Productivity Improvement In Textile Industry







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Declaration i

Approval ii

Abstract iii

Abstrak iv

Dedication v

Acknowledgement vi

Table of Contents vii

List of Tables viii

List of Figures ix

List of Equations x

List of Abbreviations xi

CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Background of Study 2

1.3 Problem Statement 3

1.4 Objectives 3

1.5 Scope 3

1.6 Structure of Report 4

CHAPTER 2: Literature Review 5



2.2 Productivity Improvement Tools and Techniques 7

2.3 Lean Manufacturing 9

2.4 Identification of waste 10

2.5 Lean Manufacturing Tools and Technique 16

2.5.1 5S 18

2.5.2 Kanban 19

2.5.3 Value Stream Mapping (VSM) 21

2.6 Work Study 22

2.7 Work Measurement 25

2.7.1 Direct (time) Study measurement 26

2.7.2 Work sampling 26

2.7.3 Rating factors 27

2.7.4 Allowances 29

2.7.5 Time Standard 29

2.7.6 Stopwatch Time Study 30

2.8 Method Study 31

2.9 Six Sigma 32

2.9.1 DMAIC Method 33

2.10 Example Case Study 35

2.10.1 Manufacturing and Stamping Automotive Die 35 2.10.2 Case Study on Productivity Improvement Starbuck 36

2.10.3 The Ritz-Carlton 36

CHAPTER 3: Methodology 38

3.1 Introduction 38

3.2 Planning of the Study 38

3.2.1 Process Flow Diagram 39



3.3 Data Collection 44

3.3.1 Primary Data 44 Site Visit 45 Group Discussion 46

3.3.2 Secondary Data 46 Books 46 Journals 46 Internet Articles 47

3.4 Data Analysis 47

3.5 Conclusions and Recommendations 47

CHAPTER 4: Company Background 48

4.1 History of Prym 48

4.2 Background of Prym Consumer Malaysia Sdn. Bhd 50

4.3 Company vision 51

4.4 Company mission 52

4.5 Company culture 52

4.6 Company strategy 52

4.6.1 Growth is a strategic principle 52 4.6.2 Successful customer also guarantee the success 53

4.7 Company products 54

4.7.1 Haberdashery 55

4.7.2 Intimates 55

CHAPTER 5: Result and Discussion 56



5.1.1 Process of weighing item 57

5.1.2 Process of load bulk packing 58 5.1.3 Process of stick label on the dritz box 58

5.2 Measure Phase 60

5.2.1 Observation time for each processes 60 of weighing items 60 of load bulk pack 61 of stick label on dritz box 62

5.2.2 Average time 62

5.2.3 Rating 63

5.2.4 Normal time 63

5.2.5 Allowance 63

5.2.6 Standard time 64

5.2.7 Time study sheet 64

5.2.8 Summary of data taken 66

5.3 Analyze Phase 68

5.3.1 Process of weighing item 68

5.3.2 Process of load bulk pack 69

5.3.3 Process of stick label to dritz box 70

5.4 Improve Phase 71

5.4.1 Improvement at weighing process 71 5.4.2 Improvement at load bulk pack 73 5.4.3 Improvement at stick label to dritz box 76

5.5 Control Phase 84

5.6 Summary of result and discussion 84

CHAPTER 6: Conclusion and Recommendations 86



6.2 Recommendations 88





2.1 Types of Waste: Definition, Examples, Causes and Countermeasures 14

2.2 5s Definitions 18

2.3 Performance Rating Table 28

2.4 Example of Overview of the DMAIC model, key objective and proven Technique 34

3.1 Gantt Chart 43

5.1 Time taken for weighing 60

5.2 Time taken for loading item into bulk pack 61 5.3 Time taken for stick label at dritz box 62

5.4 Stopwatch Time Study Sheet 65

5.5 Description of the stopwatch time study sheet 66

5.6 Summary for the time study 67

5.7 ROI calculation for new improvement at weighing process 72 5.8 ROI calculation for load bulk pack improvement 76 5.9 ROI calculation for the improvement at stick label process 83 5.10 Summary of the projects with % improvement 85




2.1 Productivity Conceptual Model 6

2.2 Productivity Improvement 8

2.3 Conceptual Model 8

2.4 Benefits of Lean Manufacturing 9

2.5 7 wastes 13

2.6 Example of Kanban 20

2.7 ‘Pull’ production example – using Kanban 20

2.8 Example Value Stream Mapping 22

2.9 Component of work study 23

2.10 The DMAIC methodology 34

3.1 Project Process Flow Chart 40

3.2 Work study using DMAIC methodology 41

4.1 Company products 54

5.1 Pearlised pin packaging 57

5.2 Packaging process 59

5.3 Labeling process 59

5.4 Histogram for process of weighing 68

5.5 Histogram for process of load bulk pack 69 5.6 Histogram for process stick label to dritz box 70

5.7 Before improvement 71

5.8 After improvement 71

5.9 Histogram for comparison between before and after improvement at the

weighing method 72

5.10 1st scoop design 73



5.12 Scoop prototype using hard cardboard 75 5.13 Scoop prototype using stainless steel and polymer 75 5.14 Histogram of comparison between load bulk pack using hand and using

scoop 75

5.15 Body design 77

5.16 Gendelung design 78

5.17 Rod design 79

5.18 Label dispenser design 80

5.19 1st design 81

5.20 2nd design 81

5.21 3rd design 81

5.22 Label dispenser usage 81

5.23 Bending machine 82

5.24 Laser cutting machine 82

5.25 Histogram of comparison between before and after improvement of stick label

method 82




2.1 Productivity 5

2.2 Normal Time 28

2.3 Standard Time 29

2.4 Standard Time 31

2.5 Standard Time 31

5.1 Average Time 62

5.2 Rating 63

5.3 Normal Time 63





1.1 Introduction

Productivity improvement is one means for increasing the profitability of a firm. On the other hand, it is common knowledge that the productivity improvement is one of the most important ways to increase competitiveness and especially price competitiveness. It is possible to cut the unit costs of products and services by productivity improvement.

Productivity has been recognized as one of the key factors affecting the competitiveness and profitability of a firm.Productivity can be defined as the relationship between the outputs generated from a system and the inputs provided to create those outputs. Productivity is simply the relationship between the outputs generated from a system and the inputs provided to create those outputs. Inputs in the general form of labor (human resources), capital (physical and financial capital assets), energy, materials, and data are brought into a system. These resources are transformed into outputs (goods and services). Productivity is the relationship of the amount produced by a given system during a given period of time, and the quantity of resources consumed to create or produce those outputs over the same period of time.



perspective, productivity indicates how well an organization transforms its inputs into outputs. In manufacturing, productivity is generally stated as a ratio of output to input. Productivity may be expressed as partial measures, multifactor measures, and total measures. Partial productivity measures are used to analyze activities in terms of a single input (e.g., units produced per worker, units produced per plant, units produced per hour, or units produced per quantity of material). Multifactor productivity measures take into account the utilization of multiple inputs (e.g., units of output per the sum of labor, capital, and energy or units of output per the sum of labor and materials). A total measure of productivity expresses the ratio of all outputs produced to all resources used.

Return on Investment Productivity is closely related to, but not dependent on, profit. It can be measured by return on investment (ROI). ROI is determined after the sale of a product or service minus the deductions for the total amount of effort (resources, etc.) put into its design, development, implementation, evaluation, and marketing. The formula for determining ROI is: "Price" minus "Cost" divided by "Sales."

1.2 Background of the study

This study is performed at textile industry, Prym Consumer Sdn Bhd. Productivity improvement had been carried out in the industries for the purpose of increasing current productivity. The difference is only by their methods and tools but the purpose is still the same which is to increase the productivity. However, the difference between the companies is only by the ways of the methods and tools and the purpose is still the same which is to increase the productivity.



1.3 Problem Statement

Packing department is the most labor intensive area in the company. All the packing activities are done manually and there occurs to be a lot of material and movement at this area. Thus, proper work methods are required to be established in order to ensure efficiency high level of operator at this area. Therefore, a thorough work study of the operators activities are required in order to identify opportunity for improvement.

1.4 Objectives

The objectives of this study are:

1. Perform work study to identify the problem and type of waste in the company that can be eliminated and can be improved.

2. Analyze data taken from the area that have potential to be improved. 3. Proposed improvement opportunities to the company.

1.5 Scope



1.6 Structure of Report

Generally this project is divided into two parts which is PSM 1 AND PSM 2.This report is organized in six chapters. For PSM 1, contains three chapters which are introduction, literature review and methodology. Three more chapters are discussed in PSM 2 including company profile, result and discussion, and lastly conclusion and recommendation.

Chapter 1 explained briefly about the background of the study, the problem statement, objectives, scope and structure of this report. Chapter 2 which is the literature review explains all theories were taken and referred from journals, books, and articles that related to the productivity improvement.

In chapter 3, Methodology, all methods and techniques that have been used are explained specifically in term to achieve the objectives and to obtain the result of the study. These three chapters are parts of PSM 1. In chapter 4, explanation about company profile and specific work area had been conducted during this study.

Meanwhile, in chapter 5 which are result and discussion will focus on data that has been collected and identified the influence factor that achieve to result. The suggestion and recommendation of this study was including in chapter 6 along with the conclusions of this study.





Manufacturing is currently faced with the conflicting pressure to reduce costs while also improving customer satisfaction and service as well as pressures of cost reduction, improving cycle-time, and quality improvement in order to get better results (Campbell, 2004).

Opportunities for productivity improvement through improved labor efficiency and reduced production loss are critical to organizational survival and these efforts can be driven through a host of productivity improvement initiatives (Longenecker and Stansfield, 2000).

2.1 Definition of Productivity

Stevenson (1999) stated that productivity is an overall measure of the ability to produce a good or service. More specifically, productivity is the measure of how specified resources are managed to accomplish timely objectives as stated in terms of quantity and quality. Productivity may also be defined as an index that measures output (goods and services) relative to the input (labor, materials, energy, etc., used to produce the output).



Furthermore, Baines ( 1997 ) says that productivity can be defined as the application of the various resources (inputs) of an organization, industry or country, in order to achieve certain planned and desired results (outputs).

The Productivity Conceptual Model below, takes the form of a 'productivity tree'. The

roots denote the inputs to the system, the trunk the conversion process and the foliage and fruits the systems outputs. ( NPCC,2009)


Figure 2.1: Productivity Conceptual Model (NPCC, 2009)
Figure 2 1 Productivity Conceptual Model NPCC 2009 . View in document p.24