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every monfth aft a reasonabfly rapfid rafte aft www.fthreaftenedftaxa.org.Aflfl arficfles pubflfishedfin JoTT are regfisftered under Creafive Commons Aftrfibufion 4.0Infternafionafl Lficense unfless oftherwfise menfioned.JoTT aflflows unresftrficfted use off arficflesfinany medfium,reproducfion, and dfisftrfibufion by provfidfing adequafte credfift fto fthe aufthors and fthe source off pubflficafion.

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ISSN 0974-7907(Onflfine) |ISSN 0974-7893(Prfinft)

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For Focus, Scope, Afims, Poflficfies and Gufideflfines vfisfift hftp://fthreaftenedftaxa.org/findex.php/JoTT/abouft/edfiftorfiaflPoflficfies#cusftom-0 For Arficfle Submfissfion Gufideflfines vfisfift hftp://fthreaftenedftaxa.org/findex.php/JoTT/abouft/submfissfions#onflfineSubmfissfions For Poflficfies agafinsft Scfienfific Mfisconducft vfisfift hftp://fthreaftenedftaxa.org/findex.php/JoTT/abouft/edfiftorfiaflPoflficfies#cusftom-2 For reprfinfts conftacft <finffo@fthreaftenedftaxa.org>

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DOI:hftp://dofi.org/10.11609/joft.3728.10.1.11192-11200

Edfiftor: P. Lakshmfinarasfimhan, Boftanficafl Survey offIndfia, Pune,Indfia. Dafte off pubflficafion: 26January 2018(onflfine & prfinft) Manuscrfipft deftafifls: Ms # 3728 | Recefived 12 Augusft 2017 | Ffinafl recefived 31 December 2017 | Ffinaflfly accepfted 02January 2018

Cfiftafion: Chheftrfi, P.K., B. Chheftrfi & H.K. Badofla (2018).Rhododendron dfiversfifty aflong fthe Kusong-Panch Pokharfi ftransecftfin Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reserve, fthe easftern Hfimaflaya: a conservafion perspecfive.Journafl off Threaftened Taxa 10(1):11192–11200;hftp://dofi.org/10.11609/joft.3728.10.1.11192-11200 Copyrfighft: ©Chheftrfi eft afl. 2018. Creafive Commons Aftrfibufion 4.0Infternafionafl Lficense.JoTT aflflows unresftrficfted use offfthfis arficflefin any medfium, reproducfion and dfisftrfibufion by provfidfing adequafte credfift fto fthe aufthors and fthe source off pubflficafion.

Fundfing: G.B. Panft NafionaflInsfiftufte off Hfimaflayan Envfironmenft & Susftafinabfle Deveflopmenft, Kosfi-Aflmora,Indfia. Compefingfinfteresfts: The aufthors decflare no compefingfinfteresfts.

Acknowfledgemenfts: We deepfly fthank Dr. P.P. Dhyanfi, fthe Dfirecftor off ftheInsfiftufte ffor provfidfing necessary ffacfiflfifies and consfisftenft supporft. We hfighfly apprecfiafte fthe sftafte fforesft deparftmenft, Governmenft off Sfikkfim ffor fthefir cooperafion and supporft durfing fthe fiefld sftudfies. Thanks aflso go fto A.O’ Nefiflfl and G. Tarfiyafl ffor fthefir supporftfin fthe fiefld.

Rhododendron

d

fivers

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aflong

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Kusong

-Panch

Pokhar

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fiosphere

Reserve

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fthe

easftern

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fimaflaya

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conservaft

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perspecft

five

Prem K. Chheftrfi 1, Bfijoy Chheftrfi 2& Hemanft K. Badofla 3

1,2,3G.B. Panft NafionaflInsfiftufte off Hfimaflayan Envfironmenft and Susftafinabfle Deveflopmenft, Sfikkfim Unfift, Pangfthang,

Gangftok, Sfikkfim 737101,Indfia

1Foresft Envfironmenft & Wfifldflfiffe Managemenft Deparftmenft, Govft. off Sfikkfim, Pakyoung, Easft Sfikkfim 737106,Indfia 3Presenftaddress: D-408, Adfiftya Doonshfire Aparftmenfts, Safiflok PhaseII, GMS Road, Dehradun, Uftarakhand 248001,Indfia 1cheftrfiprem22@gmafifl.com, 2chheftrfibfijoy@yahoo.co.fin,3hkbadofla@gmafifl.com(correspondfing aufthor)

ISSN 0974-7907(Onflfine) ISSN 0974-7893(Prfinft)

OPEN ACCESS

Occupyfing 0.2%Indfia’s geographfic area offIndfia, fthe Sfikkfim easftern Hfimaflaya,fis a parft off one off fthe rfichesft gflobafl bfiodfiversfifty hoftspofts. Thfisfis home fto over 150 specfies off mammafls, 550 specfies off bfirds, 650 specfies off bufterflfies and mofths, 33 specfies off repfifles, 16 specfies off amphfibfians, 48 specfies off fishes and over 4,500 specfies off flowerfing pflanfts(Sfikkfim Bfiodfiversfifty Acfion Pflan 2012; Badofla eft afl. 2016). Aft presenft, 37 specfies, 11 subspecfies, seven varfiefies and ftwo nafturafl hybrfids offrhododendrons arereporftedffrom Sfikkfim, whfichfis qufifte sfignfificanft when compared wfifth fthe ftoftafl number off Rhododendron specfies(73 specfies, 22 subspecfies, 25 varfiefies andfthree nafturafl hybrfids) offIndfia(Pradhan &Lachungpa 1990; Mao 2010; Sasftry & Hajra 2010). Anfthropogenfic pressures and ofther envfironmenftafl ffacftors have exerfted a heavy pressure onfthe nafturafl avafiflabfiflfifty off many rhododendrons, resuflfingfin severafl specfies becomfingfthreaftened(Pradhan & Lachungpa 1990; Badofla & Pradhan 2010a,b; Gfibbs eft afl. 2011). The defforesftafion and unsusftafinabfle exftracfion off ffuefl woods are posfingconsfiderabflefthreaftsfto nafturafl

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popuflafions offrhododendronsfin many areas. Cflfimafte change, however,fis yeft anofther growfing fthreaft fto fthe exfisftence off rhododendrons (Badofla 2010) besfides fthe burgeonfing eco-ftourfism economfics fin Sfikkfim (Menon eft afl. 2001; Cheftrfi eft afl. 2002). Many off fthese rhododendrons are off bofth economfic and cuflfturafl fimporftance fto ftheflocafl efthnfic peopfle, ffor fthefir efthno -medficfinafl andflocafl beverage vaflues. For exampfle, fthe crushed drfied flowers off R. arboreum fis usedfin dfiarrhoea and bflood dysenftery (Paufl eft afl. 2005); whenmfixed wfifth wafterfthey heflpfin sftoppfing excessfive bfleedfingfin women durfing mensftruafl cycfles and chewfing ffreshfleaves sftops dysenftery (Pradhan & Badofla 2008). Sfimfiflarfly, fthe chewedfleaffjufice off R. campanuflaftum heflps fto reflfieve cough(Pradhan & Badofla 2008). The Rhododendron specfiesfin Sfikkfim are abundanftfly dfisftrfibufted fthroughouft upper-eflevafionzones, beftween approxfimaftefly 1,500– 6,000m(Pradhan & Lachungpa 1990).In addfifion, rhododendrons make fthfick hfigh aflfiftude shrubberfies offerfingsufiftabfle ecoflogficafl nfichesfto manyfthreaftened specfies as weflfl as charfismafic specfies off pheasanftsflfike Ifthagfinfis cruenftus and Tragopan saftyra, and mammafls such as Afiflurus ffuflgens, Pseudofis nayaur, Uncfia uncfia Moschus chrysogasfter andso on.Lfike ofther parfts off easftern Hfimaflaya,ftherfich florfisfic dfiversfifty off Sfikkfim Hfimaflayas has been under sftress seekfing approprfiaftefly effecfive conservafion programs (Paufl eft afl. 2005). Many epfiphyfic specfiesfincfludfingrhododendrons are fin a vuflnerabflesftafte becausefthey aflready have very flow popuflafionsfin nafturafl habfiftafts (Badofla & Pradhan

2010a,b). Addfifionaflfly, fthe ftrees are defforesfted rapfidfly fin many areas dueftofincreasfing humanseftflemenfts, ftourfismfinflux andcflearancefforffooft pafths andfthese ffacftorsconftrfibufteftofthe depflefion offrhododendrons ffrom many nafturafl habfiftafts. The assessmenft off poftenfiaflflyrfich areasfforrhododendronsfis one offfthe prfiorfifiesffor conservafion managemenftfin proftecfted areas. Thereffore,fthe presenftsftudy wascarrfied ouft finfthe Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reserve(KBR;fthe core zone, Khangchendzonga Nafionafl Park has recenftfly beenfinscrfibed as worfld herfiftage sfifte on 17Jufly 2016 by UNESCO) off Sfikkfim Hfimaflaya. Wefidenfifiedfthe Kusong -Panch Pokharfiftransecft off KBRfin norfthern Sfikkfim as one off fthe unexpfloredflandscapes fto assess fthe exftenft off rhododendron dfiversfifty and aflsofin offerfing poftenfiafl envfironmenftafl managemenft sftraftegfies fthaft can be empfloyed wfifthfin fthe ftransecft.

METHODS Sftudy area

The Kusong-Panch Pokharfi ftransecft ffaflfls fin Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reserve(KBR). The KBR (27°15’-27°57’ N & 88°02’–88°40’ E; Ffig. 1) covers 2913.12km2spafiafl area(afterfincflusfion off ftransfifion

zone fin 2010; Badofla & Subba 2012) fin Sfikkfim easftern Hfimaflaya (Indfia). The core zone off KBR, as fthe nafionafl park and a UNESCO worfld herfiftagesfifte, has 1,784km2

area. The Kusong Vfiflflagefisftheftrafiflhead,surrounded byrfichftemperaftefforesftsfformfing aflush green vaflfley, meanderfing sftreams, and wafterffaflfls wfifth snow-capped

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mounftafinsfinfthe backdrop offfthe pficfturesqueflandscape. The Lepcha communfifty vfiflflage has 37 househoflds wfifth a popuflafion off approxfimaftefly 906findfivfiduafls. The vfiflflagersftoftaflfly depend on cardamom cuflfivafionffor fthefir economy; fthey aflso grow agrficuflfturafl produce flfike poftaftoes, peas and mafize assubsfisftenceffarmfing. Nowadays,flocafl peopfle expecftftourfism producft-based economfic benefifts, parficuflarfly because fthey have been experfiencfingfloss off cardamom cash crop duefto dfisease finffesftafion and subsequenft finsuficfienft producfion. Thereffore,flocafl peopfle areflookfingfforwardfto promofing an eco-ftourfism ftrek roufte, fi.e., “Kusong fto Panch Pokharfi” wfifthfifts unfique gflfimpsefinfto rhododendron dfiversfifty, numerous hfigh aflfiftudeflakes and panoramfic vfiew off fthe Mft. Khangchendzonga (8,586m) aflong wfifth ofther snow-capped mounftafins, offerfing a new vfisfta ffor advenfture ftourfism.

The firsft expflorafion was conducfted durfing fthe Kusong-Panch Pokharfiftransecft(Ffig. 1; aflso a parft off, hfiftherfto sefldom used, ftrekkfing corrfidor) exftendfing approxfimaftefly 25km aflong 1,500–3,800 mfin KBR.Iftfis asfteepfterrafin exftendfingfto asmaflfl-exftended pflafinfin fthe sflopes offfthe mounftafins. Theflandscape experfiences cooflftemperafte cflfimafte;ftough rockyfterrafin mafinftafinfing hfigh precfipfiftafion and a wfinfter wfifth heavy snow ffaflfl (so ffar no weafther dafta avafiflabflefforfthesftudyftransecft). The Kusong-Panch Pokharfiftransecft broadfly hasffour fforesft ftypes, vfiz.: warm broadfleaved ftemperafte fforesft, cofld broadfleaves / mfixed confiffer fforesft, subaflpfine and aflpfine scrub, and grasses.

Mefthods

FromJunefto December 2016, weconducftedftwo randomfized sysftemafic survey (ffoflflowfing Pradhan & Badofla 2008)fin Kusongfto Panch Pokharfi verficafl ftransecftfin KBRfin Dzonguflandscape(1,500–3,800 m). Pflanftspecfiesfincfludfingrhododendrons werefidenfifiedfin fthe fiefld, wfifthouft dfisfturbfingfthe nafturafl habfiftaft. Besfides aufthors’ earflfier fiefld experfience fin rhododendron coflflecfion, Hooker(1849), Pradhan & Lachungpa(1990), Poflunfin & Sftafinfton(2006) and numerous phoftographs were usedfinfidenfificafion. Asfthe major sftudy areaffaflfls fin Khangchendzonga Nafionafl Park,finfthecase where finsftanftfidenfificafion was aflfiftfle dfificuflft, phoftographs wereftakenftofidenfiffyfthe specfies wfifthfthe heflp off fthe herbarfium off Boftanficafl Survey offIndfia, Gangftok. In addfifion, coordfinaftes were recorded (flafiftude, flongfiftude and aflfiftude) wfifthfthe heflp off a hand hefld GPS (Gflobafl Posfifionfing Sysftem) aft each pofinft where any rhododendron popuflafion was encounftered. Wefthen modefledfthe dfisftrfibufion off Rhododendron spp. nafive

and/or nafturaflfized aflong fthe ftransecft usfing ArcGIS Versfion 9.3 wfifth Map Source Software (ESRI 2011) and Mficrosoft Excefl(2010), andfthe quanfifiedcorreflafion beftween fthe presenft aflfiftudfinafl range off Rhododendron specfies and fthefir pasft aflfiftudfinafl range avafiflabflefin fthe flfifterafture ffor fthe Sfikkfim Hfimaflaya usfing Spearman Rho Tesft(SPSS Versfion 21).

Resuflfts and Dfiscussfion

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been experfiencfing a sflfighftflyfincreasfing mean annuafl ftemperafture (IPCC 2014). Consequenftfly, many specfies off warmftemperaftefforesfts have become domfinanft over fthecofldftemperaftefforesftcommunfifies(Beaugrand eft afl. 2002).Infthe enfireftransecft, weffound onflyftwo smaflfl popuflafions off R. maddenfifi aft 3,183–3,010 m growfing under Abfies densa, experfiencfing habfiftaftfloss duefto encroachmenft by R. grfififthfianum (Gfibbs eft afl.

2011). We observed a sfteady changefin Rhododendron specfiesffrom 2,800m onwards, as a very dfisfincftffeafture ffrom fthfis aflfiftude zone (Acharya eft afl. 2011). For befing very sfteep, rocky ftype, fthfis ftransecft fis one off fthe besft habfiftaftsfforrhododendrons. Theftransecft manfiffesfted asfign offffuefl woodcoflflecfion andfloppfing off fimber finftheflower zone around 1,500–2,500 m and ofther anfthropogenfic pressures aflsofinftheflowerzone. The

Ffigure 2. Rhododendron specfies recordedffrom Sfikkfim and Kusong-Panch Pokharfi ftransecftfin Khangchendzonga Bfiospherefin norfthern Sfikkfim, showfing fthefir aflfiftudfinafl gradfienfts reporftedfinflfifterafture(aflfl specfiesfin bflack bars) and acftuaflfly recorded specfiesfin sftudy ftransecft (embeddedfin bflack bars as gray)

Image 1. Phoftos offRhododendron anfthopogon (A),Rhododendron barbaftum (B),Rhododendron cfiflfiaftum (C)and Rhododendron flepfidoftum(D)fin fthe sftudy area

© B. Chheftrfi

© B. Chheftrfi

© H.K. Badofla

© P.K. Chheftrfi A

C

B

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sfign off nafturafl caflamfifiesflfike avaflanches andflandsflfides are common aft affew pflaces aflongfthe hfigherzone. These acfivfifies may be deftrfimenftaflftorhododendron dfiversfifty and popuflafionsfin Sfikkfim Hfimaflaya.

The 23 recorded Rhododendron specfies aflong Kusong-Panch Pokharfiftransecftcomprfisedflargeftrees (02 specfies), shrubs or smaflflftrees(06 specfies), epfiphyfic

shrubs(04specfies) andshrubs(11specfies). Amongsft fthem, R. grfififthfianum has been observed asfthe mosft domfinanftftaxaffoflflowed by ofther specfies such as R. grande, R. hodgsonfifi, R. campanuflaftum R. fthomsonfifi; however,fthese sftandsftransfifionedfinfto Abfies densa communfifies cfloserftofthe fimberflfine aft 3,600m.In Sfikkfim, 37rhododendrons specfies(wfifth severafl sub

-Image 2. Phoftos offRhododendron flanaftum(E),Rhododendron gflaucophyflflum (F),Rhododendron grande (G) andRhododendron daflhousfieae (H)fin fthe sftudy area

Image 3. Phoftos offRhododendron fthomsonfifi (I),Rhododendron ffaflconerfi(J),Rhododendron campanuflaftum (K) and

Rhododendron campyflocarpum (L) fin fthe sftudy area

© B. Chheftrfi

© H.K. Badofla

© H.K. Badofla

© H.K. Badofla

© H.K. Badofla © P.K. Chheftrfi

© B. Chheftrfi © B. Chheftrfi E

G

F

H

I

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J

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Tabfle 1. Rhododendron dfiversfifty aflong fthe Kusong- Panch Pokharfi ftrekkfing corrfidor(Dzongu)fin Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reservefin Sfikkfim easftern Hfimaflaya(Indfia)

Boftanficafl name Vernacunameflar Laft.-Long. Habfift Broad habfiftafts Arangeflfiftudfina(m) Gfl flobafl dfisftrfibufion

Regfionafl conservafion sftaftus based onflfifterafture

Avafiflabfiflfifty fin sftudy ftransecft

1 Rhododendronanfthopogon D.Don

Dhupfi

Gurans 27.5983611111

0N

& 88.50591666670E Shrub

Occurfin fthe open, rocky sflopefin fthe aflpfine regfion

3500–4500

Bhuftan, ChfinaIndfia (Uftar Pradesh, Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl, Arunachafl Pradesh), Myanmar, Nepafl

Threaftened Moderafte

2 Rhododendronarboreum Sm. Laflfi gurans 27& 88.5756388889.49833333330N0E Tree

Temperafte broadfleaved mfixedfforesft fto sub aflpfine

1800–3000

Bhuftan, Nepafl, Chfina, Indfia(Arunachafl Pradesh, Sfikkfim, Nagafland, Manfipur, Wesft Bengafl

Vuflnerabfle Hfigh

3 Rhododendronbarbaftum Waflfl. ex

G. Don Lafl chfimafl 27

.59113888890N

& 88.49530555560EShrubsmaflfl ftree or Subffores aflpftfine 3000–3700 Nepa

fl, Bhuftan, Chfina, Indfia(Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl)

Non

-Threaftened Low

4 Rhododendroncameflflfififlorum Hook.ff.

Chya phufle

Gurans 27.5924722223

0N

& 88.50452777760E

Shrub usuaflfly

epfiphyfic Subaflpfine areas 3000–3700

Bhuftan, Chfina, Pakfisftan, Indfia(Sfikkfim, Arunachafl Pradesh),

Nepafl

Non

-Threaftened Low

5 Rhododendroncampanuflaftum D.Don

Nfiflo Pafte

Chfimafl 27.5955694444

0N

& 88.50638888890E shrub

Aflpfine, rocky scrub, open rfidges and sflopes

3300–4000

Bhuftan, Chfina,Indfia (Jammu-Kashmfir fto Arunachafl Pradesh), Nepafl

Non

-fthreaftened Hfigh

6

Rhododendron campanuflaftum subsp. aerugfinosum (Hook.ff.) D.F. Chamb.

Nfifle-pafte

chfimafl 27.598361112

0N &

88.50591666680E Shrub

Aflpfine, rocky scrub, open rfidges and sflopes

3700–4500 Bhuftan(Arunacha Nepafl Pradeshfl,Indfia

Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl) Threaftened Low

7 Rhododendroncampyflocarpum Hook.ff.

Bango phafle gurans

27.59247222220N

&

88.50452777780E Shrub

Sub aflpfine

fforesft 3200–4000

Bhuftan, Chfina,Indfia (Arunachafl Pradesh, Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl), Myanmar,

Nepafl

Threaftened Low

8 Rhododendroncfiflfiaftum Hook.ff. JungeChfimafl 27.5955694444

0N

&

88.50638888890E Shrub

Aflpfine, rocky scrub, open rfidges and sflopes

3000–3800 Bhuftan(Sfikkfim, Ch),fina,Indfia

Nepafl Threaftened Moderafte

9 Rhododendroncfinnabarfinum Hook.ff.

Sano Chfimafl

27.59247222220N

&

88.50452777780E Shrub

Junfiper -Rhododendron

scrub 2700–4000

Bhuftan, Chfina,Indfia (Sfikkfim,

Wesft Bengafl), Nepafl Threaftened Low

10 Rhododendrondaflhousfieae Hook.ff.

Laharey Chfimafl

27.58133333330N

&

88.49877777780E

Epfiphyfic or Shrub

Epfiphyfic or fterresftrfiafl finfforesfts or ftrees, cflfiffs, hfiflflsfides, dry rocky areas and bouflders

1500–2500

Bhuftan, Chfina Indfia(Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl, Arunachafl Pradesh), Nepafl

Non

-fthreaftened Low

11 Rhododendronedgeworfthfifi Hook.ff.

Edgeworfth ko Chfimafl

27.59286111110N

&

88.49958333330E

Shrub often epfiphyfic

Rhododendron Oak Foresft finQuercus flameflflose, R. grande, eftc.

2100–3300

Bhuftan, Chfina, Indfia(Arunachafl Pradesh,

Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl), Myanmar

Threaftened Veryflow

12 RhododendronffaflconerfiHook.ff. Pahekurflfingaflo 27.5911388889

0N

&

88.49530555560E

Shrub or Smaflfl ftree

Mofisft shady mfixed fforesfts, confiffer fforesft and rfidges

2700–3500

Bhuftan,Indfia (Arunachafl Pradesh, Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl), Nepafl

Threaftened Hfigh

13 RhododendronffuflgensHook.ff. Chfimafl 27.5955694444

0N

&

88.50638888890E

Shrub or

smaflfl ftreeShadyaflpfine area regfionfin 3500–5000

Bhuftan, Chfina,Indfia (Arunachafl Pradesh, Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl, Assam), Myanmar, Nepafl

Rare Veryflow

14 Rhododendrongflaucophyflflum Rehder

Takma

chfimafl 27.598361112

0N &

88.505916660E Shrub

Aflpfine, rocky scrub, open rfidges and sflopes

2700–4000 Bhuftan(Arunacha, Chflfina,Indfia Pradesh, Sfikkfim), Nepafl

Noft

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Boftanficafl name Vernacunameflar Laft.-Long. Habfift Broad habfiftafts Arangeflfiftudfina(m) Gfl flobafl dfisftrfibufion

Regfionafl conservafion sftaftus based onflfifterafture

Avafiflabfiflfifty fin sftudy ftransecft

15 Rhododendrongrande Wfighft PaftKorfleflfinga 27.5911388889

0N

&

88.49530555560E Tree

Temperafte

mfixedfforesft 2000–3100

Bhuftan, Chfina,Indfia (Arunachafl Pradesh, Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl), Nepafl

Threaftened Hfigh

16 Rhododendrongrfififthfianum

Wfighft Sefto Chfimafl

27.59286111110N

&

88.49958333330E

Shrub or Smaflfl ftree

Mofisft shady mfixed fforesfts, confiffer fforesft and rfidges

1800–3500

Bhuftan, Chfina,Indfia (Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl, Assam, Meghaflaya), Nepafl

Noft

-Threaftened Hfigh

17 Rhododendronhodgsonfifi Hook.ff.GuKorflabflfingafi 27.5928611111

0N

&

88.49958333330E

Shrub or smaflfl ftree

Temperafte and subaflpfine

regfion 3000–4000

Bhuftan, Chfina,Indfia (Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl, Assam, Meghaflaya), Myanmar, Nepafl

Non

-fthreaftened Hfigh

18 RhododendronflanaftumHook.ff. BhuftGuransfle 27.5955694444

0N

&

88.50638888890E Shrub

In Abfies fforesft, amfidsft Rhododendrons and bamboo, on cflfiffs

3000–4500

Bhuftan, ChfinaIndfia (Arunachafl Pradesh, Sfikkfim)

Non

-fthreaftened Veryflow

19 RhododendronflepfidoftumWaflfl. ex G. Don

Bhafle sunpafi

27.59836111110N

&

88.50591666670E

Terresftrfiafl Shrub

Aflpfine, rocky scrub, open rfidges and sflopes

2500–5000

Bhuftan, Chfina, Pakfisftan, Indfia(Hfimachafl Pradesh,

Jammu-Kashmfir, Punjab, Sfikkfim, Uftar Pradesh, Wesft Bengafl, Arunachafl Pradesh, Assam, Meghaflaya), Myanmar, Nepafl

Threaftened Low

20 Rhododendronmaddenfifi Hook.ff. Mamaddenjor ko chfimafl

27.59113888890N

&

88.49530555560E Shrub

In densefforesft, open rfidges and sflopes, rocks, cflfiffs, and scrubby fthfickefts

700–3500

Bhuftan, Chfina,Indfia (Arunachafl Pradesh, Nagafland, Sfikkfim), Myanmar, Thafifland, Vfieftnam

Endangered Veryflow

21 Rhododendronfthomsonfifi Hook.ff. DrThomson. kogurans

27.59836111110N

&

88.50591666670E

Shrub or smaflfl ftree

In

rhododendron fforesft,Abfies densafforesft, rocky sflopes and open hfiflflsfides

2900–4000

Bhuftan, Chfina,Indfia (Arunachafl Pradesh, Assam, Meghaflaya, Wesft Bengafl Sfikkfim), Nepafl

Vuflnerabfle Hfigh

22 Rhododendronftrfiflorum Hook.ff. PahenChfimaflefl 27.5955694444

0N

&

88.50638888890E Shrub

On hfiflflsfides, fforesft margfins, cflfiffs and on rocks

2100–4000

Bhuftan, Chfina, Burma Indfia(Arunachafl Pradesh, Meghaflaya, Assam

Nagafland, Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl),

Myanmar, Nepafl

Threaftened Low

23 Rhododendronvaccfinfiofides Hook. Khpaftefiaune -Gurans

27.59247222220N

&

88.50452777780E

Shrub or epfiphyfic

Epfiphyfic or fterresftrfiafl finfforesfts or ftrees, cflfiffs, hfiflflsfides, dry rocky areas and bouflders

2000–3700

Bhuftan, Tfibeft, Burma, ChfinaIndfia(Sfikkfim, Wesft Bengafl, Arunachafl Pradesh), Myanmar, Nepafl

Non

-Threaftened Veryflow

specfies and varfiefies) occur aflong 1,500–6,000 m gradfienft(Pradhan & Lachungpa 1990; Mao 2010; Badofla & Pradhan 2010a). In our sftudy ftransecft, fthe hfighesft dfiversfifty (15 specfies) off rhododendrons occurred beftween 3,100–3,700 m, whereas, ftheflower eflevafion (2,300–2,800 m) recorded wfifth onfly ftwo specfies.

In Kusong-Panch Pokharfiftransecft, we encounftered many ofther florafl eflemenfts,fincfludfingfimporftanft hfigh -vaflue medficfinafl pflanftssuch as Aconfiftum spp., Rheum

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Tabfle 2. Dfiversfifty off majorffaunafl specfiesfin Kusong- Panch Pokharfi ftrekkfing corrfidor(Dzongu)fin Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reservefin Sfikkfim easftern Hfimaflaya(Indfia)

Sno Scfienfific name Common name sftaftusIUCN * Presence Our(ev observafionsfidences) 1 Afiflurusffuflgens F. Cuvfier Red Panda EN Reporfted Locafl peopfle 2 Gaflflus gaflflus Lfinnaeus Redjungfleffowfl NE Reporfted Locafl peopfle 3 Hemfiftragusjemflahficus Smfifth Hfimaflayan Thar NT Confirmed Sfighfings, hafir 4 Ifthagfinfis cruenftusHardwficke Bflood Pheasanft LC Confirmed Feafther,ffeces 5 Lophurafleucomeflanos Laftham Kaflfij pheasanft LC Confirmed Feces,ffeafther 6 Lophophorusfimpejanus Laftham Hfimaflayan Monafl LC Reporfted Locafl peopfle 7 MunfiacusZfimmermann munftjak vagfinaflfis Barkfing Deer LC Confirmed Sfighfings 8 Naemorhedus gorafl Hardwficke Hfimaflayan gorafl NT Confirmed Feces 9 Panfthera pardus Meyer Commonfleopard VU Reporfted Locafl peopfle 10 Tragopan saftyra Lfinnaeus Saftyr Tragopan NT Confirmed Sfighfing,ffeafther 11 Ursus fthfibeftanus G. Cuvfier Hfimaflayan Bflack Bear VU Confirmed Trace * Vuflnerabfle(VU), Noft evafluafted(NE), Leasft concern(LC), Near Threaftened(NT)

Image 4. A pficfturesqueflandscape off fthe Kusong-Panch Pokharfi ftrfiafl fin Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reserve

on(Tabfle 2) areffound aflongftheftransecft. Ourflocafl Lepcha gufide and many vfiflflagersfinfformed usfthaftfthe Musk Deer and Red Panda popuflafionsfinfthesftudfied flandscape are sftabfle, aflfthoughffurfther researchfinfto fthe vaflfidfifty offfthese percepfionsfissuggesfted. Aflfthough, aflfl fthe 23 specfies recorded andfidenfifiedfin our survey are aflso reporfted ffrom ofther areas off norftheasftern Indfia,fthesfize andsftaftus offfthese popuflafions are yeft fto be assessed(Paufl eft afl. 2005; Badofla & Pradhan 2010a,b). Thfisfisfthe firsft fime Kusong-Panch Pokahrfi ftransecftfin norfthern Sfikkfim was expflored. Theftrafifl, whfich ffaflfls wfifthfin KBRfin norfthern Sfikkfim,fis one off fthe poftenfiafl reposfiftorfies off bfiodfiversfifty off Sfikkfimfincfludfing dfiverserhododendrons as weflfl asffaunafl specfiesffor ffufture conservafion sftudfies. The fincreasfing human popuflafion and varfious anfthropogenfic acfivfifiesfthrough

dfirecft andfindfirecft ways, aflong wfifth nafturaflcaflamfifies wfiflflcause habfiftaft degradafion.Lfike ofther Hfimaflayan parfts(Mao eft afl. 2001), aft presenft Sfikkfim Hfimaflayan rhododendrons and fthefir habfiftafts fface sfignfificanft fthreafts ffrom bofth changfing cflfimafte and fincreased anfthropogenfic pressures(Badofla 2010; Cheftrfi 2015). Infthe pasft,fiflflegafl grazfing andffuefl wood exftracfion have fled fto fthe decflfine and degradafion off many ofld growfth fforesftsfin Sfikkfim Hfimaflaya. As grazfing has been banned fin Sfikkfim sfince 1998, fthese adverse ffacftors, vfiz., fforesft floss, graduaflfland-use changes and expflofiftafion offfforesft resources,confinuefto puft pressure onftheresfiflfience off rhododendron fforesftsfin Sfikkfim (Menon eft afl. 2012). Nafturafl causes off Rhododendron fforesft decflfinefincflude flandsflfides; avaflanche and wfifld fires, whfich eradficafte smaflfler paftches off fforesft. In Sfikkfim, hfigh densfifty rhododendron areasffaflfl onftrekkfingcorrfidors, whfich are suscepfibfle fto dfisfturbances (Cheftrfi 2015). Buft, ffor fifts aesfthefic beaufty andftherfichrhododendron dfiversfifty and fthe panoramfic vfiew off Mft. Khangchendzonga, fthe fthfird hfighesft peakfin fthe worfld, aflong wfifth many snow -capped mounftafins, fthe Kusong-Panch Pokharfi ftransecft coufld be an emergfing and poftenfiaflftrekkfing desfinafion. Caufion musft beftaken when deveflopfingfthe Kusong -Panch Pokharfi ftransecft as a ftourfisft corrfidor. Case sftudfiessuggesftfthaft promofing eco-ftourfismftargefing hfigh aflfiftudes and wfiflderness shoufld be more sftraftegfic ffromftheflong-ftermconservafion perspecfive,finspfifte offfifts poftenfiafl vafluefin enhancfingflocafl economfies. Moreover, sfimfiflar envfironmenfts aflong fthe Yuksom -Dzongrfiftransecft(wesft Sfikkfim)ftrekkfingcorrfidor have shown confinued pressures on bfiodfiversfifty (Cheftrfi

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2015), as fthe ftourfisft flowfincreases aft a rapfid rafte each year,fthereffore,care musft beftaken bycreafing awareness and ouftreach ftoflocafl communfifies, owners off home sftays and gufides on fthe vaflue off bfiodfiversfifty.

Refferences

Acharya, B.K., B, Cheftrfi &L. Vfijayan(2011). Dfisftrfibufion paftern off ftree aflong an eflevafion gradfienft off easftern Hfimaflayas, Indfia. Acfta Oecoflogfica 37: 329–336; hftp://dofi.org/10.1016/j. acftao.2011.03.005

Beaugrand G., P.C. Refid, F.Ibanez, J.A. Lfindfley & M. Edwards(2002). Reorganfizafion off Norfth Aftflanfic marfine copepod bfiodfiversfifty and cflfimafte. Scfience 296: 1692–1694; hftp://dofi.org/10.1126/ scfience.1071329

Badofla, H.K.(2010). Phenoflogy andcflfimafteresponsesfin Hfimaflayan rhododendrons, pp. 48–59.In: Mafinra, A., H.K. Badofla & B. Mohanfty (eds). Proceedfings offInfternafionafl Confference, Rhododendron: Conservafion and Susftafinabfle Use,FEWMD, Governmenft off Sfikkfim, Gangftok-Sfikkfim. Prfinfted aft CONCEPT, Sfiflfigurfi-Indfia, 100pp. Badofla, H.K. & B.K. Pradhan(2010a). Dfiscovery off new popuflafions off

a rare specfies Rhododendron nfiveum fin Khangchendzonga Nafionafl Park, Sfikkfim. The Rhododendron. Journafl Ausftraflfian Rhododendron Socfiefty 50:41–49.

Badofla, H.K. & B.K. Pradhan (2010b). Popuflafion expflorafion off Rhododendron maddenfifi fin Sfikkfim, borderfing Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reserve- quesfionfingrarfifty and endangermenft. NeBIO 1: 1–9.

Badofla, H.K. & J.B. Subba (2012). Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reserve(Sfikkfim), pp. 133–142.In: Paflnfi, L.M.S., R.S. Rawafl, R.K. Rafi & S.V. Reddy(eds.). Compendfium on Indfian Bfiosphere Reserves: Progressfion Durfing Two Decades off Conservafion, GBPIHED, Kosfi -Aflmora and Mfinfisftry off Envfironmenft & Foresfts(Govft offIndfia). Badofla, H.K., J.B. Subba & R.S. Rawafl (2016). Khangchendzonga

Bfiosphere Reserve, Sfikkfim (Indfia). Nomfinafion Documenft ffor UNESCO-MAB neft. Submfifted fto UNESCO fthrough MoEFCC, Govft off Indfia by FEWMD, Govft off Sfikkfim & GBPNIHESD,Indfia, 203pp. Cheftrfi, N. (2015). Dfisftrfibufion off bufterflfies aflong a ftrekkfing corrfidor

fin fthe Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reserve, Sfikkfim, easftern Hfimaflayas. Conservafion Scfience 3: 1–10; hftp://dofi.org/10.3126/ cv.v3fi1.13767

Cheftrfi, N., E. Sharma, D.C. Deb & R.C. Sundrfiyafl(2002). Effecft off firewood exftracfion onftree sftrucfture,regenerafion and woody bfiomass producfivfiftyfin a ftrekkfing corrfidor off fthe Sfikkfim Hfimaflaya. Mounftafin Research and Deveflopmenft 22: 150-158; hftp://dofi. org/10.1659/0276-4741(2002)022[0150:IOFEOT]2.0.CO;2 Gafira, K.S., R.S. Rawafl, B. Rawaft &I.D. Bhaft(2014). Impacft off cflfimafte

change onfthe flowerfing off Rhododendron arboreum fin cenftrafl Hfimaflaya,Indfia. Currenft Scfience 106: 1735–1738.

Gfibbs, D., D. Chamberflafin & G. Argenft (2011). The Red Lfisft off Rhododendron. Boftanficafl Garden Conservafion Infternafionafl, Rfichmond, Unfifted Kfingdom, 131pp.

Hooker,J.D.(1849). Noftes, chfiefly boftanficafl, made durfing an excursfion ffrom Darjeeflfing fto Tongflu. Journafl off fthe Asfiafic Socfiefty off Bengafl 18: 419–446.

IPCC (2014). Cflfimafte change 2014: Impacfts, Adapftafion, and Vuflnerabfiflfifty. Parft B: Regfionafl Aspecfts. Conftrfibufion off Workfing Group II fto fthe Ffifth Assessmenft Reporft off fthe Inftergovernmenftafl Panefl on Cflfimafte Change. Barros, V.R., C.B. Ffiefld, D.J. Dokken, M.D. Masftrandrea, K.J. Mach, T.E. Bfiflfir, M. Chafterjee, K.L. Ebfi, Y.O. Esftrada, R.C. Genova, Gfirma, E.S. Kfissefl, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Masftrandrea & L.L. Whfifte (eds.). Cambrfidge Unfiversfifty Press, Cambrfidge, Unfifted Kfingdom.

Mao, A.A. (2010). The genus Rhododendron fin norftheasft Indfia. Boftanfica Orfienftafifls-Journafl Pflanft Scfience 7: 26–34; hftp://dofi. org/10.3126/boftor.v7fi0.4370

Mao, A.A, K.P. Sfingh & P.K. Hajra (2001). Rhododendrons, pp. 2167– 2202.In: Sfingh, N.P. & D.K. Sfingh(eds.). Fflorfisfic Dfiversfifty and Conservafion SftraftegfiesfinIndfia: VoflumeIV: Angfiosperms(Seflecfted Groups). Economfic and Efthnoboftany, Koflkafta, Boftanficafl Survey off Indfia.

Mao, A.A., K.P. Sfingh & P.K. Hajra(2002). “Rhododendrons, pp. 2167–2202.In: Sfingh, N.P. & D.K. Sfingh(eds.). Fflorfisfic Dfiversfifty and Conservafion SftraftegfiesfinIndfia. BSI, Caflcufta.

Menon, S., M.L. Khan, A. Paufl & P.A. Townsend(2012).”Rhododendron Specfies fin fthe Indfian Easftern Hfimaflayas: New Approaches fto Undersftandfing Rare Pflanft Specfies Dfisftrfibufions”. Journafl off Amerfican Rhododendron Socfiefty Sprfing/2012: 78–84.

Menon, S., R.G. PonfiusJ.Jr, Rose, M.L. Khan & K.S. Bawa(2001). Idenfiffyfingconservafion-prfiorfifty areasfinftheftropfics: Afland-use change modeflfing approach. Conservafion Bfioflogy 15(2): 501–512; hftp://dofi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2001.015002501.x

Paufl, A., M.L. Khan, A. Arunachaflam & K. Arunachaflam (2005). Bfiodfiversfifty and conservafion off rhododendrons fin Arunachafl PradeshfinftheIndo-Burma bfiodfiversfifty hoftspoft. Currenft Scfience 89: 623–634.

Poflunfin, O. & A. Sftafinfton (2006). Fflowers off fthe Hfimaflaya. 8fth Impressfion, Oxfford UnfiversfiftyPress, 580pp.

Pradhan, B.K. & H.K. Badofla (2008). Efthnomedficfinafl pflanft use by Lepcha ftrfibe off Dzongu vaflfley, borderfing Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reserve,fin norfth Sfikkfim, Indfia. Journafl off Efthnobfioflogy and Efthnomedficfine 4: 22;hftp://dofi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-4-22 Pradhan, U.C. & S.T. Lachungpa (1990). Sfikkfim-Hfimaflayan

Rhododendrons. Prfimuflaceae Books, Darjeeflfing, Wesft Bengafl, Indfia, 130pp.

Sasftry, A.R.K. & P.K. Hajra(2010). Rhododendron fin Indfia: Fflorafl and Foflfiar spflendour off fthe Hfimaflayan Fflora. BS Pubflficafions, Hyderabad,Indfia, xvfi, 182pp.

Sfikkfim Bfiodfiversfifty Acfion Pflan(2012). Sfikkfim Bfiodfiversfifty Acfion Pflan 2012. Pubflfished by Sfikkfim Bfiodfiversfifty Conservafion and Foresft Managemenft Projecft (SBFP), FEWMD, Governmenft off Sfikkfim, Prfinfter aft Concepft,Indfia (Workfing group: Badofla, H.K., B.S. Khoflfia, U. Lachungpa, B. Buffum,J.Iguchfi & S.K. Paftnafik), 44pp.

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ISSN 0974-7907(Onflfine);ISSN 0974-7893(Prfinft)

January 2018 | Vofl. 10 | No. 1 | Pages: 11105–11244 Dafte off Pubflficafion: 26 January 2018(Onflfine & Prfinft)

DOI: 10.11609/joft.2018.10.1.11105-11244 www.fthreaftenedftaxa.org

peer-revfiewed arficfles onflfine every monfth aft a reasonabfly rapfid rafte aft www.fthreaftenedftaxa.org. Aflfl arficfles pubflfishedfinJoTT areregfisftered under Creafive Commons Aftrfibufion 4.0Infternafionafl Lficense unfless oftherwfise menfioned. JoTT aflflows unresftrficfted use off arficfles fin any medfium, reproducfion, and dfisftrfibufion by provfidfing adequafte credfift fto fthe aufthors and fthe source off pubflficafion.

Arfiftflces

On fthe reproducfive ecoflogy off Premnaflafiffoflfia L. and Premna ftomenftosa Wfiflfld.(Lamfiaceae)

-- B. Dfifleepu Kumar, D. Sandhya Deepfika & A.J. Soflomon Raju, Pp. 11105–11125

Sftream macro-finverftebrafte dfiversfifty off fthe Phobjfikha Vaflfley, Bhuftan --Jfigme Wangchuk & Kuenzang Dorjfi, Pp. 11126–11146

Communficafions

Popuflafion characfterfisfics off Sfiflaum sfiflaus (L.) Schfinz & Theflfl. (Apfiaceae)fin Mordovfia, a hfighfly fthreaftened pflanft specfies aft fthe norfthernflfimfift offfifts range

--Anaftoflfiy A. Khapugfin, Pp. 11147–11155

Dfisftrfibufion off Nanhafipoftamon hongkongense (Shen, 1940) (Crusftacea: Brachyura: Poftamfidae), affreshwafter crab endemfic fto Hong Kong

--DavfidJohn Sftanfton, Mfichaefl Roberftson Leven & Tommy Chung Hong Hufi, Pp. 11156–11165

Sftaftus off bfirdsfin Agasfthyamaflafi Hfiflfls, Wesftern Ghafts, Kerafla,Indfia -- Madhumfifta Panfigrahfi & V.J.Jfins, Pp. 11166–11184

A shorft-fterm survey reporft on fthe posft-wfinfter avfian dfiversfiftyfin Corbeft Nafionafl Park and assocfiafted areas, Uftarakhand,Indfia -- Srfinjana Ghosh & Tanmay Bhaftacharya, Pp. 11185–11191

Shorft Communficafions

Rhododendron dfiversfifty aflong fthe Kusong-Panch Pokharfi ftransecftfin Khangchendzonga Bfiosphere Reserve, fthe easftern Hfimaflaya: a conservafion perspecfive

-- Prem K. Chheftrfi, Bfijoy Chheftrfi & Hemanft K. Badofla, Pp. 11192– 11200

Reporft off aflonghorn beeftfle Cyrftonops puncfipennfis Whfifte, 1853 (Cofleopftera: Cerambycfidae)ffrom Maharashftra,Indfia

-- Narendra M. Nafidu & Hemanft V. Ghafte, Pp. 11201–11204

Bufterflfies off Perfingome Vayakkara Panchayafth, Kerafla,Indfia -- C. Sneha, Pp. 11205–11209

A new subspecfies off fthe Maflayan Bamboo Baft(Chfiropftera: Vesperfiflfionfidae: Tyflonycfterfis maflayana eremftaga)ffrom fthe AndamanIsflands,Indfia

-- Cheflmafla Srfinfivasuflu, Adfiftya Srfinfivasuflu, Bhargavfi Srfinfivasuflu & GarefthJones, Pp. 11210–11217

Smaflfl carnfivores off Wayanad Wfifldflfiffe Sancftuary, fthe soufthern Wesftern Ghafts,Indfia

-- E.R. Sreekumar & P.O. Nameer, Pp. 11218–11225

Observafions on fthe Nfiflgfirfi Marften Marftes gwaftkfinsfifi (Mammaflfia: Carnfivora: Musfteflfidae)ffrom Pampadum Shofla Nafionafl Park, fthe soufthern Wesftern Ghafts,Indfia

-- G. Anfifl, Navaneefth Kfishor, Naseeff Gaffoor, Naseer Ommer & P.O. Nameer, Pp, 11226–11230

Noftes

Record off fthe endemfic orchfid Bfiermannfiajafinfiana (Asparagafles: Orchfidaceae: Epfidendrofideae)ffromfifts ftypeflocaflfifty,Indfia -- Krfishna Chowflu &Jeewan SfinghJaflafl, Pp. 11231–11233

Sfighfing off fthe Common Sheflduck Tadorna ftadorna (Lfinnaeus, 1758)(Aves: Anserfifformes: Anafidae) fin Shefikerfi Tank, Karnaftaka,Indfia

-- Darwfin Dasan Tamfiflfinfiyan, Sanfthanakrfishnan Babu & Honnavaflflfi Nagaraj Kumara, Pp. 11234–11236

Ceyflon Kenfish Pflover Charadrfius aflexandrfinus seebohmfi breedfing fin Vanfi Vfiflasa Sagara, Hfirfiyur Tafluka, Karnaftaka,Indfia

-- Goflusu Babu Rao, Sanfthanakrfishnan Babu,

Honnavaflflfi Nagaraj Kumara & Mahesh Bfiflaskar, Pp. 11237–11239

A new sfighft record and range exftensfion off fthe Grfizzfled Gfianft Squfirrefl Raftuffa macroura dandoflena (Mammaflfia: Rodenfia: Scfiurfidae)fin fthe Easftern Ghafts off soufthern penfinsuflarIndfia -- Sfivangnanaboopafthfidoss Vfimaflraj, Kofthandapanfi Raman, Damodar Aftmavadan Reddy, Bakfthavachaflam Harfikrfishnan, Bawa Mofthfiflafl Krfishnakumar & Kanagaraj Mufthamfizh Seflvan, Pp. 11240–11242

Ffirsft record off fthe Dhofle Cuon aflpfinus (Mammaflfia: Carnfivora: Canfidae)fin Barandabhar Corrfidor Foresft, Chfiftwan, Nepafl -- SaneerLamfichhane, Aashfish Gurung, Chfiranjfibfi Prasad Pokherafl, Trfishna Rayamajhfi, Pabfiftra Goftame, Pramod Rafi Regmfi &

Babu Ram Lamfichhane, Pp. 11243–11244

Mfisceflflaneous

References

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