Women leadership barriers in healthcare, academia and business

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(1)This is a repository copy of Women leadership barriers in healthcare, academia and business. White Rose Research Online URL for this paper: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/126179/ Version: Accepted Version Article: Kalaitzi, S., Czabanowska, K., Fowler-Davis, S. et al. (1 more author) (2017) Women leadership barriers in healthcare, academia and business. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 36 (5). pp. 457-474. ISSN 2040-7149 https://doi.org/10.1108/EDI-03-2017-0058 Reuse Unless indicated otherwise, fulltext items are protected by copyright with all rights reserved. The copyright exception in section 29 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 allows the making of a single copy solely for the purpose of non-commercial research or private study within the limits of fair dealing. The publisher or other rights-holder may allow further reproduction and re-use of this version - refer to the White Rose Research Online record for this item. Where records identify the publisher as the copyright holder, users can verify any specific terms of use on the publisher’s website. Takedown If you consider content in White Rose Research Online to be in breach of UK law, please notify us by emailing eprints@whiterose.ac.uk including the URL of the record and the reason for the withdrawal request. eprints@whiterose.ac.uk https://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/

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(19) Page 17 of 24 Bibliography er ad Le 3( 0 $ -0O ' $ 40 $ 8 4$ ,0 2$ 4 F O > $ 0 $2 0/ $ 0 /$3$0 C 0 &$0 + " 0 $0 / , 0 $ 0 $ 0 O ## # 8 O> $ 50 $ =-854$ 0 7$0 . 0 +$ #0 C$ 5$O ' !/ P , # NO0 0 -8 0 F< # + $ 0 7$0 #0 C$0 + 0 3$0 2 0 <$ 40 ! ! $" / ! 0% A: $ , 0 <$3$0 ! 0 $0 7 # 0 C$ + 0 +$ 0O # F O " # > $ 0' $ 0 $ 8 D$ , 0 "$0 ! # 0 &$0 & 0 "$0 0 $0 ! 0 A$ 0 !$ 5 0 O. ( N3 8 O $ %# > $ -0 $ ))84 -$ 0 "$0 6 0 3$ 0 $ 0O # : # , F O0 & # '# "# > $ D50 $ )=8 D$ 0 2$.$ ) 0 O< " F $ ; # # 0 ' $ D0 $ -5 8--=$ 8; 8 0 ' " $ +!;0 / $ ( 8! 0 +$0 0 7$0 C , 0 <$ / 0 3$ ) 0 O! # + # / O0 ( # ! # 0/ 0 $ D=8 =5$ 7 40 ( " ' ") # # #* +# , / F ! ; $ 0 '$ 0 O/ %& O > $= 0 ' $ 0 $ D 85 $ 0 +$ C$0 0 3$ $ O3 # F D # O0 -$* & # 0 5 0 8 )$ , 0 C$7$0 ) 0. # ! / 01 ! 0 C 8 0! 6 $ 0 "$0 + 0 7$ = 0O # 6 H 6 > F # # O0 & # 6 ( F F99 $, # $ #$ ,9 ( 9 #8 8 8 8 8 =! ( , 0 C$7$ 0$ " 0 ! < 0 +3$ p i sh in 2 Se 6 th A al 2 He s ce i rv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Leadership in Health Services http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/lihs

(20) Leadership in Health Services 0 '$ 0( 0 "$0 0 $ # D5$ & J ( 0 C$7$ ! " J er ad Le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p i sh in th al He Se s ce i rv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Page 18 of 24 ) http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/lihs

(21) Page 19 of 24 Nancarrow, S., Moran, A. M., Enderby, P., Parker, S., Dixon, S., Mitchell, C., Bradburn, M., Mcclimens, A., Gibson, C., John, A., Borthwick, A. & Buchan, J. (2009), The impact of workforce flexibility on the costs and outcomes of older peoples' services, National Co-ordinating Centre for NHS Service Delivery and Organisation, London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er ad Le p i sh in th al He Se s ce i rv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Leadership in Health Services http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/lihs

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(23) Page 21 of 24 er ad Le ! "# $ p i sh % & ( ' " $ $) * AND He Team* [includes team, teams, team work, teamwork or team working] AND Lead* (includes Leads, Leading, Leader, Leadership) th al Se Interdisciplinary OR interprofessional OR multiprofessional OR multidisciplinary OR Interdisciplinary OR interprofessional OR co-operat* OR multi-professional OR multidisciplinary OR “Inter disciplinary” OR “inter professional” OR “multi disciplinary” OR “multi professional” $ in s ce i rv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Leadership in Health Services http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/lihs

(24) Leadership in Health Services Interdisciplinary OR interprofessional OR cooperat* OR collaborat* OR multidisciplinary OR Inter-disciplinary OR inter-professional OR co-operat* OR multidisciplinary OR “Inter disciplinary” OR “inter professional” OR “multi disciplinary” AND team* [includes team, teams, team work, teamwork or team working] AND Lead* (includes Leads, Leading, Leader, Leadership) AND er ad Le ! " 1 Cannot tell No http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/lihs s ce Is the literature related to the research problem and point towards the research purpose? Sampling and participants Is there description of type of sampling procedure? Is there identification of inclusion criteria? Does the sample size and configuration fit the purpose and sampling strategy? Are features of the sample critical to the understanding of the findings described? Do sites of recruitment fit the evolving needs of the study? Data gathering strategies Is there clear description of data gathering procedures? Is there discussion of time frame of data gathering? Data management and analysis strategies Are methods used described? i rv 8 Yes Se 7 Literature review th 6 No Does the statement of the phenomenon lead directly to the purpose of the study and the research questions? Purpose of the research Is the purpose of the research clearly expressed? Research questions Are the research questions explicitly expressed? Detailed questions 4 Cannot tell al 3 Yes He 2 Problem statement # in Screening questions Length of Stay Patient Admission Patient Discharge Patient Readmission Patient Transfer Quality of Health Care Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care) Outcome Assessment (Health Care) Treatment Outcome Treatment Failure Mortality Cause of Death Child Mortality Fatal Outcome Foetal Mortality Hospital Mortality Infant Mortality Maternal Mortality Perinatal Mortality Survival Rate p i sh 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Page 22 of 24

(25) Page 23 of 24 9 Is there identification of categories or common elements found? Findings Are interpretations of data demonstrably plausible and/or sufficiently substantiated with data? Are concepts or ideas well-developed and linked to each other? Are concepts used precisely? Is there provision of evidence as to how representative in the sample the various findings were? Conclusions, discussion, implications, suggestions for future study Does the discussion pertain to all significant findings? Do the interpretive statements correspond to the findings? Are the study findings linked to the findings of other studies, or to other relevant literatures? Validity Is there evidence that researcher has considered the effect of his/her presence on the research findings? Is there evidence that researcher has considered possibility of research bias or misinterpretation? Are validation techniques used that fit the purpose, methods, sample, data and findings of the study? er ad Le 10 11 p i sh $ in %& '( ) * He Facilitate Shared leadership Consciously involve team members in, decision making and delegate responsibilities appropriately (Day 1981, McCallin 1999, Wilson 2001,# +,,-) . ) $ /000) /001) 2 2 2 $2 % /0+0) /00/) 3 4 /00154 Empower team members (Mcray 2003) Develop and maintain non-hierarchical structures (Ovretveit 1997, Krueger 1987) Provide information the team requires (Mickan & Rodger 2000) Work to create agreement (Mickan & Rodger 2000) Coach colleagues in shared leadership (McCallin 2003, Maister 1993) Transformation and Change (McCray 2003, Irizarry 1993, Gameau & Walter 1993) Create a climate where staff are challenged, supported, motivated and rewarded (West et al. 2003) Respond to change flexibly (Suter et al. 2007) Facilitate or act as a catalyst for practice change (Willumsen 2006). Act as a role model (Pollard, Miers & Gilchrist 2005, West et al. 2014) Inspire other team members (West et al. 2003) Personal qualities Enthusiasm (Pollard, Miers & Gilchrist 2005) Commitment (Abreu 1997) Empathy (Mcray 2003) Knowledge of people (Suter et al. 2007) Goal alignment Ensure the team has articulated a clear and inspiring vision of its work (Lyubovnikova et al. 2015) Assure productivity and goals are in line with the organization (Leathard, Cook 2004) Protect regular time for the team to review its performance (Lyubovnikova et al. 2015) Provide feedback about important issues (Mickan, Rodger 2000, Leathard, Cook 2004) Creativity & innovation Establish a productive balance of harmony and debate to ensure creativity (Leathard, Cook 2004) Develop innovations and new practice models (Suter et al. 2007) Ensure effective leadership and team work processess (West et al. 2003) th al Se s ce i rv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Leadership in Health Services http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/lihs

(26) Leadership in Health Services Communication Maintain clear communication channels and facilitate interaction processes (Ovretveit 1997, Suter et al. 2007, Willumsen 2006, Blewett et al. 2010) Listen to, support and trust team members (Mickan, Rodger 2000, Leathard, Cook 2004) Initiate constructive debates and share their own ideas (Mickan, Rodger 2000, Lyubovnikova et al. 2015) Manage conflict and maintain a productive balance between harmony and healthy debate (Mickan, Rodger 2000, Mcray 2003) Teambuilding Set expectations for working together (Suter et al. 2007) Create a climate of mutual respect (Ovretveit 1997, Leathard, Cook 2004) Ensure cohesion (Willumsen 2006) Develop the interpersonal skills of the team (Ovretveit 1997) Ensure the contextual socialization of new/inexperienced team members (Mcray 2003). Promote interprofessional collaboration (Suter et al. 2007, McCallin 2003, Branowicki et al. 2001) Facilitate group reflection on practice (McCallin 1999, Branowicki et al. 2001) Leadership clarity Esnure clarity of leadership (Nancarrow et al. 2009, West et al. 2003) Combine strong leadership and high involvement (Rosen, Callaly 2005) Direction setting Coordinate tasks (Mickan, Rodger 2000) Manage Processes (Maister 1993) Ensure work is allocated work equally (Pollard, Miers & Gilchrist 2005) Set clear tasks (Ross, Rink & Furne 2000) External liaison Represent the team externally (Irizarry, Gameau & Walter 1993) Ensure necessary resources (Maister 1993) Develop strategies for promoting the work of the team (Irizarry, Gameau & Walter 1993) Demonstrate effectiveness through data collection & evaluation (Irizarry, Gameau & Walter 1993) Ensure the team understands its customers and can exploit new opportunities (Willumsen 2006). Develop networks and linkages(Pollard, Miers & Gilchrist 2005) Skill mix and diversity Recruit externally and develop internally (Ross, Rink & Furne 2000) Ensure regular Supervision and PDR (Burton, Fisher & Green 2009). Assure access to relevant training (Burton, Fisher & Green 2009). Clinical and contextual expertise High levels of professional expertise (Maister 1993, Irizarry, Gameau & Walter 1993, Branowicki et al. 2001) Demonstrate in-depth understanding of the organisation (Branowicki et al. 2001) and current development programmes (West et al. 2014) Balance focus between the needs of the patient, organisation and team (Branowicki et al., 2001) Facilitate understanding of context and ensure all perspectives are taken into account (Abreu 1997) Knowledge of the professional role of others (MacDonald et al. 2010) er ad Le p i sh in th al He Se s ce i rv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Page 24 of 24 http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/lihs

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