGandGare regular graphs, which implies that

G◦Gis a regular graph. This completes the proof.

Example  (CpKq) =qpq(q+ )pand

(CpKq) =qpq

(q+ )p(q+).

Thecomposition(also calledlexicographic product[])G=G[G] of graphsG and

Gwith disjoint vertex setsV(G) andV(G) and edge setsE(G) andE(G) is the graph

with a vertex setV(G)×V(G) and (ui,vj) is adjacent to (uk,v) whenever either uiis adjacent touk,

or ui=ukandvjis adjacent tov.

Theorem  The ﬁrst and second multiplicative Zagreb indices of the composition G[G]

of graphs Gand Gare bounded above as follows:

(i)

G[G]

≤ 

(nn)nn

nM(G) + nmm+nM(G)

nn

, ()

(ii)

G[G]

≤ 

(nm)nm

mnM(G) + nmM(G) +nM(G)

nm

× 

(nm)mn

 

nM(G) +mM(G) + mnM(G)

nm

, ()

where M(Gi)and M(Gi)are the ﬁrst and second Zagreb indices of Gi,where i= , .

More-over,the equalities in()and()hold if and only if G◦Gis a regular graph.

Proof By the deﬁnition of the ﬁrst multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

G[G]

=

(ui,vj)∈V(G[G])

dG[G](ui,vj)

=

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)

dG(ui)n+dG(vj)

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)(n

 dG(ui)

+ ndG(ui)dG(vj) +dG(vj)

)

nn

nn

()

= 

(nn)nn

nM(G) + nmm+nM(G)

nn

.

The equality holds in () if and only ifdG(ui) =dG(uk),ui,ukV(G) anddG(vj) =

dG(v),vj,vV(G) (by Lemma ), that is, bothG andGare regular graphs, that is,

(10)

By the deﬁnition of the second multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

G[G]

=

(ui,vj)(uk,v)∈E(G[G])

dG◦G(ui,vj)dG[G](uk,v)

=

ui∈V(G)

vjv∈E(G)

dG(ui)n+dG(vj)

dG(ui)n+dG(v)

×

uiuk∈E(G)

vj∈V(G)

dG(ui)n+dG(vj)

dG(uk)n+dG(vj)

n

ui∈V(G)

mndG(ui)

+n

dG(ui)M(G) +M(G)

m

m

×

uiuk∈E(G)

ndG(ui)dG(uk) +M(G) + mn(dG(ui) +dG(uk))

n

n

()

≤ 

mnm

mnM(G) + nmM(G) +nM(G)

n

nm

× 

(n)mn

 

n

M(G) +mM(G) + mnM(G)

m

n m

, ()

which gives the required result in ().

The equality holds in () and () if and only ifdG(ui) =dG(uk),ui,ukV(G) and

dG(vj) =dG(v),vj,vV(G) (by Lemma ), that is, bothGandGare regular graphs,

that is,G◦Gis a regular graph.

Example  (Cp[Cq]) = pq(q+ )pqand

(Cp[Cq]) = pq(q+)(q+ )pq(q+).

Thedisjunction G⊗Gof graphsGandGis the graph with a vertex setV(G)×V(G)

and (ui,vj) is adjacent to (uk,v) wheneveruiukE(G) orvjvE(G).

Theorem  The ﬁrst and second multiplicative Zagreb indices of the disjunction are com-puted as follows:

(i)

(G⊗G)≤

 (nn)nn

nM(G) +nM(G) +M(G)M(G)

+ nnmm– nmM(G) – nmM(G)

nn

, ()

(ii)

(G⊗G)

M(G)(n+M(G) – nm) +M(G)(n– nm) + nnmm

Q

Q

(11)

where Q=ui∈V(G)vj∈V(G)P= (n

m+nm– mm)and M(Gi)is the ﬁrst Zagreb

index of Gi,i= , .Moreover,the equalities in()and()hold if and only if G◦Gis a

regular graph.

Proof We havedG⊗G(ui,vj) =ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) –dG(ui)dG(vj). By the deﬁnition of

the ﬁrst multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

(G⊗G)

=

(ui,vj)∈V(G⊗G)

dG⊗G(ui,vj)

=

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)

ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) –dG(ui)dG(vj)

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)(ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) –dG(ui)dG(vj))

nn

nn

()

= 

(nn)nn

nM(G) +nM(G) +M(G)M(G)

+ nnmm– nmM(G) – nmM(G)

nn

.

The equality holds in () if and only ifdG(ui) =dG(uk),ui,ukV(G) anddG(vj) =

dG(v),vj,vV(G) (by Lemma ), that is, bothG andGare regular graphs, that is,

G◦Gis a regular graph.

By the deﬁnition of the second multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

(G⊗G) =

(ui,vj)(uk,v)∈E(G⊗G)

dG⊗G(ui,vj)dG⊗G(uk,v)

=

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)

PP,

where

P=ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) –dG(ui)dG(vj).

Using the weighted arithmetic-geometric mean inequality in (),(G⊗G) is less

than or equal to

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)(ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) –dG(ui)dG(vj))

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)P

uiV(G)vjV(G)P ()

=

M(G)(n+M(G) – nm) +M(G)(n– nm) + nnmm

Q

Q

,

where

Q=

ui∈V(G)vj∈V(G)

P= nm+nm– mm

.

(12)

The equality holds in () if and only ifdG(ui) =dG(uk), whereui,ukV(G) and

dG(vj) =dG(v), wherevj,vV(G) (by Lemma ), that is, bothG andGare regular

graphs, and so the graphG◦Gis regular.

Example  (KpCq) = (pqq+ )pqand

(KpCq) = (pqq+ )pq(pqq+). Thesymmetric diﬀerence G⊕Gof two graphsGandGis the graph with a vertex set

V(G)×V(G) in which (ui,vj) is adjacent to (uk,v) wheneveruiis adjacent toukinG

orviis adjacent tovinG, but not both. The degree of a vertex (ui,vj) ofG⊕Gis given

by

dG⊕G(ui,vj) =ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) – dG(ui)dG(vj),

while the number of edges inG⊕Gisnm+nm– mm.

Theorem  The ﬁrst and second multiplicative Zagreb indices of the symmetric diﬀerence G⊕Gof two graphs Gand Gare bounded above as follows:

(i)

(G⊕G)≤

 (nn)nn

nM(G) +nM(G) + M(G)M(G)

+ nnmm– nmM(G) – nmM(G)

nn

, ()

(ii)

(G⊕G)

M(G)(n+ M(G) – nm) +M(G)(n– nm) + nnmm

Q

Q , ()

where Q=u i∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)P= (n

m+nm– mm)and M(Gi)is the ﬁrst Zagreb

index of Gi,for i= , .Moreover,the equalities in()and()hold if and only if G◦G

is a regular graph.

Proof We have

dG⊕G(ui,vj) =ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) – dG(ui)dG(vj).

By the deﬁnition of the ﬁrst multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

(G⊕G)

=

(ui,vj)∈V(G⊕G)

dG⊗G(ui,vj)

=

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)

ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) – dG(ui)dG(vj)

(13)

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)(ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) – dG(ui)dG(vj))

nn

nn

()

= 

(nn)nn

nM(G) +nM(G) + M(G)M(G) + nnmm

– nmM(G) – nmM(G)

nn

.

The equality holds in () if and only ifdG(ui) =dG(uk),ui,ukV(G) anddG(vj) =

dG(v),vj,vV(G) (by Lemma ), that is, bothG andG are regular graphs, which

implies thatG◦Gis a regular graph.

By the deﬁnition of the second multiplicative Zagreb index, we have

(G⊕G) =

(ui,vj)(uk,v)∈E(G⊗G)

dG⊗G(ui,vj)dG⊗G(uk,v)

=

ui∈V(G)

vj∈V(G)

PP,

whereP=ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) – dG(ui)dG(vj).

Using the weighted arithmetic-geometric mean inequality in (), we get

uiV(G)

vjV(G) PP

uiV(G)

vjV(G)(ndG(ui) +ndG(vj) – dG(ui)dG(vj)) 

uiV(G)

vjV(G)P

ui∈V(G )

vj∈V(G )P ()

=

M(G)(n+ M(G) – nm) +M(G)(n– nm) + nnmmQ

Q ,

whereQ=ui∈V(G)vj∈V(G)P= (n

m+nm– mm). First part of the proof is over.

The equality holds in () if and only ifdG(ui) =dG(uk),ui,ukV(G) anddG(vj) =

dG(v),vj,vV(G) (by Lemma ), that is, bothG andG are regular graphs, which

implies thatG◦Gis a regular graph.

Example  (G⊕G) = (p+q– )pqand

(G⊕G) = (p+q– )pq(p+q–).

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

All authors completed the paper together. All authors read and approved the ﬁnal manuscript.

Author details

1Department of Mathematics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746, Republic of Korea.2Department of

Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Uluda ˘g University, Gorukle Campus, Bursa, 16059, Turkey.3Department of

Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Selçuk University, Campus, Konya, 42075, Turkey.

Acknowledgements

Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava.

All authors except the ﬁrst one are partially supported by Research Project Oﬃces of Uluda ˘g (2012-15 and 2012-19) and Selçuk Universities. K.C. Das thanks for support the Sungkyunkwan University BK21 Project, BK21 Math Modeling HRD Div. Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

(14)

References

1. Todeschini, R, Ballabio, D, Consonni, V: Novel molecular descriptors based on functions of new vertex degrees. In: Gutman, I, Furtula, B (eds.) Novel Molecular Structure Descriptors - Theory and Applications I, pp. 73-100. Univ. Kragujevac, Kragujevac (2010)

2. Todeschini, R, Consonni, V: New local vertex invariants and molecular descriptors based on functions of the vertex degrees. MATCH Commun. Math. Comput. Chem.64, 359-372 (2010)

3. Eliasi, M, Iranmanesh, A, Gutman, I: Multiplicative versions of ﬁrst Zagreb index. MATCH Commun. Math. Comput. Chem.68, 217-230 (2012)

4. Gutman, I: Multiplicative Zagreb indices of trees. Bull. Soc. Math. Banja Luka18, 17-23 (2011)

5. Liu, J, Zhang, Q: Sharp upper bounds on multiplicative Zagreb indices. MATCH Commun. Math. Comput. Chem.68, 231-240 (2012)

6. Xu, K, Hua, H: A uniﬁed approach to extremal multiplicative Zagreb indices for trees, unicyclic and bicyclic graphs. MATCH Commun. Math. Comput. Chem.68, 241-256 (2012)

7. Xu, K, Das, KC: Trees, unicyclic and bicyclic graphs extremal with respect to multiplicative sum Zagreb index. MATCH Commun. Math. Comput. Chem.68(1), 257-272 (2012)

8. Bondy, JA, Murty, USR: Graph Theory with Applications. Macmillan Co., New York (1976)

9. Khalifeh, MH, Azari, HY, Ashraﬁ, AR: The hyper-Wiener index of graph operations. Comput. Math. Appl.56, 1402-1407 (2008)

10. Khalifeh, MH, Azari, HY, Ashraﬁ, AR: The ﬁrst and second Zagreb indices on of some graph operations. Discrete Appl. Math.157, 804-811 (2009)

11. Imrich, W, Klavžar, S: Product Graphs: Structure and Recognition. Wiley, New York (2000) 12. Harary, F: Graph Theory, p. 22. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1994)

doi:10.1186/1029-242X-2013-90

References

Related documents

Single-Needle Negative Corona Discharge Trichel Pulse Current and Ite Radiation Characteristics 95.. The initial stage of negative corona discharge is the Townsend discharge stage,

The total cyanogenic glycoside contents 216 mg/100g was determined whereas the total phytic acid content was 320 mg/100g in endosperm rich fraction of flaxseed.. The

full technique He’s variational iteration method for finding approximate solutions of systems of..

Local catfish farmers and potential catfish farmers will find the information from this study useful as it will aid the local fish farmer increase their production by

The content of the marketing function, its effectiveness and efficiency, and the connected issue of marketing’s influence over the overall strategy of the company (i.e. the level

at postmortem examination included a small atelec- tatic lung on the left with the spleen, part of the stomach, all of the small intestine and colon except. for the sigmoid and

Activities were determined in each direction of the reaction by using saturating substrate conditions in the presence or absence of metals (3 mM final concentration in the

Different from the published gain-clamped EDFAs which utilize an in-line device to steady their performance in L-band, this proposal is focusing on the C-band and is employing

@Mayas Publication Page 31 investment variables, in the present study.. were selected mainly on the basic

Test – 1 Age of the Customers and Overall Satisfaction on E- Banking Services Null hypothesis (H0). There is no significant relationship between age of the customers and

work if it is a &#34;production in which thoughts or sentiments are expressed in a creative way and which falls within the literary, scientific, artistic or

While taking account of all energy sources used in a country, both renewable and non- renewable, the basic ingredients of the risk indicator are: (1) a

Just as it is impossible to study more traditional sites of surveillance without understanding the ways in which the Internet has deepened and extended capacities for

In 1 , Cvetkocic defined the subdivision graph S(G) is the graph obtained from G by replacing each of its edge by a path of length 2, or equivalently by inserting an additional

Take in consideration that the basis size of inseam is in range 81.0 – 84.0 according to the Latvian size chart then 25% (n=37) of all measured bodies are corresponding to

In this paper, we compute the first and second Multiplicative Zagreb indices , the first and second multiplicative hyper Zagreb indices, first and second

In this paper we give some lower and upper bounds on the first Zagreb eccentricity and the second Zagreb eccentricity indices of trees and graphs, and also characterize the

Our main finding is that prior beliefs associated with the selected user-level factors play a larger role than linguistic features when predicting the successful debater in a

The underlying graph will be denoted J n ∗ (x) and if the context is clear, both the directed and undirected graphs are referred to as a Jaco graph... From Definition 2.1 it