THE SENTENCE What is a word? What is a sentence? Example:

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THE SENTENCE

What is a word?

A sound or letter or group of sounds or letters that express a particular meaning.

What is a sentence?

A sentence is a group of words (arranged in order) giving a complete thought.

A sentence is a set of words that is complete in itself, typically containing a subject and predicate, conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command, and consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses.

Example:

1. Sings well very priya Priya sings very well.

2. A fruit mango is a. Mango is a fruit.

The first group of words in the above examples are incomplete and doesn't make any sense, But the second group of words are complete and in the proper order. These groups of words make sense and they are giving some meaning, so they are sentences.

Rules:

● A sentence always begins with a capital letter.

● The words of a sentence are placed in a proper order. ● There must be a verb in a sentence.

● A sentence always ends with a full stop, a question mark, or an exclamation mark.

Eg: He is playing tennis

PARTS OF SENTENCE

A sentence must have a subject about whom we speak, and a predicate of what we speak.

A sentence should have two parts: ● a Subject.

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1 Subject:

The subject is that part of a sentence which names the person, place, thing or idea that is doing something.

The subject is generally nouns, pronouns, determiners or adjectives. Eg:

● The girl is playing with a balloon. ● Jack and Jill went up the hill.

(The words attached to the Subject are— Determiner, Adjective and Adjective Phrase. These words are called Enlargement of the Subject) Predicate:

The predicate is that part of a sentence that tells something about the subject.

This is the remaining part of the sentence after the subject.

The Predicate of a sentence states something about its Subject. It has several words that include 1. Verb, 2.Object, 3.Enlargement of the Object and 4. Complement if any.

Eg:

● The lion is the king of animals. ● He is dancing to the music. Other examples:

S.no Subject Predicate

1. Mayank is eating sugar in the kitchen.

2. The dog is a faithful animal.

3. Children Play with the ball.

4. Lala listens to the music.

Division of subject

The subject is generally nouns, pronouns, determiners or adjectives. (I) Nouns:

A noun is the name of any person, place, action, quality, feeling, idea, or thing.

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Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. (I, we, you, he, she, it, they, this, these, that, those, my, your, his, her, our, their)

(III) Determiners:

● An Article (a/an, the)

● A Demonstrative (this, that, these, those)

● A Possessive (my, your, his, her, its, our, their)

● A Quantifier (common examples include many, much, more, most, some)

(IV) Adjectives:

A word that qualifies a noun or a pronoun is an adjective. (bad, calm, carefree, dangerous, early, gentle)

Eg: He is calm. Subject Predicate Extension Main noun Determiners Adjectives

Some naughty boys quarrelled

Her Elder brother passed

A thin boy ran

Explanation:

From the above table, "Some naughty boys quarrelled" (Subject) (Predicate)

● Some - determiner.

● naughty - Adjective (describes a noun) ● Boys - the main noun

● quarrelled - predicate Examples

● These beautiful flowers faded. ● The cunning crow flew.

Division of predicate

It has several words that include 1.Verb, 2.Object, 3.Enlargement of the Object and 4. Complement if any.

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3 (I) Verb:

Verbs are words that show action (sing), occurrence (develop), or state of being (exist).

(II) Object:

The object is having something done to it.

1.The direct object of a verb is the thing being acted upon. So, it means it is the receiver of the action.

2. An indirect object is the recipient of the direct object. (III) Complement:

In grammar, a complement is a word, phrase, or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a given expression.

S.no

Subject Predicate

Verb Object Complement

1. We call our dog tiger

2. We painted our house green

3. The class elected Aakash class monitor

Separate the Subject and the Predicate in the following sentences:

1. The boy stood on the last bench. 2. The cow gives us milk.

3. A good boy passed the examination. 4. It is very hot.

5. The earth

Answers:

S.n Subject Predicate

1. the boy stood on the last bench.

2. The cow gives us milk.

3. A good boy passed the examination.

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5. The earth revolves round the sun.

Kinds of sentences:

Choosing the Right Type of Sentence:

Using the right type of sentence in your writing depends on your intention.

● To relay information or to answer a question, use a declarative sentence.

● To ask a direct question, choose an interrogative sentence. ● To tell someone what to do, use an imperative sentence.

● To show extra emotion, use an exclamatory sentence (but use these sparingly).

The four basic types of sentences are:

● Declarative sentence ● Imperative sentence ● Interrogative sentence ● Exclamatory sentence

1. Declarative Sentence (statement)

Declarative sentences make a statement. They tell us something. They give us information, and they normally end with a full-stop/period.

The usual word order for the declarative sentence is: subject + verb... Declarative sentences can be positive or negative.

S.no positive negative

1. I like coffee. I do not like coffee.

2. We watched TV last night. We did not watch TV last night.

Declarative sentences are the most common type of sentence. 2. Interrogative Sentence (question)

Interrogative sentences ask a question. They ask us something. They want information, and they always end with a question mark.

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The usual word order for the interrogative sentence is: (wh-word +) auxiliary + subject + verb...

Interrogative sentences can be positive or negative.

S.no positive negative

1. Do you like coffee? Don't you like coffee? 2. Why did you go? Why didn't you go?

3. Imperative Sentence (command)

Imperative sentences give a command. They tell us to do something, and they end with a full-stop/period (.) or exclamation mark/point (!). The usual word order for the imperative sentence is: base verb... ( Note that there is usually no subject—because the subject is understood, it is YOU. )

Imperative sentences can be positive or negative.

S.no positive negative

1. Stop! Do not stop!

2. Give her coffee. Don't give her coffee.

4. Exclamatory Sentence (exclamation)

Exclamatory sentences express strong emotion/surprise - an

exclamation - and they always end with an exclamation mark/point (!). The usual word order for the exclamatory sentence is:

What (+ adjective) + noun + subject + verb How (+ adjective/adverb) + subject + verb

● What a liar he is!

● What an exciting movie it was! ● How he lied!

● How exciting the movie was! 5. An optative sentence:

An Optative Sentence expresses a prayer, a wish or a desire. ● Prayer - May you live long!

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6 ● Wish - Would that I were a prince! ● Wish - I wish I were a king!

Exercise 1

Name the type of sentences:

1. Please let me work. 2. The boys make a noise. 3. Stand up.

4. What a clever girl you are! 5. Where do you live?

6. What a horrible sight it was!

Answers 1. Imperative sentence 2. Assertive sentence 3. Imperative sentence 4. Exclamatory sentence 5. Interrogative sentence 6. Exclamatory sentence Exercise (Model)

1. Do you know where my iPod is?" is an example of what kind of sentence?

A Declarative B) Imperative C) Interrogative D) Exclamatory

2. "The house is on fire!" is an example of what kind of

sentence? A) Declarative B) Imperative C) Interrogative D) Exclamatory

3. "Anna, answer the door." is an example of what kind of sentence?

A) Declarative

B) Imperative C) Interrogative D) Explanatory

4. Our family is planning a trip to the mountains.

A) Declarative B) Imperative C) Interrogative D) Exclamatory

5. Wow! I've never been in a city this huge!

A) Interrogative B) Imperative C) Declarative D) Explanatory

6. Watch your step when you get off the train.

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1 B) Exclamatory

C) Interrogative D) Declarative

7. Don't miss the bus tour of the city.

A. Interrogative B. Imperative C. Declarative D. Explanatory

8. Which of these is not a type of sentence?

A) Assertive B) Interrogative C) Complicated D) Imperative

9. To which type does the sentence belong?

Alas! I have no hope of life. A) Assertive sentence B) Interrogative sentence C) Imperative sentence D) Exclamatory sentence 10. Which of these is an example of an affirmative sentence?

A) Can you do this? B) What a pretty girl!

C) Everyone accepts his version. D) Please open the door.

11. Watch the ball. A) Exclamatory B) Imperative C) Interrogative D) Declarative

12. Mr. Brown can be very strict.

A) Imperative B) Exclamatory C) Interrogative D) Declarative

13. I can't believe they won the game!

A) Imperative B) Declarative C) Interrogative D) Exclamatory

14. Did you see that baseball game? A) Exclamatory B) Imperative C) Interrogative D) Declarative 15. I am so excited, we are going to Paris! A) Declarative B) Interrogative C) Imperative D) Exclamatory

16. What type of sentence is the following:

It is cold outside today. A) Declarative

B) Interrogative C) Exclamatory D) Imperative

17. What type of sentence is the following :

Can I have a piece of your pizza?

A) Declarative B) Interrogative C) Exclamatory D) Imperative

18. All roads lead to Rome. A) Declarative

B) Interrogative C) Exclamatory

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2 D) Imperative

19. How small the kitten is! A) Imperative

B) Exclamatory C) Interrogative D) Declarative

20. Where will you go from here? A) Exclamatory B) Imperative C) Interrogative D) Declarative Answers: 1. C - Interrogative 2. D - Exclamatory 3. B - Imperative 4. A - Declarative 5. D - Exclamatory 6. A - Imperative 7. B - Imperative 8. C - Complicated 9. D – Exclamatory

10. C - Everyone accepts his version. 11. B - Imperative 12. D - Declarative 13. D - Exclamatory 14. C - Interrogative 15. D - Exclamatory 16. A - Declarative 17. B - Interrogative 18. A - Declarative 19. B - Exclamatory 20. C - Interrogative

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