Design Of Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) For Workpieces Transportation In Manufacturing Plant

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UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS LAPORAN PROJEK SARJANA MUDA

TAJUK: DESIGN OF AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE (AGV) FOR WORKPIECES TRANSPORTATION IN MANUFACTURING PLANT

SESI PENGAJIAN: 2014/2015

Saya MOHAMAD ZAWAWI BIN ABDUL RAZAK

mengaku membenarkan Laporan PSM ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1. Laporan PSM adalah hak milik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka dan penulis. 2. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka dibenarkan membuat salinan

untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja dengan izin penulis.

3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan laporan PSM ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.

4. **Sila tandakan ( )

SULIT

TERHAD

TIDAK TERHAD

(Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia sebagaimana yang termaktub dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972)

(Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

Alamat Tetap:

NO 82 A, KAMPUNG BELUM BARU

33300 GERIK PERAK DARUL

RIDZUAN

Tarikh: ________________________

Disahkan oleh:

Cop Rasmi:

Tarikh: _______________________

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DECLARATION

I hereby, declared this report entitled “Design of Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) for Workpiece Transportation in Manufacturing Plant” is the result of my own research

except as cited in references.

Signature : ………

Author’s Name : ………

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APPROVAL

This report is submitted to the Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering of UTeM as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Manufacturing Engineering (Robotic and Automation) (Hons.). The member of the supervisory is as follow:

……….

(Project Supervisor)

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ABSTRAK

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ABSTRACT

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DEDICATION

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Declaration i

Approval ii

Abstrak iii

Abstract iv

Dedication v

Acknowledgement vi

Table of Content vii

List of Tables x

List of Figures xi

List of Abbreviations, Symbols and Nomenclature xiv

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background of study 1

1.2 Problem statement 2

1.3 Project objective 3

1.4 Scope of the project 3

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 4

2.1 AGVs Classification 4

2.1.1 Guide path Determination 5

2.1.2 Vehicle Load Capacity 6

2.1.3 Vehicle Addressing Mechanism 8

2.2 Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) 9

2.2.1 Driverless Train 9

2.2.2 Pallet Trucks 10

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viii

2.3 AGV Navigation 11

2.3.1 Fixed Path 11

2.3.1 Free Ranging or Non-wire Navigation 13

2.4 Positioning Techniques 14

2.4.1 Odometry 15

2.4.2 Inertial Navigation 16

2.4.3 Magnetic Compasses 16

2.4.4 Active Beacon 17

2.4.5 Global Positioning System (GPS) 18

2.4.6 Landmark Navigation 19

2.4.7 Map Based Positioning 20

2.5 Steering Consideration 21

2.5.1 Steered-Wheel System 22

2.5.2 Skid-Steered System 24

2.5.3 Ackerman Steering 25

2.5.4 Differential Drive System 26

2.6 Microcontroller 33

2.7 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software 35

2.7.1 AutoCAD 35

2.7.2 SolidWorks 35

2.7.3 Catia 36

2.8 Conclusion 36

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 37

3.1 Flow Chart of Project 37

3.2 Generate preliminary design ideas and specification 39 3.3 Analysis of the preliminary design ideas and specification 42

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CHAPTER 4: DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF THE AUTOMATED

GUIDED VEHICLE 45

4.1 AGV parts 45

4.1.1 Assembly design and AGV structure 48

4.1.2 Parts specification 51

4.2 Model analysis 60

4.3 Von Mises Stress analysis 61

4.3.1 Element quality 61

4.3.2 Direct method computation 64

4.4 Factor of Safety 67

4.5 Encoder DC motor 68

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE WORK 71

5.1 Conclusion 71

5.2 Suggestion for future work 72

REFERENCES 73

APPENDICES 75

A Project Gantt Chart 76

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LIST OF TABLES

3.1 The comparison for design ideas of body vehicle 41

3.2 The comparison for design ideas of structure frame 41

4.1 List of parts need to be fabricated 46

4.2 List of standard parts 47

4.3 Shows the fabricated parts and their specifications 51

4.4 Shows the standard parts and their specifications 55

4.5 The element quality of the chassis of AGV 61

4.6 Parameter of Aluminium Alloy 6061 61

4.7 Applied load resultant on chassis of AGV 62

4.8 Minimum and maximum pivot 63

4.9 Minimum pivot 63

4.10 Translational pivot distribution 63

4.11 The values of force (x,y,z) and moment (x,y,z) of model 64

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LIST OF FIGURES

1.1 AGV application for warehousing industry 1

1.2 The present condition between bandsaw machine and CNC machine at FKP 2

2.1 Deadlock situation in manufacturing systems 6

2.2 Single load vehicle 7

2.3 AGVS Classification Scheme 8

2.4 Driverless train 10

2.5 Pallet truck control by human operator 11

2.6 Unit load carrier for heavy product 12

2.7 Existing navigation technologies of AGV 14

2.8 Magnetic compasses used to detected the route of AGV 17

2.9 Active beacon system 18

2.10 GPS working principle 19

2.11 A map claim with landmarks labeled 20

2.12 A typical scan of a room 21

2.13 (a) Ackerman-steered system; (b) Differential-steered system 22

2.14 Steered-wheel system in tricycle configuration 23

2.15 Steered-wheel configuration as used in automobiles 23

2.16 Skid-steered system in four wheel vehicle 25

2.17 Schematic of a robot with Ackerman steering 26

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xii 2.19 Differential steering is a result of different wheel speeds causing the

robot to change direction 28

2.20 Basic operation of a shaft encoder 29

2.21 Pulses showing distance travelled by an AGV obtained by the use of encoder 30

2.22 Path of wheels through a turn 32

2.23 Microchip 16F877A is one of microcontroller 33

2.24 A typical microprocessor system 34

3.1 Flow chart of project methodology 38

3.2 Sketch of the body vehicle design ideas 40

3.3 Sketch of the structure frame design ideas 41

3.4 Conceptual design of automated guided vehicle (AGV) 43

4.1 The assembly design of automated guided vehicle 48

4.2 Structure of automated guided vehicle 49

4.3 Exploded view of AGV with the name of each part 50

4.4 Aluminium Alloy 6061-T6 chassis of AGV 60

4.5 Boundary condition of AGV chassis 62

4.6 Static Case Solution-deformed mesh 1 64

4.7 Static Case Solution 1-Von Mises Stress (nodal value) 2 65

4.8 Static Case Solution 1-Von Mises Stress (nodal value) 2 65

4.9 Static Case Solution 1-Translational displacement vector 66

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xiii 4.11 Show the pin connection of encoder DC motor 68

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, SYMBOLS AND

NOMENCLATURE

AGV - Automated Guided Vehicle

CNC - Computer Numerical Control

CAD - Computer-Aided Design

CAM - Computer-Aided Manufacturing

CPU - Central Unit Processing

DC - Direct Current

FEA - Finite Element Analysis

GPS - Global Positioning System

RPM - Revolution per Minutes

PC - Personal Computer

3D - Three Dimensional

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of study

Basic Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) technology is not a new technology. Fifty years ago when AGVs were first entered the market and industry were called driverless systems. Going through the years of development, advances in electronics have led to improvement in automated guided vehicles. Nowadays, the technology of AGV is widely used in environment to perform variety of task that involves automation. (Groover, 2000)

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The automated guided vehicle is highlighted as a flexible transport vehicle for existing lines in variety industrial fields. An automated guided vehicle (AGV) is a vehicle that is equipped with automatic guidance system either electromagnetic or optically. This vehicle is capable of transportation of material, sorting and material handling work also handling dangerous materials. An AGV consist of one or more computer controller wheel based load carriers that run on the plant floor without the need for an onboard operator or driver. As it names was automated, this vehicle is programmed to handle operation on its own. (Junemann and Schmidt, 2000)

1.2 Problem statement

The problem on the manufacturing plant at Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering UTeM is that there is no automated guided vehicle (AGV) system to transport raw material from cutting process station using bandsaw machine to milling, turning, CNC and welding station. Figure 1.2 showed the condition of cutting process station and nearby stations.

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1.2 Project objective

1. To design an automated guided vehicle (AGV) for work-pieces transportation in manufacturing plant.

2. To develop a soft prototype of the above designed AGV.

1.4 Scope of the project

This project will cover the following scope:

1. The design an automated guided vehicle is limited to the maximum load that can be transport. The maximum load for this design is about 200N.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter, we will discuss more about Automated Guided Vehicle System, its classification, the vehicle load capacity, the vehicle itself and the application of the vehicle in material handling and industry. The reference sources and information are obtained from website, books, journals, articles, conference and magazine. This chapter is to enhance the knowledge of student about the project.

2.1 AGVs Classification

Modern AGV system differs from the classic one as described for instance in the book of Junemann and Schmidt (2000) and Tompkins et al. (2003) in several respect. Rather than using fixed paths, many modern AGV are free ranging, which means the path of the vehicle are software programmed and can be change relatively easy when new stations or even flows are added. Modern technology also allows the vehicle to make decisions on its own compare to the past when control was perform by central controllers. This leads to adaptive, self-learning system of the AGV (Tuan Le-Anh and De Koster). In this section, AGVs classification according to the journal by Peter et al will describe.

According to the journal, the automated guided vehicle system can be divided into three basic levels such as below:

i. Guided path determination a) Static path

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5 ii. Vehicle capacity

a) Single unit load b) Multiple loads

iii. Vehicle addressing mechanism a) Direct address

b) Indirect address

2.1.1 Guide path Determination

Automated Guided Vehicle (AGVs) guide paths can be determined in two ways, which are static or dynamic determination. Static guide paths system, it can be further divided into unidirectional and bidirectional systems. In static guide path, the vehicles use a set of predetermined paths between possible origin and destinations. Variety of guidance mechanisms can be used such as wires embedded in the floor, chemical or optical sensors, dead reckoning and mapping of the paths by using software.

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Figure 2.1: Deadlock situation in manufacturing systems: a) Part routing deadlock; b) AGV deadlock (Peter et al)

Dynamic guide path system use fully autonomous vehicle, which are capable of determining its path through obstacle detection and avoidance system. In this system, the vehicle is given the destination, a location that the vehicle knows through coordinate system. The vehicle the determined its path from its current position to the desired position its internal navigation scheme (Peter et al).

2.1.2 Vehicle Load Capacity

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Figure 2.2: Single load vehicle

(Source: http://www.jbtc-agv.com/en/Solutions/Products/Unit-Load-Automatic-Guided-Vehicles-AGVs)

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2.1.3 Vehicle Addressing Mechanism

Vehicle addressing system in AGVs can be grouped into two, which are direct or indirect address system. In direct address system, any vehicle is allowed to visit any stations available in the same system. This system is much alike the taxi service. The planning function for this system routes vehicle from its current location to its destination considering the current status of the system. In other words the routes are not determined in advanced. Vehicles must be assigned to tasks since vehicle are not restricted to serve any particular station. The planning function might be complicated since the location of the vehicle is not known initially but only changes upon system changes.

Figure 2.3: AGVS Classification Scheme (Peter et al)

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the controller planning function. Compare to direct address system, the dispatching in this system is straight forward. As the route of the vehicle is predetermined, it will pick up and drop off loads when it reach each stations in its route (Peter et al).

2.2 Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV)

According to (Groover, 1987), Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) can be grouped into three categories as below:

1. Driverless train 2. Pallet trucks 3. Unit load carriers

2.2.1 Driverless Train

Figure

Figure 1.1: AGV application for warehousing industry
Figure 1 1 AGV application for warehousing industry . View in document p.16
Figure 1.2: The present condition between bandsaw machine and CNC machine at Faculty of
Figure 1 2 The present condition between bandsaw machine and CNC machine at Faculty of . View in document p.17
Figure 2.1: Deadlock situation in manufacturing systems: a) Part routing deadlock; b) AGV
Figure 2 1 Deadlock situation in manufacturing systems a Part routing deadlock b AGV . View in document p.21
Figure 2.2: Single load vehicle
Figure 2 2 Single load vehicle . View in document p.22
Figure 2.3: AGVS Classification Scheme (Peter et al)
Figure 2 3 AGVS Classification Scheme Peter et al . View in document p.23

References

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