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(1)

A Menshevik

A Menshevik

Remembers…

(2)

Revolutionary Opposition

• Populists (Narodniks, help mir peasants)

• Nihilists and anarchists (Bakunin and others)

• Social Revolutionaries, 1883 (mobilize workers, use terrorist methods)

• Constitutional Democratic Party (liberal moderates)

• Social Democratic Labor Party, 1883, becomes Marxist Social Democratic Party in 1898 (1903 split)

– “Menshevik” (minority, though it wasn’t), evolutionary socialists led by Trotsky and Martov

– “Bolshevik” (majority, though it wasn’t), revolutionary, led by Lenin

(3)

The Russian Empire in 1914

(4)

1905 to 1914, Lost Opportunity

1905 to 1914, Lost Opportunity

• Stolypin, 1906-11

– Mirs and redemption abolished

(5)

Mini-Debate: Responsibility for

the Revolution…

A. Rasputin was primarily responsible for the

outbreak of revolution.

B. Alexandra was primarily responsible for

the outbreak of revolution.

C. Nicholas was primarily responsible for the

outbreak of revolution.

D. The revolution would have happened

(6)

• In the summer of 1915 Nicholas II went to the front.

• In Petrograd a leaderless government was

influenced by Alexandra and her friend Gregory Rasputin the starets.

• Inflation rose, food and fuel shortages increased and the battlefield death toll mounted.

World War I

(7)

The February-March Revolution

The February-March Revolution

• Food and fuel shortages caused bread riots.

• Czar Nicholas II

abdicates after massive strikes and troop

desertions.

• Prince Lvov led the

(8)

Mini-Debate: Responsibility for

the Revolution…

A. Rasputin was primarily responsible for the

outbreak of revolution.

B. Alexandra was primarily responsible for

the outbreak of revolution.

C. Nicholas was primarily responsible for the

outbreak of revolution.

D. The revolution would have happened

(9)

Bolshevik Influence

Bolshevik Influence

• Lenin’s April Theses:

– Provisional Government bourgeois

– WWI a bourgeois war – All power to the soviets

(councils)

• Lenin called for “Land, Bread and Peace”

– Land for the peasants

(10)

Provisional Government March 1917

Provisional Government March 1917

to November 1917

to November 1917

• Same problems as the Czar and made the mistake of trying to stay in the War ($ from Entente).

• July 1917 offensive a deadly mistake.

• Petrograd Soviet Order 1 allows soldiers to elect officers and stop fighting. • A Bolshevik coup failed in

July (disputed).

The Petrograd Soviet

(11)

Provisional Government March 1917 to

November 1917

• General Kornilov attempts military dictatorship in

September.

• War Minister Kerensky

released the jailed Bolsheviks in exchange for their help

against Kornilov.

• Wins, but Bolsheviks seize control of the cities in

November

(12)

Civil War 1918-1922

Civil War 1918-1922

• “Red Terror”: The Cheka (a political police) established in December 1917.

• The Red Army was founded in January 1918 with Leon Trotsky as War Commissar. • Civil war erupted between

the Reds and the Whites. • “War Communism”

nationalized the largest

industries, took grain from

(13)

Why the Bolsheviks won

Why the Bolsheviks won

the Civil War

the Civil War

• The Red Army was

well-trained and well led by Leon Trotsky.

• Discipline in the Army and the Party were very strict.

• The Bolsheviks had the home-court advantage against the foreign invaders and nobles. • Whites did not trust each other • Landless peasants backed the

(14)

July 17, 1918 the

July 17, 1918 the

Imperial Family

Imperial Family

was executed by

was executed by

firing squad in villa

firing squad in villa

at the lower right

(15)

Russian Revolution…

Unit p.3

• Second Question: How did the

Bolshevik Communists take control of

Russia?

• Interpretive Questions:

– Causes/effects?

References

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