What's wrong with Scottish firms? Local sourcing in electronics

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(1)Feature WHAT'S WRONG WITH SCOTTISH FIRMS? Article LOCAL SOURCIK IN ELECTRONICS James McCalman Management Studies Department, University of Glasgow Introduction period from July to October 1984. three principal conclusions were: The Given the importance of the electronics industry in Scotland this article sets out to analyse one of the presumed benefits of a t t r a c t i n g foreign e l e c t r o n i c s firms to set up manufacturing f a c i l i t i e s other than the direct employment effects. I t deals with the sourcing of material inputs by foreign firms in the Scottish economy in an attempt to determine the level of material inputs purchased from indigenous e l e c t r o n i c s suppliers. The electronics industry in Scotland has for several years been a c t i v e l y promoted by government agencies and the press as one of the major industrial success stories during a period of i n d u s t r i a l stagnation and decline in the more t r a d i t i o n a l manufacturing areas of the Scottish economy. The concept of "Silicon Glen" i s an attractive one which views Scotland as being at the forefront of electronics manufacture providing high l e v e l s of employment leading to further a t t r a c t i o n of inward investment. The e l e c t r o n i c s industry in Scotland in 1985 employed 43,900 people in more than 300 companies (22% under foreign ownership, 42% English and 36% Scottish). However, previous research has shown t h a t the l a r g e s t employers and f a s t e s t growing firms are externally owned, and that their a t t r a c t i o n t o Scotland was h e a v i l y influenced by regional incentive schemes. (Firn, 1975; and Hood and Young, 1980). - Foreign-owned electronics companies in S c o t l a n d buy only 15% of t h e i r production materials from indigenous Scottish suppliers; - Managers within foreign firms regarded the increase of such linkages as an important factor for the development of the industry in Scotland. However, they f e l t that firm size and product q u a l i t y in a l l but a few of the indigenous suppliers of which they had e x p e r i e n c e d had p r e v e n t e d t h i s occurring; - The creation of closer links with the foreign-owned sector present in Scotland might strengthen Scottish firms and provide them with experience to develop international trade. As far as the development of e l e c t r o n i c s in Scotland i s concerned, the role of the American manufacturers was crucial both in terms of employment and the growth of an indigenous sector. Location-specific factors influenced the a r r i v a l of the major American e l e c t r o n i c s f i r m s t o Scotland with the provision of regional aid being a key influence in a t t r a c t i n g firms to the central belt. However, the desire to manufacture in Scotland was also i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s such as servicing B r i t i s h and European markets, the presence of a highly skilled, low cost labour supply, a strong academic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and close c u l t u r a l t i e s . Sayer and Morgan (1984) noted t h a t as far as f o r e i g n firms in Scotland were concerned, "The overseas sector remains The Foreign sector survey This feature reports the main results from a survey of foreign-owned e l e c t r o n i c s companies with manufacturing plants in Scotland carried out during a four month 62

(2) poorly integrated, with multiplier effects which afford l i t t l e secondary employment and, perhaps more important for long-term prospects, a significant indigenous sector has not developed". As regards the host economy, foreign d i r e c t investment theory suggests that there w i l l be advantages t o the host country other than those associated with d i r e c t employment creation. Of these, the creation of linkages with host economy firms, and the subsequent development of an indigenous electronics sector provided the main j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the research work undertaken. The e l e c t r o n i c s i n d u s t r y in Scotland seems a l i k e l y candidate for analysis of the level of linkage created by MNEs for three reasons: - The industry i s characterised by a high level of foreign-owned enterprises which accounted for over 40% of employment. The majority of the over three hundred firms which made up the industry were small S c o t t i s h concerns and the assumption was made that these firms could act as "feeders" for the foreignowned sector in the supply of component p a r t s , given r e c e n t industry moves towards higher subcontracting roles (Firn and Roberts 1984); manufacturing p l a n t s throughout the country with the major concentration in the Strathclyde region. The names of all f o r e i g n - o w n e d companies o p e r a t i n g facilities in Scotland were taken from the SDA l i s t i n g "Electronics Companies in Scotland" and nationality was confirmed by reference to a l i s t i n g provided by the Scottish Council Development and Industry. Overall 30 foreign firms participated in the study, a response r a t e of 60?. The study reflected the dominance of the f o r e i g n - o w n e d s e c t o r by American e l e c t r o n i c s companies. Of the 30 companies interviewed 25 were American. (Even so t h i s s t i l l under-represents the p r o p o r t i o n of American f i r m s in the foreign-owned t o t a l . ) Overall, the foreign s e c t o r accounted for 43% of electronics employment in Scotland with American firms responsible for 41? of t o t a l employment in the e l e c t r o n i c s industry in Scotland. Survey results Of t h e r e a s o n s f o r s e t t i n g up manufacturing f a c i l i t i e s in Scotland, rather than elsewhere, two fundamental factors became obvious. By far the most important locational determinant as far as American companies were concerned was British Government financial assistance in setting up and operating proposed plants in S c o t l a n d . Of t h e c o m p a n i e s interviewed, 71? regarded the provision of British Government financial aid as a very important locational determinant (Table 1). Two other important reasons for setting up operations in Scotland was to obtain access e i t h e r to the British or European market. Of the firms surveyed, 58% regarded access to the European market a very important factor, whilst 84% found access to B r i t i s h market an important determinant in s e t t i n g up in Scotland. Of the o t h e r f a c t o r s mentioned the a v a i l a b i l i t y of certain labour s k i l l s in Scotland, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Scottish plant as a supporting role for t h e p a r e n t , and B r i t a i n b e i n g a preferential area for c a p i t a l intensive projects, were a l l regarded as important locational determinants. - Analysis from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h indicated t h a t the more industrialised the host economy was the greater was the likelihood of strong backward linkages being formed and t h i s , related to the large number of local firms, gave hope for a growth in the level of local linkages; - However, a study undertaken on behalf of the Scottish Development Agency, (SDA) in 1979 raised serious doubts as to the ability of Scottish firms to supply the foreign-owned sector and highlighted serious levels of import penetration of electronics components. Only 12? of components were sourced l o c a l l y in Scotland with 30? of subcontract work being dealt with by Scottish firms. Research methodology These r e s u l t s tend to reinforce previous work on locational determinants (Booze Allen and Hamilton, 1979). American electronics companies seeking In 1984 t h e r e were 50 foreign-owned electronics firms in Scotland operating 63

(3) manufacturing o p e r a t i o n s i n Europe, were a t t r a c t e d t o S c o t l a n d by r e g i o n a l aid policies. I t i s worth noting t h a t gaining access t o the S c o t t i s h market and l o c a l sources of supply were u n i m p o r t a n t factors. I t would be safe t o assume t h a t being able to develop l i n k s with firms in the S c o t t i s h economy did not influence the d e c i s i o n t o s e t up in S c o t l a n d . As an addition to the l o c a t i o n a l determinants already mentioned, s e v e r a l e x e c u t i v e s of American f i r m s mentioned t h e a b i l i t y of S c o t s t o speak E n g l i s h " a d e q u a t e l y " and the l a r g e number of golf courses as major reasons for coming t o Scotland! Table 1 Locational determinants of US electronics firms with f a c i l i t i e s in Scotland Locational determinants Average : rating Access to Scottish market Access to UK market Access to European market Match competitors' investment Certain labour skills General labour skills Low labour costs Local sources of supply UK tax structure UK Government assistance Support role for parent company Educational infrastructure 3.81 1.88 1.62 2.81 1.99 1.87 2.39 3.86 2.50 1.33 1.65 2.26 s t a n d a r d s could be found i t would be t o the p l a n t ' s b e n e f i t t o source l o c a l l y avoiding t r a n s p o r t c o s t s . Secondly, i t would improve the p l a n t ' s public image t o be seen t o be a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t i n g l o c a l industry. Table 2 g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the amount of time the firm has been in t h e l o c a l economy d i d n o t p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in determining the l e v e l of l i n k a g e s c r e a t e d w i t h S c o t t i s h companies. The f i r m s surveyed d i v i d e d t h e m s e l v e s n e a t l y i n t o two d i s t i n c t e n t r y p e r i o d s . Fourteen arrived in Scotland in the p r e 1970 p e r i o d , mainly d u r i n g t h e 1950s and e a r l y 1960s. The second e n t r y p e r i o d , p o s t 1970, saw t h e a r r i v a l of a n o t h e r sixteen f i r m s , with twelve arriving during the 1970s and four in the 1980s. table 2 Material input purchases from Scotland by plant date of establidment (EXE) t input purchases frcm ScotLani (1964) DOE 0 1-10 11-25 26-50 51-70 Pre-1970 No ce firms 2 7 2 3 0 (W Pos1>1970 No of firms 3 6 3 3 1 (16) (a) Response c a t e g o r i e s : 1 2 3 4 5 = = = = = Very important Important F a i r l y important Unimportant Not applicable One of the main concerns of t h i s study was t o t e s t t h e view t h a t m a t e r i a l i n p u t p u r c h a s e s by foreign-owned f i r m s from S c o t t i s h companies would i n c r e a s e w i t h time. The view was t h a t a s t h e p l a n t began t o s e c u r e more autonomy from t h e parent organisation, and as i t s experience of l o c a l s u p p l i e r s i n c r e a s e d over t i m e there would be a tendency for i t t o source l o c a l l y where p o s s i b l e f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , where l o c a l s u p p l i e r s w i t h a d e q u a t e q u a l i t y , p r i c e and d e l i v e r y These figures give an indication t h a t the l e n g t h of t i m e t h e f i r m had b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d in t h e h o s t economy did n o t affect i t s a b i l i t y to i n s t i g a t e purchasing l i n k a g e s w i t h domestic companies. Foreign-owned f i r m s which had s e t up f a c i l i t i e s d u r i n g t h e 1970s were j u s t as l i k e l y t o p u r c h a s e from l o c a l f i r m s a s t h o s e companies which had been operating in Scotland since the 1950s. The sourcing of material inputs other than those purchased from the parent r e f l e c t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of s u p p l i e r s based i n England, and e s p e c i a l l y t h e s o u t h - e a s t . Of t h o s e f i r m s surveyed, t h e average amount of purchases made from outside the

(4) organisation was 50%. the l a c k of i n d i g e n o u s f i r m s in s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t a r e a s h i n d e r e d t h i s development. Several purchasing managers commented upon t h e s m a l l s c a l e n a t u r e of S c o t t i s h o p e r a t i o n s , viewing t h i s a s one of t h e major r e a s o n s t h a t c o n t r a c t s were not offered to S c o t t i s h firms. Table 3 d e t a i l s p e r c e n t a g e i n p u t s by geographical location. This showed t h a t S c o t l a n d had n o t managed t o a c h i e v e a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i n p u t p u r c h a s e s of foreign-owned f i r m s when compared t o those purchased from south of t h e b o r d e r , a l t h o u g h t h e l e v e l of p u r c h a s e s was h i g h e r than t h o s e from the other European countries and America. In f a c t , t h e s e f i g u r e s , when compared w i t h t h o s e of t h e M a k r o t e s t s u r v e y on e l e c t r o n i c s u b c o n t r a c t i n g and component supply i n d u s t r i e s undertaken on behalf of the SDA in 1979 reflected a f a l l , in t o t a l purchases in Scotland from 19% (SDA, 1979) to 15% The survey a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t a high degree of p u r c h a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y did r e s t w i t h t h e S c o t t i s h l o c a t i o n for t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of f i r m s . Interviewees were asked a number of questions regarding purchasing autonomy and Table 4 summarises the responses. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p u r c h a s i n g had f o r t h e most p a r t been devolved t o the p l a n t . The importance of linkage creation cannot be o v e r - e s t i m a t e d . The survey showed t h a t foreign-owned f i r m s had moved away from r e l i a n c e upon t h e parent organisation. Figures for inputs coming from t h e p a r e n t a t d a t e of e s t a b l i s h m e n t show t h a t 89% of m a t e r i a l s were supplied from t h e p a r e n t . At t h e t i m e of t h e survey t h i s f i g u r e had f a l l e n t o 53%. This i n d i c a t e d that there were o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f i r m s w i l l i n g and able t o supply foreign-owned firms. Table 3 % production input purchases Scotland England European Community 15 38 13 USA R e s t of t h e World 14 20 Purchasing responsibility for SoottJU* operations Nmtor affirm Production input purchases (other than from the parent o r g a n i s a t i o n ) by g e o g r a p h i c a l location Location Total Table t Nuribtr of flras Central purchasing Yes 9 No 20 Plant purchasing department Yes 28 No 2 Plant purchasing department responsible for all purchases Yes 23 No 7 This would tend t o confirm t h a t the locus of d e c i s i o n making power a s f a r a s purchasing was concerned had been devolved to the MNE subsidiary. The s u r v e y a l s o s o u g h t t o guage t h e opinions of managers as to the performance of S c o t t i s h s u p p l i e r s when compared t o s u p p l i e r s from e l s e w h e r e i n B r i t a i n , America and Europe in s i m i l a r categories. The responses are detailed in Table 5. 100 The g e n e r a l o p i n i o n g a u g e d from interviewees was t h a t although there was an overall d e s i r e to increase the level of local content in t h e i r production inputs, The r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r t h e p e s s i m i s m expressed about S c o t t i s h s u p p l i e r s f e l l into three areas: 65

(5) 1. A lack of firms with the required technical knowledge in specific areas; 2. A lack of Scottish firms of sufficient capacity to be able to handle demand from foreign-owned plants; 3. An u n w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of S c o t t i s h f i r m s to become h e a v i l y committed to supplying foreign companies. Table 5 The performance of Scottish suppliers compared to other suppliers elsewhere in Britain, Anerica and Europe Specific; areas firms, although the former i s l i k e l y to remain an attractive option (SDA, 1986). Table 6 Input materials perceived as not being available from Scottish suppliers Specific materials General electronic components (including integrated circuits) Electro-mechanical components Silicon Metals Others Number of firms 7 4 4 2 6 Performance when caqpered with: Other IK USA Europe (a) Price competitiveness Sales aggression After sales work Delivery tires Product quality Ability to work to specification Ability to alter production Technological ccmpetence 2.34 3.03 2.51 2.44 2.34 2.84 3.59 3.11 2.88 3.15 3.30 3.50 3.42 3.42 3.46 2.31 2.77 3.46 2.41 2.92 3.25 2.42 3.15 4.55 I t would appear that recent comments from the SDA confirm that they realise that the development of the indigenous sector i s e s s e n t i a l both t o take advantage of opportunities provided by the presence of such a large number of foreign-owned e l e c t r o n i c s manufacturers, and to move indigenous f i r m s t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l trading l e v e l . The SDA f e l t that, "in many ways the indigenous electronics community in Scotland does not exhibit the cohesion shown by dynamic economic groupings elsewhere and the consequent isolation can be a cause of opportunities passing unnoticed or t h r e a t s emerging unexpectedly." This a r t i c l e indicates that the level of interaction between the f o r e i g n and indigenous s e c t o r s i s particularly weak with the exception of a few Scottish success s t o r i e s , and t h a t these firms - Prestwick Circuits, Rodime, etc - have moved towards international markets as a r e s u l t of t h e i r success. Previous authors have highlighted the need for indigenous firms to expand outside Britain t o main competitive positions. Sayer and Morgan (1984) claimed t h a t , "What i s notable about indigenous firms (eg Rodime) i s that they feel obliged to expand outside Britain (in the US in t h i s case) soon after birth." Analysis of the major indigenous successes may go a long way to confirming the division between foreign-owned manufacturers present in Scotland which supply the European market and are willing to source locally if s u i t a b l e suppliers were available, and major indigenous firms t h a t started out supplying foreign firms in Scotland and used t h i s as a base from which to build international reputations. (a) Response categories: 1 = above average; 2 = average; 3 = below average; 4 = well below average; 5 = not applicable As f a r as the the l a c k of S c o t t i s h companies in specific product areas was concerned, the survey highlighted the products/components t h a t foreign firms required t h a t they believed could not be sourced locally. Table 6 indicates these particular products. The S c o t t i s h Development Agency has recently recognised the need for a strong indigenous electronics sector by changing i t s primary concern away from the pursuit of inward investment, which had been i t s major policy concern, towards the strengthening of Scottish e l e c t r o n i c s 66

(6) The survey of thirty foreign-owned firms in Scotland has revealed some interesting comments on the performance of the indigenous electronics sector. These comments, and figures on the amount of production materials sourced locally raise i n t e r e s t i n g questions on the a b i l i t y of indigenous companies to support and learn from the foreign sector. Four key points emerge from analysis of the foreign-owned electronics sector: - The level of interaction between the foreign-owned and indigenous sectors was low with only 15? of production input materials being sourced from indigenous Scottish firms. This compared with t o t a l purchases in Scotland of subcontracts and components of 19? in 1979; - The major reasons for t h i s were that foreign-owned firms felt that Scottish companies were not of sufficient size to deal with major sourcing orders. I t was perceived t h a t many e l e c t r o n i c s components and materials could not be sourced locally because suppliers in these product areas did not e x i s t , and S c o t t i s h f i r m s f a i r e d b a d l y in comparison with firms from America and Europe over a range of performance factors; - Foreign-owned firms were willing to adopt local sourcing where they found S c o t t i s h firms with appropriate technical and quality expertise; - The purchasing responsibility for most foreign firms in Scotland rested at the local plant l e v e l , and only on a few occasions was purchasing dealt with by the parent organisation. One important point associated with this was the fact that the length of time the foreignowned organisation had been in the Scottish economy was of nb significance in determining the degree of local plant autonomy in purchasing nor the level of local sourcing. American firms that had set up f a c i l i t i e s in Scotland in the late 1970s and early 1980s were just as likely to source locally as firms that had been present since the 1950s. them with the experience with which to move towards international markets. One note of warning here i s that closer ties with the foreign sector might lead to a level of dependence that Scottish firms would find d i f f i c u l t to break away from. Similarly, indigenous firms cannot be expected to develop and compete in the provision of specialist components where efficient manufacture is based upon large scale plant operations. What appears to be the case i s that most indigenous firms have allowed c l o s e r relationships with foreign-owned firms to by-pass them and in doing so have reduced t h e l i k e l i h o o d of moving i n t o international markets where firms, such as Rodime and Prestwick Circuits have found profitable returns. The SDA having recognised t h a t American company sourcing policies do not explain the low levels of Scottish inputs continue to identify a number of product areas where Scottish firms could take advantage of t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t e x i s t . However, their role in attempting to improve the level of local sourcing seems to have been f a i r l y r e s t r i c t e d . Having recognised the low l e v e l s of l o c a l sourcing since, at l e a s t , 1979 they have attempted l i t t l e in the way of fostering closer relationships between Scottish and foreign firms present in Scotland, other than to s t r e s s the presence of a large manufacturing and supply base in i t s advertising material. I t would appear that there is the need for a stronger level of commitment on the part of the SDA in forging closer sourcing ties. Similarly, Buxton (1986) suggests that to make Scottish firms more export oriented, development aid should be linked to export performance indicators. However, the electronics industry i t s e l f seems to be moving in a direction which will involve closer local sourcing t i e s , and one in which the SDA i t s e l f i s beginning to take a more active role. The p o l i c y emphasis of government agencies, such as the SDA, needs to be c h a n n e l l e d i n t o i m p r o v i n g and strengthening the performance of Scottish firms. Closer links with the foreignowned sector in terms of a higher level of local sourcing would not only improve the performance of Sscottish firms but provide The adoption of Japanese style J u s t - i n Time (JIT) Manufacturing techniques by American e l e c t r o n i c s f i r m s based in Scotland offers opportunities of increased and closer sourcing relationships between US firms and Scottish suppliers. One of the main identified advantages of JIT i s 67

(7) the development of fewer suppliers who have a longer term association with the buyer. These suppliers tend to be located as near to the buying firm as possible, thus stregthening the hopes of Scottish firms that they should be able to adopt such roles. possible route that Scottish firms could take to remain at the forefront is merger to create stronger firms. The SDA's role would appear t o be t o encourage the development of larger local suppliers a t the expense of small concerns. What appears to be needed i s a p o s i t i v e and dynamic approach which tackles the divide between S c o t t i s h and foreign-owned e l e c t r o n i c s firms which s t i l l e x i s t s . The b a s i s of J u s t - i n - T i m e Sourcing techniques have to be taught to Scottish suppliers as one road to achieve increased contact, and t h i s i s a role which the SDA must continue to sponsor and promote if the next few years are to bring about a r e v e r s a l in the d e c l i n e of S c o t t i s h sourcing by foreign electronics firms. If the SDA seek to improve the local s u p p l i e r base through o f f e r i n g a competitive edge on the part of Scottish firms, p a r t i c u l a r l y over competitors outside Scotland, then the plethora of small concerns may have to be sacrificed for a leaner, more e f f i c i e n t home base. JIT techniques will mean fewer suppliers and Young (1986) has argued t h a t one 68

(8) References Buxton, N K (1986) "Performance and p r o b l e m s of S c o t l a n d ' s i n d u s t r i a l economy, S c o t t i s h Council Development and Industry, The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Forum, December 1986. F i r n , J (1975) " E x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and regional development: t h e c a s e of Scotland", Environment and Planning A, Vol 7 No 4. F i r n , J and D R o b e r t s , (1984) "High technology i n d u s t r i e s " , i n N Hood and S Young ( e d s ) , Industry, P o l i c y and t h e Scottish Economy. H i r s c h m a n , A 0 (1958) "Industrial linkages and the dual economy: the case of Northern Ireland", Regional S t u d i e s , Vol 12, pp167-l80. Marshall, J organisation c a s e study England", PP531-557. N (1979) "Ownership, and i n d u s t r i a l linkage: a of the n o r t h e r n r e g i o n of Regional S t u d i e s , Vol 13, S a y e r , A and K Morgan (1984) "The e l e c t r o n i c s i n d u s t r y and r e g i o n a l development in B r i t a i n " , in A Amin, J B Goddard ( e d s ) , Technological Change, I n d u s t r i a l Restructuring and Regional Development. S c o t t i s h Development Agency (SDA)(1979) "The S c o t t i s h e l e c t r o n i c s subc o n t r a c t i n g and c o m p o n e n t s s u p p l y i n d u s t r i e s " , Working Paper by Makrotest Ltd. SDA (1980) "The e l e c t r o n i c s industry in Scotland: a proposed strategy", prepared for the SDA by Booze, Allen and Hamilton , Management Consultants. Hood, N and S Young (1979) The Economics of M u l t i n a t i o n a l Enterprise, Longman Publishers. SDA (1986) "Electronics Scotland", Newsletter of the E l e c t r o n i c s D i v i s i o n of the SDA. Hood, N and S Young (1980) "European development s t r a g e g i e s of us owned m a n u f a c t u r i n g companies located in Scotland", HMSO. S t e w a r d , J C (1976) " L i n k a g e s and foreign d i r e c t investment", Regional Studies, Vol 10, pp245-258. L a l l , S (1980) "The i n d i r e c t employment e f f e c t s of multinational e n t e r p r i s e s in developing countries", International Labour O f f i c e , Working Paper No 3. W a t a n a b e , S 1982 "Subcontracting, i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and e m p l o y m e n t creation", International Labour Office, Vol 10, No 7. Young, S ( 1 9 8 6 ) " S c o t t i s h m u l t i n a t i o n a l s and the S c o t t i s h economy" Position paper for Scotland and the M u l t i n a t i o n a l s , Conference o r g a n i s e d by t h e I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h and I n f o r m a t i o n on M u l t i n a t i o n a l s and Strathclyde I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s Unit, City Chambers, Glasgow, September 1986. Lim L Y C and P E Fong (1982) "Vertical linkages and m u l t i n a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e s in developing c o u n t r i e s " , World Development Vol 10, No 7. M c A l e e s e , D and D McDonald (1978) "Employment growth and t h e development of l i n k a g e s i n f o r e i g n - o w n e d and d o m e s t i c manufacturing e n t e r p r i s e s " , Oxford B u l l e t i n o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , 40, pp321-340. 69

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