CBLM Food_Fish_Processing Grade 9.pdf

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Learner’s Material

i GOVERNMENT PROPERTY GOVERNMENT PROPERTY GOVERNMENT PROPERTY GOVERNMENT PROPERTY

NOT FOR SALE NOT FOR SALE NOT FOR SALE NOT FOR SALE

ALLOTTED TO

District/ School: _________________________________________ Division _________________________________________________ First Year of Use: _________________________________________ Source of Fund (Year included):__________________________

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Department of Education

Republic of the Philippines

Food (Fish) Processing – Grade 9 Learner’s Material

First Edition, 2013 ISBN: ___________

Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties.

Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.

Published by the Department of Education Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC Undersecretary: Yolanda S. Quijano, Ph.D. Assistant Secretary: Elena R. Ruiz, Ph.D.

Printed in the Philippines by ____________

Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS) Office Address: 2nd Floor Dorm G, Philsports Complex, Meralco Avenue,

Pasig City, Philippines 1600

Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072

E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com

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Development Team of the Learner’s Material Consultant: Andres Z. Taguiam, Ph.D.

Authors: Blair D. Castillon, Ph.D., Editha P. Durante, Ma. Corazon G.

Maguate, Rosa F. Vasquez, Zenaida R. Delantar and Ruby Jane S. Buising

Reviewers: Janet Orden Saturno Illustrator: Erich David Garcia

Language Editor:Dr. Pamela Constantino

Subject Specialists: Albert B. Erni and Emmanuel S. Valdez Management Team: Jocelyn DR Andaya, Bella O. Mariñas and

Jose D. Tuguinayo Jr.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page………. i

Acknowledgement………. ii

Introduction………. 9

What Is This Learning Material About………. 10

How Do You Use The Module?... 11

Pre-Assessment………. 12

Learning Goals and Targets……….. 13

Module 1: Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs)………. 14

Learning Objectives………. 15

Pre-Assessment……….. 15

What to Know……… 19

Lesson1. Important Entrepreneurial Traits ………. 19

What to Process……… 22

What to Reflect and Understand……… 24

What to Transfer………. 26

Post-Assessment……… 27

Module 2. Implement Sampling Procedures ( SA)……… 30

Learning Objectives……… 31

Pre-Assessment………... 31

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What to Process……… 39

What to Reflect and Understand……… 41

What to Transfer……….. 43

Post-Assessment………. 44

Module 3. Inspect and Sort Raw Materials and Products ( IS)……… 47

Learning Objectives………. 47

Pre-Assessment……… 48

What to Know……… 49

L O 1.1. Prepare for Sampling ………. 49

Definition of Terms……….. 50

What to Process………. 54

What to Reflect and Understand……… 56

What to Transfer……… 56

Post-Assessment……….. 57

Module 4. Inspection of Raw Materials and Products……….. 58

Learning Objectives……… 58

Pre-Assessment……….. 59

What to Know……….. 61

What to Process……….. 75

What to Reflect and Understand……….. 78

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Post-Assessment………. 80

LO 2. Inspection of Packaging Materials……….……… 82

Learning Objective………. 82

Pre-Assessment………. 83

What to Know……….. 84

What to Process……….. 91

What to Reflect and Understand………. 92

What to Transfer………. 93

Post-Assessment……… 94

LO 3. Complete Inspection and Sorting Activity……… 95

Pre-Assessment……….. 96

What to Know……….. 97

What to Process……….. 111

What to Reflect and Understand………. 112

What to Transfer………. 114

Post Assessment……… 115

Module 6. Dispense Non-Bulk Ingredients……… 117

Learning Objectives……… 117

Pre- Assessment………. 118

What to Know……….. 119

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What to Reflect and Understand………. 132

What to Transfer………. 132

Post-Assessment……….. 133

LO 2. Measure and Weigh Ingredients……… 134

What to Know……… 134

Introduction……… 134

Learning Objectives………. 134

Pre-Assessment……….. 135

What to Process……….. 141

What to Reflect and Understand………. 142

What to Transfer………. 142

Post-Assessment……… 143

Module 6. Prepare Raw and Packaging Materials and Supplies for Processing Learning Objectives……… 145

Pre-Assessment………. 146

What to Know………. 148

What to Process………. 155

What to Reflect and Understand……… 155

What to Transfer……… 156

Post-Assessment……….. 157

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Learning Objectives………. 158

Pre-Assessment……….. 159

What to Know……….. 159

What to Process………... 166

What to Reflect and Understand……….. 166

What to Transfer……….. 167

Post-Assessment……… 167

Glossary of Terms……….. 168

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TECHNOLOGY AND LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION AGRICULTURE AND FISHERY ARTS

FOOD (FISH) PROCESSING Grade 9

Introduction

Welcome!

The Food (Fish) Processing is a course which comprises the knowledge, skills and attitude for Fish Processors and leads to the specialization on Food Processing NC I, II and III

The course Food (Fish) Processing contains training materials and activities related to environment and market implementation of sampling procedure, inspection and sorting of materials and products, dispensation of non-bulk ingredients and preparation of raw and packaging materials and supplies for processing. These personal entrepreneurial competencies, are the core competencies that need to be satisfied to qualify for assessment for Food Processing NC I.

In this course, you are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to complete each learning outcome. Most of the time you will do the task related to each learning outcome and apply what you have learned in class. You can approach your teacher if you have questions and clarifications.

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General Objectives:

At the end of this course, you are expected to:

 Recognize Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies( PECs) and skills needed in Food( Fish) Processing.

 Recognize and understand the potential customer/market in food processing (E&M)

 Create new business ideas in Fish Processing by using various techniques

 Implement sampling procedures (SP)

 Inspect and sort raw materials and products (IS)  Dispense non-bulk ingredients (DI)

 Prepare raw and packaging materials and supplies for processing (PR)

What Is This Learning Material About?

This learning material has 5 Modules. Each Module has the following parts:

• Content Standards • Performance Standards • Learning Objectives • Pre-Assessment

• Reading Resources/Instructional Activities  What to KNOW?

 What to PROCESS?

 What to REFLECT and UNDERSTAND?  What to TRANSFER?

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How Do You Use The Module?

To get the most out of every module, you need to do the following:

1. Begin by reading and understanding the Content and Performance Standards and Learning Objectives. These will tell you what you should know and be able to do at the end of each module.

2. Find out what you know about the module by taking the Pre-assessment.

3. Do the required Learning Activities. Start with the Information Sheets. An Information Sheet contains important notes or basic information. This will ensure your mastery of basic information needed in each module.

4. Demonstrate what you have learned by doing what the Activity / Operation /Job Sheet directs you to do.

5. Find out what you already know about the information given by taking the Post-assessment

6. You must be able to apply what you have learned in another activity or in real life situation.

7. Accomplish the Scoring Rubrics for you to know how well you performed. The learning material also provides you with references and definition of key terms for your guidance. They can be of great help. Use them fully.

You need to complete this course Fish Processing to take the assessment for Food Processing NC I before moving to the next course Food Processing NC II

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Pre-Assessment

Directions: Provide information on what you already know in the first column

(K), and what you want to know in the second column (W). You will record

what you have learned in the third column (L) as the lesson proceeds. In the

fourth column (S) So What list ways by which the new knowledge will be

useful for you in terms of Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) Environment and Marketing (E&M), Sampling Procedure (SP), Inspection and Sorting (IS), Dispensing Non-Bulk Ingredients (DI), and Preparing Raw and Packaging Materials and Supplies for Processing (PR).

K (Know) W (Want) L (Learned) S (So What)

PECs E & M SP IS DI PR

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Learning Goals/Targets

Having identified your strengths and areas for improvement, you should now be ready to set your learning goals and target.

Now, think further and write your goals and targets below.

GOALS ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

TARGETS (specific objectives with dates indicated)

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

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Module 1. PERSONAL ENTREPRENEURIAL

COMPETENCIES (PECs)

Have you ever thought of running your own business? Entrepreneurship has brought great success to some, but it's not a career path for all. Do you think you can handle the stress and hard work that go with running a small business enterprise? The key to success with a small business enterprise is your entrepreneurial ability to produce the desired results. Before embarking on your first business, it's worth spending some time evaluating your own preparedness for entrepreneurship. Try to examine your own personality and compare it with the Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs) of a successful entrepreneur. Ask yourself if you are ready to enter into the world of business. If your answer is yes, take this reminder: “Successful entrepreneurs continuously develop and improve

their PECs”.

Content Standard Performance Standard

The learner demonstrates understanding of Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs)

The learner prepares an activity plan that addresses his/her development areas based on his/her PECs and improves further his/her areas of strength.

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Learning Objectives:

1. Assess ones Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs): characteristics, attributes, lifestyles, skills and traits

2. Assess practitioner’s: characteristics, attributes, lifestyle, skills, traits

3. Compare one’s PECs with that of a practitioner /entrepreneur

4. Align one’s PECs with that of a practitioner/ entrepreneur

Pre- Assessment

A. Matching Type

Directions: Column A lists the characteristics of a successful

entrepreneur. Draw a line from the items in Column A that

connects the correct definition of terms listed in Column B.

Column A Column B 1. Hardworking 2. Self-confident 3. Profit-Oriented 4. Goal-Oriented 5. Persistent 6. Responds to feedback 7. Willing to listen 8. Committed 9. Reliable and has

integrity 10. Risk-taker

a. Ability to set realistic targets b. Interest in money generation c. Belief in oneself

d. Working diligently and industriously

e. Being able to listen to the advice of others

f. Obtaining useful feedback and advice from others

g. Being patient and strives to achieve the goal

h. Ability to take measured or calculated risks

i. Being honest, fair and trustworthy. j. Giving this a priority in his life as

an entrepreneur

Hello there! Are you ready to assess yourself in order to be successful entrepreneur in the future? As honestly as you could, please answer the pre-assessment below.

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Are you done? This time you will do another set of pre- assessment which could give you a better understanding of what this module is all about. Are you ready? Let’s begin!

B. Multiple Choice.

Directions: Read and study the situation that describes entrepreneurial

characteristics or attributes. Answer the question by writing the letter of your choice in your assignment notebook or the answer sheet provided.

Mrs. Gina Magno opens up her own processed fish product business. She knows that her personal entrepreneurial characteristics are insufficient to ensure a successful operationalization of a business that she has in mind. Your answers to the questions below will help in developing her PECs.

1. What PECs must she possess if there are customers who complain about the quality of her product?

a. Hardwork b. Patience c. Versatility d. All of the above

2. Which of the following is NOT considered a characteristic of an entrepreneur?

a. Copes with failure b. Dependent

c. Opportunity seeker d. Persistent

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This time evaluate your own personal entrepreneurial

characteristics to determine whether you too, can become an entrepreneur. If you are ready, you may begin!

3. If she wants to ensure a profitable business operation, what characteristics will she maintain?

a. Has commitment b. Futuristic

c. Goal oriented d. Opportunity seeker

4. Mrs. Magno follows the advice of a friend to be flexible especially if she intends to open a retail business. What PECs has been demonstrated by Mrs. Magno?

a. Open to feedback b. Persistent

c. Reliable and has integrity d. Self- confident

5. She tells Mary, her best friend that she has a strong will and does not give up to find a solution to a business problem. What PECs has been demonstrated by Mrs. Magno? a. Hard work b. Persistence c. Risk- taking d. Self-confidence

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C. Self- Assessment

Directions: Below is a list of Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies (PECs)

of a successful entrepreneur. Put a check mark on the 2nd column that indicates your strong PECs. The check mark on the 3rd column are those PECs that need to be developed.

Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies of an

Entrepreneur

My Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies

Strength Needs to be Developed

Hardworking

Self-confident

Builds for the future

Profit-oriented

Goal-oriented

Persistent

Copes with failure

Responds to feedback

Demonstrates initiative

Willing to listen Sets own standards Copes with uncertainty

Committed

Builds on strengths

Reliable and has integrity

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Did you enjoy examining yourself? You can become a successful entrepreneur someday. Please don’t feel bad when you discover that there are still to be developed. Continue your exploration to find answers to these underdeveloped PECs.

What to KNOW?

Lesson1. Important Entrepreneurial Traits

The following are the fundamental characteristics of an entrepreneur:

1. Hard working: If you are determined to run your own business, you

must concentrate on your work either as a producer or a seller. The success of your business depends on how much time and effort you will spend on it.

2. Self- Confidence: You must have a strong faith in your ability despite

the problems that you will encounter along the way.

3. Future-Oriented: Once a person enters in a line of business, you

must understand that you are in a non-stop contract that an entrepreneur should understand. It may take several years to build up a business to a reasonable standard. The goal for most successful business people is to build a secure job and stable income for themselves based on their own ability.

4. Profit-Oriented: When you enter into the world of business,

obviously, you are looking for income because you know that this will be your bread and butter not only for you but also for your family.

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Therefore, you must see to it that the business can generate income. Another plan of action is to expand your own business with generated income.

5. Goal-Oriented: An entrepreneur is forward-looking. You have an

advance preparation for your business. Set a long-term goal for the

activities that are needed make an extensive preparation for the production process and procedures that you need to go through to acquire human and non-human resources. Everything in your business

will have to be set clearly, organized, and planned depending on the

goal you want to achieve.

6. Persistence: Because of differences in opinion and judgment, your

opponent can be a part of the rejection on what you intend to do for your endeavor. As an entrepreneur, you must be firm, strong-willed, and stick to or follow your own belief.

7. Copes with Failure: “Learn from your mistakes”. As an

entrepreneur, you must learn how to deal with the frustrations and failures; Turn these into productive learning experiences.

8. Open and Responds to Feedback: You must be concerned to know

how well you are doing and keep track of your performance. You must obtain useful feedback and advice from others.

9. Take the Initiative: A successful entrepreneur takes the initiative.

You must put yourself in a position where you are personally responsible for the failure or success of your business.

10. Willing to Listen: Take time to listen to the advice, suggestions, and

recommendations of fellow entrepreneurs. It will help your business grow.

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11. Set your Own Standards: This involves developing and using logical,

step-by-step plans to reach the goals, or offering evaluation alternatives, monitoring progress, and switching to successful strategies for the goal you want to achieve. To be a successful entrepreneur, you must take into consideration that sales and production depend on your own standards.

12. Copes with Uncertainty: Pursue your vision to be a successful

entrepreneur. Know how to handle unusual events and problems that may occur in the business like in managing the workers, delivery of goods and services, and demand and production. You must be patient in dealing with these uncertainties.

13. Committed: You should know that In your business, personal needs,

attachment to your friends, families and relatives are set aside. You must separate the money for your business from the amount that you need to spend for personal obligations and lifestyles.

14. Builds on Strengths: Successful business people base their work

on strengths. Use your manual skills, knowledge in creating products or services, knowledge in trade and industry, ability to make contacts and use these to expand your business.

15. Reliable and has Integrity: An entrepreneur must build a good

reputation, possess the courage to do the right thing, do what you say, walk your talk, be loyal, and be fair in dealing with the subordinates and costumers.

16. Risk-Taker: Risk sometimes cannot be anticipated. When

misfortunes happen, consider these as challenges and work them out and set good alternatives. Risks may result to loss of your business or even bankruptcy.

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What to PROCESS

Example of my PECs

Activity1: Aligning one’s PECs

Directions: Choose from the list below the characteristics and traits that best

describe your own personal entrepreneurial characteristics. Find ways on how to align them according to the personal entrepreneurial characteristics of an entrepreneur as were discussed earlier. Write your answers in the activity sheet provided.

My PECs My simple definition

Things to do to align with PECs to be a successful entrepreneur 1. Creative 2. Organized 3. Competent 4. Observant

Creative Resourceful Persistent Organized Independent Confident Risk taker Observant Competent Trustworthy Optimistic Passionate Flexible Sensitive Committed Dynamic Efficient Hardworking Decision-maker Reliable Knowledgeable Persevering Decisive Strong–minded Courteous

Try to design a concept map that indicates your traits, characteristics and skills that you need to possess in order to become a successful entrepreneur.

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Activity 2. My PECs that need to be further improved

Directions: At the center of the street are arrows where positive and

negative characteristics and traits are written. Pick out the positive PECs that you are already strong at, and write them down on the blank arrows on the left side. PECs written on the arrows at the right side are the negative characteristics that need to be further improved.

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What to Reflect and Understand?

Lesson 1 Strengthening your Identified PECs

Here are your guides on how to strengthen your own PECs:

1. React positively to criticisms and be open to feedback.

2. Always demonstrate positive attitude to achieve a desired goal. 3. Always project strong and well-balanced behavior.

4. Always exercise the assertive style in your work environment. 5. Avoid being too passive and too aggressive.

6. Don’t let anyone worsen your business life.

7. Prioritize your business goal rather than personal goal.

8. Acquire specific skills for creating and maintaining a conducive work environment.

9. Be responsible in everything you do in your business. 10. Always observe business ethics.

Hello! I’m here once again reminding you whether you have achieved a certain point that you could honestly tell that you are already successful in strengthening your own PECs.

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Activity 1. My techniques to strengthen PECs

Directions: From the given chart below, write at least six techniques on how

you would strengthen your own PECs. Write the PECs that you feel you still need to focus on to strengthen these.

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What to TRANSFER?

Preparation of an Action Plan

Culminating Activity

Directions: Examine yourself once again. Make a short list of PECs that

you need to strengthen. From this activity, prepare an action plan for further development. You may opt to follow the

suggested format below. You may improve or change it as long as it suits your own plan of action.

Sample Action Plan

Specific Purpose Statement: ( Your vision of your future)

Ex. Developing self-confidence in starting a Smoked Fish Processing Industry.

Focus Area Current Situation Goal Measures of Success Actions Required Time Frame Reward/ Recognition My PECs I I need to develop my undefined characteristic needed for my business such as: __________ __________ __________ __________ - To exercise my own PECs during selling and producing products/ services -To become proficient in my chosen skill. Achieve 100% completion of development of my own PECs through selling and production of products; observe proper decorum when dealing with people. -Selling finished products derived from culminating activities in any chosen career. -Participate in skills competition sponsored by the NGO and GO -During culminating activities -After learning the principles, theories, process and any chosen career -Earns expected income -Outstanding performance in selling and promoting products and services

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Post-Assessment

A. Matching Type

Directions: Column A lists the characteristics of a successful

entrepreneur. Draw a line from the items in Column A that connects the correct definition of terms listed in Column B.

Column A Column B 1. Hardworking 2. Self-confident 3. Profit-oriented 4. Goal-oriented 5. Persistent

6. Responds or open to feedback 7. Willing to listen

8. Committed

9. Reliable and has integrity 10. Risk-taker

a. Ability to set realistic targets b. Interest in money generation c. Belief in oneself

d. Working diligently and industriously. e. Being able to listen to the advice of

others

f. Obtaining useful feedback and advice from others

g. Being patient and strives to achieve the goal

h. Ability to take measured or calculated risks

i. Being honest, fair and trustworthy j. Given this a priority in his life as an

entrepreneur

Answer the post assessment below to determine whether there is significant increase in your understanding of PECs.

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B. Multiple Choice.

Directions: Read and study the situation that describes entrepreneurial

characteristics. Then answer the question by writing the letter of your choice in your assignment notebook or in the provided answer sheet.

Mrs. Gina Magno opens up her own processed fish products

business. She knows that her personal entrepreneurial characteristics are insufficient to ensure a successful operationalization of a business she has in mind. Your answers to the questions below will help in developing her PECs.

1. What PECs must she possess if there are customers who complain about the quality of her product?

a. Hardwork b. Patience c. Versatility d. All of the above

2. Which of the following is NOT considered a characteristic of an entrepreneur?

a. Copes with failure b. Dependent

c. Opportunity seeker d. Persistent

3. If she wants to ensure a profitable business operation, what characteristic will she maintain?

a. Has commitment b. Futuristic

c. Goal oriented d. Opportunity seeker

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4. Mrs. Magno follows the advice of a friend to be flexible especially if she intends to open a retail business. What PECs has been

demonstrated by Mrs. Magno? a. Open to feedback

b. Persistent

c. Reliable and has integrity d. Self- confident

5. She tells Mary, her best friend that she has a strong will and does not give up to find a solution to a business problem. What PECs has been demonstrated by Mrs. Magno?

a. Hard work b. Persistence c. Risk- taking d. Self-confidence

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Module 2.

ENVIRONMENT AND MARKET (E&M)

Probably one of your greatest dreams in life is to become a successful entrepreneur. As a person, you are capable of developing your character and personality and responding to some business challenges and opportunities. You can make things happen by identifying the opportunities around you. You may ask yourself these questions: What do people need? What products and services are available in the market today? Can they be improved? How are they made or delivered? Can things be done better? cheaper? faster? cleaner? Can a product which is used for specific purposes be used for some other purposes?

You will gradually slowly find answers to these questions as you decide to do the first step in launching a fishery business enterprise. You should try to develop the habit of identifying opportunities around you. Only then will you find the activity both exciting and easy.

Content Standard Performance Standard

The learner demonstrates

understanding of environment and market in Fish Processing in one’s town/municipality

The learner independently creates a business vicinity map reflective of potential Fish Processing market within the locality.

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Learning Objectives:

1. Identify the players/ competitors within the town.

2. Identify the different products/services available in the market. 3. Identify the profile of potential customers.

4. Identify the customer’s needs and wants through consumer analysis. 5. Conduct consumer/market analysis.

6. Explore ways of generating business idea from ones’ own characteristics/attributes.

7. Generate business ideas using product innovation from irritants, trends and emerging needs.

8. Generate business ideas using Serendipity Walk

Pre- Assessment

1. Which of the following is not an example of people’s basic needs? a. Clothing

b. Food c. Recreation d. Shelter

2. Which of the following should be considered first by a prospective entrepreneur in choosing the right location for his/her store? a. Access of the target customers

b. The attractiveness of the store layout c. The prevailing prices of goods in the area d. Types of merchandise

Are you ready to assess yourself if you can now be able to generate potential business ideas? Try by answering the succeeding pre-assessment.

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3. Lawrence plans to put up a “Seafoods Restaurant” in their locality.

Which of the following will help him determine a successful plan for setting up his business?

a. Checking for similar business to avoid competition b. Conduct a SWOT analysis

c. Getting feedback on the quality of service d. Survey of consumer associations

4. Why do Eleazar studies the population in his immediate community? He is doing this to__________________________________.

a. determine whom to sell his product or service b. identify his would be “suki”

c. predict his biggest buyer d. select his favorite costumers

5. When an entrepreneur improves and alter products to make it more appealing to target consumers, he/she is doing an __________ of the product.

a. alteration b. improvisation c. innovation d. invention

6. It is a process of gathering, analyzing, and dispensing information for tactical or strategic purposes

a. Environmental analysis b. Environmental evaluation c. Environmental Scanning d. Environmental differentiation

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7. Letter “T” in SWOT Analysis stands for ____________ a. Training

b. Threats c. Treats d. Trim

8. Which of the following is not an example of strength and weakness of a business?

a. Competitions b. Technology c. Economics d. Profitability

9. It refers to the positive factors that may influence your business. a. Strength

b. Competitions c. Threats d. Weaknesses

10. It is the basic indicator of the kind of business to raise. a. Needs

b. Education c. Leisure d. Luxury

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What to KNOW?

Lesson 1. Needs and Wants of People

Everyone has his or her own needs and wants. However, people have different concepts of it. Needs in business are important things that every

individual cannot do without in a society. These include:

1. Basic commodities for consumption 2. Clothing and other personal belongings 3. Shelter, sanitation and health

4. Education and relaxation

Basic needs are essential to every individual in order to live with dignity and pride in the community. These can obviously help generate business ideas.

Wants are desires, luxury and extravagances that signify wealth and lifestyle. These are over and above the basic necessities of life. Some examples of non- basic needs are; fashion accessories, shoes, travels, eating in fine dining restaurants; watching movies, concerts, plays; owning luxurious cars, wearing expensive jewelry , perfume, living in impressive homes, and others.

Needs and wants of people are the basic indicators of the kind of business that you may engage in as they can serve as measure of your success. Some other good points that you might consider in business undertakings are the kinds of people, their needs, wants, lifestyles, culture and tradition, and social orientation.

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Lesson 2. Generating Ideas for Business

Here are some ways by which you can generate possible ideas for business.

1. Examine the existing goods and services. Are you satisfied with

the product? What do other people who use the product say about it? How can it be improved? There are many ways of improving a product from the way it is made to the way it is packed and sold. You can also improve the materials used in crafting the product. In addition, you can introduce new ways of using the product, making it more useful and adaptable to the customers’ many needs. When you are improving the product or enhancing it, you are doing an innovation. You can also do an invention by introducing an entirely new product to replace the old one.

Business ideas may also be generated by examining what goods and services are sold outside the community. Very often, these products are sold in a form that can still be enhanced or improved.

2. Examine the present and future needs. Look and listen to what the

customers, institutions, and communities need in terms of goods and services. Sometimes, these needs are already obvious and felt at the moment. Other needs are not that obvious because they can only be felt in the future, in the event of certain developments in the community. For example, a town will have its electrification facility in the next six months. Only then can you think of electronic business such as photo copier, computer service, digital printing, etc.

3. Examine how the needs are being satisfied. Needs for the products

and services are referred to as market demand. To satisfy these needs, products and services must meet the demands of the market. The term market refers to whoever will use or buy the products or

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service, and these may be people or institutions such as other businesses, establishments, organizations, or government agencies.

There is a very good business opportunity when there is absolutely no supply to a pressing market demand.

Businesses or industries in the locality also have needs for goods and services. Their needs for raw materials, maintenance, and other services such as selling and distribution are good sources of ideas for business.

4. Examine the available resources around you. Observe what

materials or skills are available in abundance in your area. A business can be started by selling available raw materials and by processing and manufacturing them into finished products. For example, in a Bangus/Milkfish Producing town, large supply of Bangus/Milkfish can be sold and processed into “Ordinary Smoked Bangus”; Smoked Soft-Boned Bangus; Deboned Bangus; Dried Bangus. This can be sold profitably outside the community.

A group of people in your neighborhood may have some special skills that can be harnessed for business. For example, residents of Tawiran, Obando possess net weaving skills that have been passed from generation to generation. They set up net weaving business to produce gillnet, cover net, cast nets, seine nets to sell to barangay folks or nearby communities.

Business ideas can come from your own skills. The skills and experience you may have in agriculture and fishery arts, industrial arts, home economics, and ICT classes will provide you with business opportunities and extra income. With your skills, you may also find

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useful things that you can utilize during your spare time. Many products were invented this way.

5. Read magazines, news articles, and other publications on new

products and techniques or advances in technology. You can pick

up new business ideas from Newsweek, Reader’s Digest, Business Magazines, Go Negosyo materials, Small- industry Journal. The Internet serves as a library where you may browse and surf for possible businesses. It will also guide you on how to put the right product in the right place, with the right price, at the right time.

Listing of possible businesses to set up in an area may also be available from banks or local non-government organizations.

Lesson 3. Selecting the Right Idea

Once you have embarked on identifying the business opportunities, you will eventually see that there are many possibilities that are available for you. It is very unlikely that you will have enough resources to pursue all of them at once. Which one will you choose?

You have to select the most promising one from among hundreds of ideas. It will be good to do this in stages. In the first stage, narrow down your ideas to about five choices. In the next stage, trim down the five to two options. In the final stage, choose between the two and decide which business idea is worth pursuing.

In screening your ideas, examine each one in terms of the following:

1. How much capital is needed to put up the business?

2. How big is the demand for the product? Do many people need this product and will continue to need it for a long time?

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3. How is the demand met? Who are processing the products to meet the need (competition or demand)? How much of the need is now being met (supply)?

4. Do you have the background and experience needed to run this particular business?

5. Will the business be legal, not going against any existing or foreseeable government regulation?

6. Is the business in line with your interest and expertise?

Your answers to these questions will be helpful in screening which ones from among your many ideas are worth examining further and worth pursuing.

Lesson 4. Environmental Scanning

There is a need to conduct environmental scanning to identify the needs and wants of people, the niche for your business mission, and to give attention to trends and issues. This may also serve as an evaluation of the type of the entrepreneurial activity that is appropriate in the community.

Environmental scanning is defined as a process of gathering, analyzing, and dispensing information for tactical or strategic purposes. The environmental scanning process entails obtaining both factual and subjective information on the business environments in which a company is operating.

Environment in the community can be viewed according to its technological, political, economic, and social aspects. For instance, you have your own Smoked Fish Industry, and have successfully made and adapted innovations on the preparations and in the packaging of your smoked products. People will look for the changes they experienced that relate to their environment.

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As a future entrepreneur, you must be knowledgeable in this kind of advancement and progression of your environment particularly in new innovations so as to ensure the success of your future business. Always think of something fresh, something novel, authentic; reinvent the existing ones, and create your new version of goods/products, and services. For instance, in your own salon, you use herbal hair strengtheners, while the other salons uses synthetic hair strengtheners.. This kind of changes will affect the existing principles in business and

industries that can be easily adapted to the changes in products/services to meet the needs and wants of the people in the community.

What to PROCESS?

In generating business idea, you should first identify what type of business is suited to your business idea. You should analyze and scan the potential environment, study the marketing practices and strategies of your competitors, analyze the Strengths and Weaknesses ( Factors tend to be in the present such as products,

pricing, costs, profitability, performance, quality, reputations and many more), Opportunities, and Threats (Factors tend to be in the future

such as markets, customers, seasonality, competitions, politics technology, economics seasonality etc) in your environment to ensure that the products/goods and services you are planning to offer will be patronized within the easy reach by your target markets/consumers. The SWOT analysis does not cover the entire business, just the factors that may influence their ability to introduce a new product.

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Bear in mind these simple rules for successful SWOT analysis:

• Be realistic about the strengths and weaknesses of your

business when conducting SWOT analysis.

• SWOT analysis should distinguish between where your

business is today, and where it could be in the future.

• SWOT should always be specific. Avoid any areas.

• Always apply SWOT in relation to your competition i.e. better

than or worse than your competition.

• Keep your SWOT short and simple. Avoid complexity and over

analysis.

• SWOT is subjective.

EXAMPLE OF SWOT ANALYSIS Fish Nuggets

Positive Factors Negative Factors

Strengths Opportunities Weaknesses Threats

1. Excellent sales staff 2. Hands-On knowledge in making Fish Nuggets 3. Healthy food 1. Fish nuggets sold by future competitors are not as good and are more expensive 2. Fish nugget is easy to cook 1. Easy to spoil when mis-handled 2. Limited fund for the business 1. Competitors have a similar product 2. Competitors have launched a new advertising campaign

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What to REFLECT or UNDERSTAND?

People keep on searching for new things, new trends, and new issues. For these reasons, an entrepreneur hurriedly responds to these needs and wants of people.

As generations come and go, another set of new trends will come or will exist. In order to adapt to the rapid changes in the business environment, the existing industries need to improve their products and services. But how can you generate business ideas with strong competitors? There are three main sets of decisions that you need to make - what to produce, how to produce, and how to share or

sell the product in the market.

Activity 1 Mini Survey

Directions: Conduct a mini survey in your nearby barangay. Gather

data on the different Fishery Products that are already available.

Put a check your response

Type of Fishery Processed Products LIKE DISLIKE

1. Cured Fish Products a. Smoked Fish b. Salted Fish c. Dried Fish d. Boneless 2. Value-Added Products a. Fish Ball b. Fish Nuggets c. Fish Quekiam d. Fish Burger

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3. Canned Fish Products a. Fish Afritada b. Fish Caldereta c. Fish Adobo d. Sardines e. Mackerel

f. Tuna Flakes in Oil 4. Others

a. Fish crackers b. Fish chicharon

Activity 2. Screening Business Ideas

Directions: After filling out the chart above, try to list down all the probable business opportunities you may wish to venture in. Use the suggested matrix below to indicate your choice. Write your answers in your notebook.

Example: Making and Selling Smoked Fish

Positive Factors Negative Factors

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What to TRANSFER?

Now that you have all the information, are you ready to test your ability to generate your own business idea? If your answer is yes, accomplish the Task Sheet below.

Task Sheet

Title:

Generate probable business in your community

Performance Objectives:

Given the available map of your community, as a student you will generate probable business related to fish processing.

Supplies/Materials:

• Pen and Legal size bond paper • Community map\

• Ingredients and materials needed for the chosen fish processing business

Equipment:

Equipment needed for the chosen fish processing business Steps/Procedures:

A. Answer the following questions

1. Who do you think are your target consumers/markets? 2. Where is the most ideal location to situate your business?

3. Which products or services would appeal to your target consumers/markets?

4. Can you say that you have seized the most feasible business opportunity?

B. Realize your generated or chosen Food (fish) processing business. C. Report the result of your task to your teacher

Assessment Method:

 Oral questioning  Direct observation

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Performance Criteria

Criteria for oral questioning Yes No

Have the following items been identified? 1. Consumers/markets

2. Location of business 3. Products/services

4. Feasible business opportunity

Is the generated Food (Fish) processing business successful in terms of? 1. Profit

Post-Assessment

1. Which of the following is not an example of people’s basic needs? a. Clothing

b. Food c. Recreation d. Shelter

2. Which of the following should be given priority by a prospective entrepreneur in choosing the right location for his/her store?

a. Access of the target customers b. The attractiveness of the store layout c. The prevailing prices of goods in the area d. Types of merchandise

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3. Lawrence plans to put a “Seafoods Restaurant” in their locality.

Which of the following will help him determine a successful plan for setting up his business?

a. Checking for similar business to avoid competition b. Conducting a SWOT analysis

c. Getting feedback on the quality of service

d. Relying on surveys done by consumer associations

4. Why does Eleazar study the population in his immediate community? He is doing this to ________________________________.

a. determine whom to sell his product or service b. identify his would be “suki”

c. predict his biggest buyer d. select his favorite costumers

5. When an entrepreneur improves and alters products to make it more appealing to target consumers, he/she is doing an __________ of the product.

a. alteration b. improvisation c. innovation d. invention

6. It is a process of gathering, analyzing, and dispensing of information for tactical or strategic purposes

a. Environmental analysis b. Environmental evaluation a. Environmental Scanning b. Environmental differentiation

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7. Letter “T” in SWOT Analysis stands for ____________ a. Training

b. Threats c. Treats d. Thrust

8. Which of the following is not an example of strength and weakness of a business?

a. Competition b. Technology c. Economics d. Profitability

9. It refers to the positive factors that may influence your business. a. Strength

b. Competition c. Threats d. Weaknesses

10. It is the basic indicator of the kind of business to raise. a. Needs

b. Education c. Leisure d. Luxury

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Module 3: IMPLEMENT SAMPLING PROCEDURES (SP)

The adequacy and condition of fishery product sample or specimen received for examination are of primary importance. If samples are improperly collected and mishandled or are not representative of the sampled lot, the laboratory results will be meaningless. Because interpretations about a large consignment of food are based on a relatively small sample of the lot, established sampling procedures must be applied uniformly. A representative sample is essential when pathogens or toxins are sparsely distributed within the food or when disposal of a food shipment depends on the demonstrated bacterial content in relation to a legal standard.

The number of units that comprise a representative sample from a designated lot of a food product must be statistically significant. The composition and nature of each lot affects the homogeneity and uniformity of the total sample mass. The proper statistical sampling procedure, according to whether the food is solid, semisolid, viscous, or liquid, must be determined by the collector at the time of sampling.

Content Standard Performance Standard

The learner demonstrates understanding of the implementation or employment sampling procedures.

The learner implements sampling procedures based on a sampling plan.

Learning Objectives

1. Identify sampling requirements in accordance with a sampling plan 2. Prepare sampling equipment container like glass bottle or jar and

label according to sampling requirements

3. Collect and transfer samples under controlled condition 4. Handle samples to preserve them and the source integrity

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5. Identify defects or abnormalities in source material and/or sample according to workplace requirements

6. Record sample information according to workplace procedures 7. Describe cleaning and maintaining the workplace according to

workplace standards

Pre- Assessment

Before going through the lesson, try to answer this pre-test to enable you to find out what you already know and what you still need to know. Answer this in your test notebook.

Modified True or False:

Write TRUE if the statement is correct and if FALSE, change the underlined

word/s to make the statement correct. Write your answer in your notebook. Do not write anything in the module.

___ 1. Knowledge in sampling will help, prevent or delay self-decomposition of fish products to be evaluated.

___ 2. Samples should be handled with care after presentation to the panelists.

___ 3. Samples must be handled, packaged, and shipped to prevent compromising their identity or integrity.

___ 4. If products are in bulk or in containers that are too large for submission to the laboratory, transfer representative portions to sterile containers under aseptic conditions.

___ 5. Dry or canned foods that are not perishable and are collected at ambient temperatures need be refrigerated.

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Are you done? This time you will read relevant information which will give you a better understanding of what this module is all about.

Let’s begin!

___7. For wet materials , use sterile metal boxes,cans,bags or packets with suitable closure.

___8. Sampling plan is a detailed outline of measurements to be taken. ___9. Sampling containers should be clean, dry and leak-proof.

___10. Collect the most cheap sample.

What to KNOW?

LO 1. Prepare for Sampling

In order to meet the overall quality attributes of a good product, sampling is used as an operation where in only a small fraction of a batch is taken. Valid conclusions on the whole cannot be based on tests which have been carried out on non-representative samples. Correct sampling is thus an essential part of a system of Quality Assurance. Samples should be handled with care before presentation to the panelists. It is desirable that the products to be evaluated are almost the same or all ingredients are constant but they differ only in the raw materials used. Each product has a coded number code for easy identification by the researcher or investigator.

Sampling plans are necessary to query one or more characteristics of a lot because not every unit in a large lot can be inspected. Sampling plans are designed to ensure defensible, statistically valid decision-making regarding the acceptance or rejection of a lot.

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Definition of Terms

Unlocking difficulties:

Aseptic Technique -It consists of taking a clean specimen without

cross contaminating the sample or the surrounding areas. It is important to use aseptic technique in packaging the sample for transport.

Containe.It is any type of receptacle, package, wrapper, or confining band

used in packing or marketing fish.

Consumer. It is the final user of a product. (i.e., a person or an institution,

such as a hospital, hotel, organization or restaurant which purchases a product for its own use.)

Inspector. It is a person designated as an Inspector pursuant to Section 17

of the Fish Inspection Act.

Lot. With respect to fish, other than fresh fish, means a shipment or part of a

shipment of fish that is of the same specie, processed in the same manner by the same producer, packaged in the same size of container and bears the same label (FIR). A lot of fresh fish refers to a shipment or part of a shipment of fish which has been processed in the same manner by the same producer in a 24-hour period. For fresh fish, the lot may contain more than one specie of fish.

Lot size. It is the number of units of product in a lot.

Pre-packaged product. Is any product packaged in a container in such a

manner that it is ordinarily sold to, or used or purchased by a consumer without being re-packaged.

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Random Sample- It is one in which all elements in the lot have an equal

and independent chance of being included in the sample.

Sample. It is a representative of population or group of product to be tested.

Sampling Plan. A written guide on what to do and how to perform

appropriate sampling procedure for a particular product.

Sample Size (n). It is the number of sample units comprising the total

sample drawn from a lot or production.

Sample Unit- It is one of a number of individual containers, or a portion of a

fish or primary container examined or evaluated as a single unit.

Basic Sampling Principles, with Emphasis on Sampling

Defining the Lot

When dealing with fish or fish products which possess the same label, but are packaged in different styles (e.g., different sauces) consider the different styles to be of one lot.

Defining a Sample Unit

Define the sample unit according to the following instructions:

1. When a lot consists of pre-packaged product, each package and the package thereof constitutes a sample unit.

2. For fresh and frozen groundfish block and groundfish fillet or fresh and frozen of finfish, the sample unit shall consist of a container of fish and its contents.

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3. Use one of the following 3 approaches when sampling from bulk packages:

a. the sample shall consist of the bulk package and its contents; b. for fresh or individually frozen whole or dressed finfish or fresh

or individually frozen finfish fillets, the individual fish or fillet may be considered as a representative sub-sample; and

c. for scenarios other than described in section ii), a 1 kg sub-sample of product obtained from the bulk pack may be considered a representative sample.

Note: Refer to the sampling section of the individual product standard for further guidance.

4. In lots consisting of salt or pickled fish packed in boxes or barrels, the container constitutes the sample unit. Inspect the entire contents of the container.

5. When a lot of fresh fish consists of more than one specie, all of the sample units used to form a sample shall consist of one specie type. 6. When inspecting large fish, each fish constitutes a sample unit.

When an inspector has confidence a representative sub-sample may be obtained from a large, whole fish, the sub-sample becomes the sample unit. The sub-sample must be obtained in a manner that will not compromise the integrity of the sample.

To obtain a representative sub-sample from large, whole fish for chemical and microbiological analysis, take 3 one-inch slices from each of the following areas:

a. behind the pectoral fins;

b. halfway between the first slice and the vent; and c. behind the vent. These 3 slices form the sample unit,

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When sampling for sensory analysis, the 3 slice method described above is recommended. If in the inspector's view, fewer or more slices are required to make an accurate decision on the quality of the lot, the inspector may exercise his/her discretion to decide what constitutes a representative sample unit for that fish. If the inspector decides only one slice will be required as a representative sub-sample from the fish, the one slice should not be taken from behind the vent because this slice does not usually exhibit signs of early decomposition.

Requirements in Sampling

1. Samples should be packed with shock absorbing materials. 2. Frozen samples must remain frozen. Food products that require

refrigeration should be shipped in ice.

3. Submit samples in the original unopened containers 4. Use sterile sampling tools, instrument, equipment

5. Sampling containers should be clean, dry, leak-proof, wide- mouth, sterile and to the size of the product

6. For dry materials, use sterile metal boxes, cans, bags, or packets with suitable closures

7. Label each samples.

Procedure in Sampling

1. Choose representative sample. The condition of the sample product should be the same as it was before sampling.

2. Collect the most ideal sample.

3. Deliver samples immediately to the laboratory with the original storage condition maintained

4. Record the number of samples, time and date it was collected and brought/accepted in the laboratory.

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What to PROCESS?

LO 2 Collect samples

In generating concrete ideas about sampling, you should identify sampling requirements in accordance with sampling plan. You should know the number of samples from a particular lot of food according to the sampling category to which a food is assigned. Generally, the assignment to a sampling or food category depends on 1) the sensitivity of the consumer group (e.g., the aged, the infirm, and infants); 2) the possibility that the food may have undergone a step that exposes it to bacteria (e.g Salmonella) during the manufacturing process or in the home; and 3) the history of the food. The selection of a sampling plan depends mainly on the first 2 criteria cited. The history of the food would be important in deciding whether to sample, i.e., whether there was a past history of contamination.

Bear in mind that Sampling plan A is detailed outline of measurements to be taken which includes the objectives, outline of which measurements will be taken at what time, on which material, in what manner, and by whom. Sampling plans should be designed in such a way that the resulting data will contain a representative sample of the parameters of interest and allow for all questions, as stated in the goals, to be answered.

Steps in the sampling plan The steps involved in developing a

sampling plan are:

1. identify the parameters to be measured and the corresponding standard value, the range of possible values, and the required resolution

2. design a sampling scheme that details how and when samples will be taken

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Activity 1. Make a Sampling Plan based on the steps given above.

3. select sample sizes

4. design data storage formats 5. assign roles and responsibilities

Example of Sampling Plan Sampling Raw Shellfish

• Examine samples of shellstock, shucked unfrozen shellfish, and live shellfish within 24 hours after collection. When analysis is

unavoidably delayed beyond 24 hours, report the actual time elapsed between collection and analysis.

• Use heavy plastic bags (6 mil gauge) for shellstock collection to ensure that shells do not puncture the plastic and compromise the integrity of the sample.

• Take 5 units of 12-18 shellfish per unit. This number should ensure the selection of 10 sound animals suitable for shucking. Ensure the shellfish yield approximately 200 g of meat and shell liquor.

• Using an aseptic technique, transfer the shellfish to the sample jar with sterile forceps; alternatively, samples of the final product may be taken in the packing cans or containers.

• Consumer packages are acceptable for examination.

Source: www.inspection.gc.ca/Food/fish-and-seafood/manual/standards-and-methods

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What to REFLECT and UNDERSTAND?

Research on new technology involved in sampling techniques and procedures.

Activity # 2

Make a study visit in a fish Processing Plant. Observe and take note on how the Quality Controller collects, handles and prepares samples of Fishery Processed Products. Report it in class.

What to TRANSFER?

Now that you have all the information, are you ready to test your ability to prepare sampling procedures? If your answer is yes, your task is to prepare all the materials needed for the collection of samples and transfer the samples under controlled condition and labels according to sampling requirements.

You will be evaluated using this scale. DESCRIPTORS CRITERIA CONTENT/IDEAS CLARITY MASTERY Excellent (10 points) Demonstrated/ Discussed correctly 3 ideas Presented complete and clear ideas Presented the ideas without looking at the notes Very Good (5 points) Demonstrated/ Discussed correctly 2 ideas Presented clear ideas but need

details Presented the ideas while looking at the notes once in a while Good (2 points) Demonstrated/ Discussed correctly 1 idea Presented vague ideas including details Reading while presenting the ideas Needs Improvement (0)

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Answer the post assessment below to determine whether there is significant increase in your understanding.

Good Luck!

Post-Assessment

Modified True or False:

Write TRUE if the statement is correct and if FALSE change the

underlined word/s to make the statement correct. Write your answer in your notebook. Do not write anything in the module.

___ 1. Knowledge in sampling will help, prevent or delay self-decomposition of fish products to be evaluated.

___ 2. Samples should be handled with care after presentation to the panelists.

___ 3. Samples must be handled, packaged, and shipped in order not to compromise the identity or integrity of the sample.

___ 4. If products are in bulk or in containers that are too large for submission to the laboratory, transfer representative portions to sterile containers under aseptic conditions.

___ 5. Dry or canned foods that are not perishable and are collected at ambient temperatures should be refrigerated.

___6. Lot size is a number of units of product in a lot.

___7. For wet materials , use sterile metal boxes,cans,bags or packets with suitable closure.

___8. Sampling plan is a detailed outline of measurements to be taken. ___9. Sampling containers should be clean, dry and leak-proof.

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Module 4. INSPECT AND SORT RAW MATERIALS AND

PRODUCTS (IS)

This module deals on how to inspect and sort raw materials and products (IS) in Fish Processing. This includes preparing equipment and tools, inspecting and sorting the materials and product, and complete inspection and sorting activity.

Content Standard Performance Standard

The learner demonstrates understanding of inspecting and sorting raw materials and products to be used.

The learner demonstrates how to inspect and sort raw materials and products to be used.

LO 1. Prepare Equipment and Tools

Learning Objectives;

1. Prepare equipment and tools for inspection and sorting in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications and workplace requirements

2. Check, clean and sanitize equipment and tools in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications and workplace requirements

3. Prepare office equipment and materials/supplies needed in accordance with approved specifications

Figure

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References

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