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Effect of Steel Fiber and Glass Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Concrete


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Effect of Steel Fiber and Glass Fiber on

Mechanical Properties of Concrete

Nitin Verma Hemant Kumar

M. Tech. Scholar M. Tech. Scholar

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering National Institute of Technical Teachers, Training and

Research, Bhopal, India

National Institute of Technical Teachers, Training and Research, Bhopal, India

Dr. A. K. Jain Professor & Head

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering

National Institute of Technical Teachers, Training and Research, Bhopal, India


Fibers are generally used as resistance of cracking and strengthening of concrete. This paper presents the effects of crimped steel fibers and alkali resistance glass fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete. Experimental programme consist of conducting compressive strength test, flexural strength test and split tensile strength on hybrid reinforced concrete. Two types of fibers used are crimped steel fiber of length 45mm with aspect ratio 50 and glass fiber of length 12 mm with aspect ratio 857.1. The main aim of this experiment is to study the strength properties of hybrid reinforced concrete of M20 grade with 0.2%, 0.25%, 0.30%, 0.35% of glass fiber containing by weight of cement and 0.40%, 0.45%, 0.50%, 0.55% of steel fibers containing by volume of concrete. From the experimental results it was observed that samples containing steel and glass fibers showed enhanced properties compared to the normal specimen.

Keywords: Crimped Steel Fibre, Glass Fibers, Flexural Strength, Compressive Strength, Splite Tensile Strength Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

________________________________________________________________________________________________________ I. INTRODUCTION

Concrete is a most commonly used construction material. The utilization of concrete or cement based material is quite ancient. With the passage of time the significance of concrete has grown and the limitations of concrete have been gradually cut, making the concrete more durable with a higher performance. To improve the tensile strength of concrete, fiber reinforcement was added. The introduction of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is an important achievement in concrete technology. Fibers are added to improve the strength parameters of the concrete. Fiber as reinforcement is effective to improve the flexural strength and compressive strength of concrete. In recent years, researchers have realized the benefits of combining fibers, in term of obtaining synergy and improving the response of composite material. A composite can be referred to as hybrid, if two or more types of fibers are reasonably combined to produce a composite mass


Materials Used A.

The material selected for this experimental work includes crushed coarse aggregates, Natural River sand as fine aggregate, cement, crimped steel fiber, alkali resistance glass fiber and water.

Cement 1)

In this experimental work ordinary Portland cement (OPC) of 53 grade of Ultratech brand was used for all concrete mixes. The physical properties of cement are as given in Table.1.

Table – 1

Physical Properties of Cement

S. No. Properties Value IS Specification and Test procedure 1 Specific gravity 3.15 IS:4031


Fine Aggregate 2)

Locally available river sand passing through 4.75mm sieve was used as fine aggregate for research work. The physical properties of fine aggregate are as given in Table 2.

Table – 2

Physical Properties of fine aggregate

S. No. Properties Value 1 Specific gravity 2.65 2 Fineness modulus 3 3 Grading of sand Zone II

Coarse Aggregate 3)

The coarse aggregates used for the work is of 20mm maximum and 10mm minium size which is free from deleterious materials. It should be hard, strong, dense, durable and clean.

Table – 3

Physical Properties of Coarse aggregate

S. No. Properties Value 1 Specific gravity 2.70 2 Fineness modules 4

Water 4)

Potable water is used for casting of specimen and as well as curing of specimen as per IS: 456 –2000. Water should be free from acids, oil, alkalies, vegetables or other organic impurities.

Steel Fiber 5)

In this investigation crimped steel fibers have been used. Steel fibers were obtained from Bakul Wires Private Ltd. Dewas, M.P. The properties and specification of steel fibers are mentioned in Table 4. (Fig. 1)

Table – 4 Properties of Steel fibers

S. No. Properties Specifications

1 Types Crimped steel fiber

2 Tensile strength (MPa) 1100

3 Diameter (mm) 0.90

4 Length (mm) 45

5 Aspect ratio 50

Glass Fiber 6)

In this investigation the Alkali Resistance Glass fibers with 12mm cut length and having tensile strength of 1700Mpa is used. The glass fibers were obtained from International Trade Company Mumbai, Maharashtra. The properties of glass fiber are mentioned in Table 5 (Fig. 2).

Table – 5 Properties of Glass fibers

S. No. Properties Specifications 1 Specific Gravity 2.68 2 Tensile strength (MPa) 1700

3 Diameter (μ) 14

4 Length (mm) 12

5 Modulus (GPa) 72

6 Percentage Elongation 2.3


Experimental Methodology B.

In this study, M20 grade of concrete was used. The concrete mix design was done as per IS:102062-2009. The water cement- ratio adopted is 0.55 for the proper workability of concrete. Cubes, Beams and Cylinders were casted with addition of glass and steel fibers in different proportions. The mix proportions of M20 grade concrete are shown in Table 5. Glass and steel fibers were used in different proportions are given in Table 7. Glass fibers were added by weight of cement and steel fibers were added by volume of concrete in the concrete mix.

Table – 6 Concrete Mix Proportions

Materials Quantity Proportion

Cement 386 Kg/ m3 1

Sand 648 Kg/ m3 1.68

Coarse Aggregate 1273 Kg/ m3 3.3 Water 212 Kg/ m3 0.55

Table – 7

Percentage variations of fibers

Mixes Glass fibers by weight of cement (%) Steel fibers by volume of concrete (%)

1 0 0

2 0.20 0.40

3 0.25 0.45

4 0.30 0.50

5 0.35 0.55

Compressive Strength Test 1)

For compressive strength test, cubes samples of size 150x150x150 mm were casted for M20 grade of concrete. The mould were filled with concrete prepared with different percentage variation of glass and steel fiber such as G0-S0, G0.20-S0.40, G0.25-S0.45, G0.30-S0.50, G0.35-S0.55. Compaction was done by tamping rod, top surface of sample were leveled and finished. After 7 and 28 days of curing these cube samples were tested on universal testing machine as per IS: 516-1959. In each catagories three cubes tested and there average value is reported failure load. The compressive strength was calculated as- (Fig. 3)

Compressive Strength = Failure Load/ Cross sectional area Split Tensile Strength Test


For split tensile strength, cylindrical specimen of size 150mm diameter and 300mm length were casted. These specimens were left for curing and tested under universal testing machine after 7 and 28 days of age. In each categories three cylindrical samples are tested and there average value is reported. The split tensile strength was calculated as-

Split Tensile Strength= 2P/π DL Where- P= Failure load, D= Diameter of cylinder, L= Length of cylinder

Fig. 3: Compressive Strength Test Fig. 4: Split Tensile Strength Test

Flexural Strength Test 3)


Fig. 5: Flexural Strength Test

Flexural Strength= (P x L)/(b x d2) Where- P= Failure Load

L= Center to center distance between the support b= Width of specimen

d= depth of specimen

Experimental Results C.

Following tables (8, 9, 10) gives compressive, splite tensile strength and flexural strength test results for M20 grade of concrete with G0-S0, G0.20-S0.40, G0.25-S0.45, G0.30-S0.50, G0.35-S0.55 glass and steel fibers and these results are graphically represented in figure 6, 7 and 8.

Table – 8 Compressive strength Test

Mixes Glass Fiber by Weight of Cement (%) Steel Fiber by Volume of Concrete (%) Compressive Strength (N/mm


) 7 days 28 days

1 0 0 23 29

2 0.20 0.40 27.91 32.22

3 0.25 0.45 28.58 37.07

4 0.30 0.50 29.06 40.02

5 0.35 0.55 24.65 30.28

Fig. 6: Compressive Srength Test

Table – 9 Split Tensile Strength Test

Mixes Glass Fiber by Weight of Cement (%) Steel Fiber by Volume of Concrete (%) Split Tensile Strength (N/mm


) 7 days 28 days

1 0 0 1.78 2.45

2 0.20 0.40 1.94 2.70

3 0.25 0.45 2.03 2.75

4 0.30 0.50 2.10 2.90


Fig. 7: Split Tensile Strength Test

Table – 10 Flexural Strength Test

Mixes Glass Fiber by Weight of Cement (%) Steel Fiber by Volume of Concrete (%) Flexural Strength (N/mm 2

) 7 days 28 days

1 0 0 2.6 3.02

2 0.20 0.40 2.82 3.24

3 0.25 0.45 2.95 3.38

4 0.30 0.50 3.045 3.56

5 0.35 0.55 2.73 3.30

Fig. 8: Flexural Strength Test


 From the test results obtained during the experimental work it is clear that the strength of fiber reinforced concrete significantly higher than the normal concrete. The crack formation is also very small in fiber specimen compared to non-fiber specimen.


conventional concrete G0-S0. These increments are 7.28%, 11.92% and 8.27% at 28 days. All results are greater than the conventional concrete mix G0-S0.

 The highest split tensile strength of sample G0.30-S0.50 was increased 18.36% compared with the conventional concrete and samples G0.20-S0.40, G0.25-S0.45, G0.35-S0.55 gives split tensile strength slightly higher than the conventional concrete mix G0-S0. The increasing percentage of split tensile strength of G0.20-S0.40, G0.25-S0.45, G0.30-S0.50 and G0.35-S0.55 are 10.20%, 12.24%, 18.36% and 3.60% respectively.

 When increase the percentage of fiber in hybrid fiber concrete then decrease the workability of hybrid reinforced concrete.


[1] ShrikanntHarle “Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete & Its Properties” International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research TechnologyHarle, 3(1), January 2014.

[2] AmitRai, Dr. Y.P Joshi “Applications and Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications Volume 4, Issue 5 (Version 1), May 2014.

[3] PatilShweta, RupaliKavilkar “Study of Flexural Strength in Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete” International Journal of Recent Development in Engineering and Technology Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2014.

[4] Ahsana Fatima K M &Shibi Varghese, “Behavioral Study of Steel Fiber and Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete” International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology” Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2014.

[5] S. Sharmila and G.S. Thirungnanam “Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Member with Hybrid Fiber under Cyclic Loading” International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, Vol. 2, No 4, 2013.

[6] RonakPrakashkumar Patel, JayrajVinodsinhSolanki, JayeshkumarPitroda “A Study on Glass Fiber as an Additive in Concrete to increase Concrete Tensile Strength” International Global Research Analysis, Volume 2, Issue 2, Feb 2013.

[7] C. SelinRavikumar and T.S. Thandavamoorthy “Glass Fibre Concrete: Investigation on Strength and Fire Resistant Properties” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) Volume 9, Issue 3, Sept-Oct 2013.

[8] Divyeshkumar D. Paradava, Prof. JayeshkumarPitroda “Utilization of Artificial Fibres in Construction Industry: A Critical Literature Review” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 4 Issue 10 - Oct 2013.

[9] Kavita S Kene, Vikrant S Vairagade and SatishSathawane “Experimental Study on Behavior of Steel and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete Composites” Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2012.


Table – 5 Properties of Glass fibers
Table – 6 Concrete Mix Proportions
Fig. 6: Compressive Srength Test
Fig. 8: Flexural Strength Test


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