Analysis on the experiential quality of São Paulo, Brazil

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ANALYSIS ON THE EXPERIENTIAL

QUALITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

ANTUANÉ NIETO-LINARES

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COVER FRONT | Street 25 De Março, Centro Neighbourhood (SP) (Author, 2017) COVER BACK | Interviewee’s Avatars (Author, 2019)

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ANALYSIS ON THE EXPERIENTIAL

QUALITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

ANTUANÉ NIETO-LINARES

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

Master’s Thesis Espoo, April 2019

SUPERVISOR

Kimmo Lapintie

ADVISORS

Hossam Hewidy Milos Mladenovic

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Copyright © 2019 Antuané Nieto-Linares Printed by Grano Oy

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Aalto University, P.O. BOX 11000, 00076 AALTO www.aalto.fi

M.Sc. Architecture thesis abstract

Author Diana Antuané Nieto-Linares

Title of thesis Analysis on the Experiential Quality of São Paulo, Brazil

Department Department of Architecture

Professorship Urban and Regional Planning Code of professorship ____

Thesis supervisor

Kimmo Lapintie

Thesis advisor(s) / Thesis examiner(s) Hossam Hewidy, Milos Mladenovic

Presentation board (pcs) 0 Models (pcs) 0

Year 2019 Number of pages (report + annexes) 95 + 17 Language English

Abstract

This qualitative research study analyses individual city experiences in relation to macro-issues (i.e.: societal, economic, land use and transportation development) in the context of São Paulo (Brazil) as a global city. The aim is to explore a possible interdependency between the macro- and micro-dynamics (i.e.: quality of urban spaces in relation to user’s experience) of the city. Methodology involves a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, where the former is used to assess macro-issues in the city while the latter is used to address micro-issues (i.e.: the experience of urban spaces). Quantitative data collection involves Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistics while qualitative data is based in the participation of six individuals living in São Paulo. Participants documented their journeys through pictures and subsequent semi structured interviews explored their perception of the built environment. Information gathered from the participants is analysed via journey mapping and photo referencing. Results address the quality of urban spaces that is missing from the quantitative macro-analyses. Ultimately, both sets of data are combined to establish a possible interdependency between outer factors shaping macro- and micro-environments. Critique on existing urban typologies in São Paulo is made for further evidencing the lack of sensitive and inclusive design solutions in the city. This approach further anchors the relation between citizens and the built environment as it provides insights for the experiential quality of urban spaces. This study aims to contribute to the field of urban planning for development that is relatable to societal values as a way of improving people’s well-being in an urban context.

Keywords accessibility, mobility, São Paulo, urban experience, well-being

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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being and consumption, maybe the right to dive

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(Romero, 2009, p. 364).

“Mas ninguém —ou quase ninguém— quis nem quer renunciar à cidade… Viver nela se

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(Romero, 2009, p. 364).

This thesis was inspired by the richness experienced in global

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experimentation and openness. The above quote was quite

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that generate the most economic output, creating a gravitational

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values that embrace cultural development and well-being. This is

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have supported me throughout this process, specially Omar

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Muito obrigada aquelas pessoas que compartilharam suas experiências comigo durante minha estadia no Brasil e aquelas

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF FIGURES

1 INTRODUCTION

7KH,PSHUVRQDO&LW\ 1.2 Acknowledging People 6RFLDO'LVWULEXWLRQLQWKH&RQWH[WRI6mR3DXOR 1.4 Thesis Structure

2

METHODOLOGY

2.1 Combined Methods Approach

3

LITERATURE REVIEW

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3.2 Community & Networks

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CONTEXT OF RESEARCH

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RESULTS

5.1 Mobility at a Regional Scale 5.2 Experiencing Urban Spaces

6

DISCUSSION

6.1 Linking the Macro- and Micro-Analyses

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7

CONCLUSIONS

7.1 Cultural Values 7.2 Lessons Learned

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REFERENCES

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APPENDIXES

9.1 Collaboration Letter ,QWHUYLHZ*XLGLQJTXHVWLRQV(QJOLVK

9.3 Complete Photo Logs

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TABLE OF FIGURES

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1 | INTRODUCTION

1.1 | THE IMPERSONAL CITY

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token, transit spaces can arguably be people’s most immediate encounter with public space and by extension,

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Functionality and Over Rationalization

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anywhere in the planet.

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Global Visions, Urbanization and Space Appropriation

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As presented by David Harvey, inequality has become proportional to city grow given the consequences global

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“Urbanization ratcheted up into hyper-urbanization, particularly after 1950 with the pace of urbanization accelerating to create a major ecological, political, economic, and social revolution in the spatial organization of the world’s population. The proportion of an increasing global population living in cities has doubled in thirty years and we now observe massive spatial concentrations of population on a scale hitherto regarded as inconceivable. World cities and city systems have been forming with rapidly transforming effects on how the global political economy works. The city and the city-region have become far more important competitive entities in the world economy, with all sorts of economic and political consequences” (Harvey, 2000, p. 64)

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This study challenges the uncontested interdependence between urban, economic and political trajectories in JOREDOFLWLHVVXFKDV6mR3DXOR637KHVHFLWLHVDUHH[FHSWLRQDOO\FRPSOH[IRUDGGUHVVLQJVRFLDOVXVWDLQDELOLW\ JLYHQWKHLUSROLWLFDODQGHFRQRPLFDOG\QDPLFV$VH[SODLQHGE\6DVVHQJOREDOFLWLHVDUHXUEDQPDWHULDOL]DWLRQV RIJOREDOL]DWLRQZKHUH¿QDQFLDOFOXVWHUVWDNHSODFH6DVVHQUHTXLULQJPDVVLYHDPRXQWVRIUHVRXUFHV IRUKRVWLQJVXLWDEOHHQYLURQPHQWVIRULWVSRSXODWLRQV7RRYHUFRPHZKDWVHHPVOLNHDZLFNHGSUREOHP5LWWHO :HEEHULWLVXVHIXOWRUHIUDPHWKHPDWWHULQTXHVWLRQ

1.2 | ACKNOWLEDGING PEOPLE

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educating designers and planners on sustainable urban mobility. Understanding mobility through individual experiences becomes a step towards addressing people’s well-being in developing the built environment.

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Cosmopolitan Localization

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prosperity –as presented by Harvey- is rooted in economic growth and power, not in health and well-being.

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multidimensionality to the urban agenda by acknowledging local values. As much as well designed spaces

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Awareness versus Blasé

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thus creating a blaséHIIHFWRQSHRSOH6LPPHODUJXHGWKLVZDVDIXQGDPHQWDOGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQWKHHPRWLRQDO GHYHORSPHQWRIOLIHLQDVPDOOWRZQYHUVXVOLIHLQDELJFLW\

Even more than 100 years later, we can appreciate some truths on Simmel’s philosophy in the development

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global cities such as SP.

1.3 | SOCIAL DISTRIBUTION IN THE CONTEXT OF SÃO PAULO

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is home to 20.7M people (SEADE, 2017) making it the most populous metropolitan region in South America.

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sidewalks, streets, roads).

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Population Distribution Rings

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people’s livelihoods.

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happening primarily in SP’s centre. Population density is also higher in the periphery were predominantly low

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Municipality of Sao Paulo Divided in Rings (Subdivision by Districts) 8.6 18.4 27.5 34.5 11 1960 2010 Population Distribution (%) 3.2 5.8 12.7 30.3 48 19

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1.4 | THESIS STRUCTURE

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process meant to highlight issues in the urban context that were particular to them and linked to wider contextual issues. &KDSWHURSHQVXSDGLVFXVVLRQEDVHGRQWKHUHVHDUFKDQGUHVXOWVJDWKHUHG7KLVLVIROORZHGE\FRQFOXVLRQV &KDSWHUZKHUHOHVVRQVOHDUQHGIURPWKHLQWHUYLHZVDQGGDWDDQDO\VLVSURFHVVLVH[SODLQHG5HIHUHQFHV FDQEHIRXQGLQ&KDSWHUDQGDSSHQGL[HVLQ&KDSWHULHFROODERUDWLRQOHWWHULQWHUYLHZJXLGLQJTXHVWLRQV DQGFRPSOHWHSKRWRORJV7KHWLPHOLQHLQ¿JXUHLOOXVWUDWHVWKHSURFHVVIRUWKHPRQWKVXWLOL]HGIRUWKH GHYHORSPHQWRIWKLVWKHVLV

Job Distribution vs. Population Density

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there are not enough jobs or services within a municipality, the residents must move to other municipalities on a regular basis.

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OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MA Y JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MA Y 2017 2019 2018

Literature Review Reading Initial writing Text Revision Writing (Introduction) Text Revision Reading Writing (T

imelines & Lit. Review)

Remote Collaboration Initial Contact Photos Interviews

Transcription 1 st Analysis 2 nd Analysis Topic Approval Meeting w/Supervisor Thesis Defense

Development Research Question Table of Contents

Methodology W riting (Macro Analyses) Drawing ),*85(_7KHVLV7 LPHOLQH $XWKRU 21

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2 | METHODOLOGY

2.1 | COMBINED METHODS APPROACH

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urban planning methods are strengthened by participation that relies on conventional democratic –highly

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planning strategy (Rebernik et al., 2018, p. 196). Adopting a combined methods approach implies acknowledging

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understanding individual experience and its relation to the wider urban context.

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3 | LITERATURE REVIEW

3.1 | EXPERIENTIAL QUALITY OF THE JOURNEY

Over the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the link between travel and well-being (De

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connection between emotional well-being, behaviour and attitudes towards urban mobility which has been a

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lives (Friman et al., 2017, p. 173). Elaborating on the mode, as presented by De Vos, “…it is not the chosen

travel mode itself that affects travel satisfaction, but whether the chosen mode is the preferred mode.” (De Vos,

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upon users is highly disliked.

8UEDQPRELOLW\LVQRWPHUHO\DERXWIXQFWLRQEXWDOVRLQYROYHVGHDOLQJZLWKORJLVWLFVRIWKHPXQGDQHHOHPHQWV RIWUDYHOH[SHULHQFH&RFKR\+DJEHUJ &DQXS&RFKR\HWDOUHVHDUFKRQWKHORDGVSHRSOH FDUU\ZKHQWUDYHOOLQJDVSDUWRIWKHPXQGDQH,QP\UHVHDUFK,LQWHUSUHWWKHVHHOHPHQWVDVXQGHUO\LQJPRWLYHV IRUFKRRVLQJRQHWUDYHOPRGHRYHUDQRWKHURUHVWDEOLVKLQJURXWHYDULDWLRQV7KLVQRWLRQRIWKHmundane could

KHOSSODQQHUVLGHQWLI\DQGSRVVLEO\UHODWHPRWLYHVDQGH[SHULHQFHVRISHRSOH¶VFRPPXWH0XQGDQHMRXUQH\V LHFRPPXWLQJPDNHXSDQLPSRUWDQWSDUWRISHRSOH¶VVHQVHRIWKHFLW\DQGFDQVKDSHFHUWDLQDWWLWXGHVDQG EHKDYLRXUSDWWHUQVGHSHQGLQJRQWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHMRXUQH\ ([SHULHQFHLHKXPDQVHQVHVSOD\VDFUXFLDOUROHLQSHRSOH¶VOLIHTXDOLW\ZKLFKLVRQHRIWKHNH\DVSHFWVOLQNHG WRWKHQRWLRQRI³KXPDQL]LQJWKHVWUHHWV´7KLVFRQFHSWKDVEHHQSUHYLRXVO\H[SORUHGDQGSUHVHQWHGE\-DQH -DFREVWKURXJKFRPPXQLW\EXLOGLQJDWWHPSWVE\VXJJHVWLQJSHRSOHWKHPVHOYHVEHWKH³H\HVRQWKHVWUHHWV´RI 1HZ<RUN-DFREV-DQ*HKOEXLOWXSRQ-DFREV¶LGHRORJ\E\SUHVHQWLQJDFDVHIRUGHVLJQLQJ³FLWLHVIRU SHRSOH´*HKOYLDVHQVLEOHXUEDQVFDOHDQGGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHSXEOLFVTXDUHIRUFRPPXQLW\EXLOGLQJDQG FLWL]HQVKLS -DFREV¶DQG*HKO¶VSUHVHQWDWLRQRIWKHVWUHHWDVDQXUEDQVSDFHFDSDEOHRIDGGLQJYDOXHWRFLW\OLYLQJSOD\VD NH\UROHLQWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKLVWKHVLV$FFRUGLQJWR*HKOXUEDQGHVLJQVKRXOGEHVKDSHGWKURXJKKXPDQ VHQVHVDQGFDQHLWKHUDGGRUVXEWUDFWYDOXHWRWKHVWUHHWV7KHFRQFHSWRIvalue is presented by both authors

DVPXOWLGLPHQVLRQDODLPHGWRLPSURYHYDULRXVDVSHFWVVXFKDVZHOOEHLQJKHDOWKFRPPXQLW\DQGFLWL]HQVKLS %RWKDXWKRUVDUJXHYDOXHEDVHGRQFLW\OLYLQJKDVSRVLWLYHHFRQRPLFUDPL¿FDWLRQVEHFDXVHZKHQSHRSOHGHYHORS DVHQVHRIEHORQJLQJLHORFDOFXOWXUHWKH\VWD\DQGLQYHVW$VDQH[DPSOH*HKOSUHVHQWV³VWD\LQJDFWLYLWLHV´ DVDQRSSRUWXQLW\IRUWKHVWUHHWWRLQYLWHSHRSOHWROLQJHU*HKO7KLVFDQEHDFKLHYHGE\GHVLJQLQJIHZ EXWLPSRUWDQWVSDFHVZKLFKWRJHWKHUFRFUHDWHDQHWZRUNRIPLQLFOXVWHUVIRUUHFUHDWLRQDODUHDVLQWKHFLW\%RWK -DFREVDQG*HKODUJXHDJDLQVWXUEDQGHVLJQWKDWVHHVYDOXHWKURXJKLQGXVWULDOL]DWLRQGHQVL¿FDWLRQRUSUR¿W ZKHUHHFRQRPLFLQFHQWLYHVWHQGWRGHWHUDZD\IURPSURIHVVLRQDO³JRRGVHQVH´

7KHQRWLRQRIpublicDVDUHVRXUFHDYDLODEOHIRUHYHU\RQHVKRXOGQRWEHOLPLWHGWRUHFUHDWLRQDORUFRPPHUFLDO VSDFHVLQWKHFLW\%XLOGLQJRQWKLVFRQFHSW,DUJXHIRUWUDQVLWVSDFHVDVIRUPLQJSDUWRIWKHSXEOLFVSKHUH WKURXJKZKLFKPRELOLW\LWVHOIEHFRPHVDULJKW7KHPRELOLW\H[SHULHQFHGLUHFWO\UHODWHVWRSHRSOH¶VHQJDJHPHQW ZLWKWKHVWUHHWVLQWHUPVRIDFFHVVLELOLW\'XHWRWKHLUIXQFWLRQDOLW\WKHVWUHHWVFRXOGEHWKHPRVWXQLQWHQWLRQDOO\ YLVLWHGSXEOLFVSDFHLQWKHFLW\)URPWKLVSHUVSHFWLYHWUDQVLWVSDFHVH[VLGHZDONVVWUHHWVURDGVDUHDSULRULW\ IRUKLJKTXDOLW\VSDFHV63¶VLQQDWHGLYHUVLW\SURYLGHVWKHRSSRUWXQLW\IRUDQDO\VLQJQXPHURXVFRPSOH[V\VWHPV ZRUNLQJWRJHWKHUH[PRELOLW\DQGKXPDQGHYHORSPHQW$VSUHVHQWHGE\'DYLG+DUYH\XUEDQHYROXWLRQLV 29

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an interdependent process where the population changes the city and vice versa (Harvey, 2000, p. 9,10). To HPEUDFHH[LVWLQJVRFLHWDOYDOXHVWKURXJKXUEDQGHVLJQLVWRDFNQRZOHGJHWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIFXOWXUHZLWKWKH VDPHLPSRUWDQFHDVWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHEXLOWHQYLURQPHQW 63LVRIWHQUHIHUUHGWRDVDJOREDOFLW\6DVVHQJLYHQLWVFRQQHFWLYLW\WRWKHJOREDOPDUNHW7KHFXOWXUDO GLPHQVLRQRIVXFKDSODFHLVLQFUHGLEO\LQWHUHVWLQJJLYHQLWVFRPSOH[LW\LQWHUPVRIHFRQRPLFDQGVRFLRSROLWLFDO LQWHUGHSHQGHQFHZLWKJOREDOL]DWLRQ$VSUHVHQWHGLQ-RVp0DJQDQL¶VHWKQRJUDSKLFVWXG\RQ63LWLVLPSRUWDQWWR DFNQRZOHGJHWKH³GLVDJJUHJDWLQJDVSHFWV´RIWKHFLW\DVPDQLIHVWDWLRQVRIVRFLDOHFRQRPLFDQGGHPRJUDSKLFDO GLVFUHSDQFLHV0DJQDQLS8OWLPDWHO\EHWWHUXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHFXOWXUDOEXLOGXSLHVRFLHWDO YDOXHVRIWKHFLW\FDQFRQWULEXWHWRGHFLVLRQVRQGHYHORSPHQWWKDWDLPIRUDSURVSHURXVFLW\DVPXFKDVD SURVSHURXVVRFLHW\LHSHRSOHORFDOFXOWXUH

3.2 | COMMUNITY & NETWORKS

$VSUHVHQWHGE\)UDQFLVHWDOLQWKHLUDUWLFOHDERXWWKHUROH RISXEOLFVSDFHWKH\LQWURGXFHsense of place

and sense of communityDVFUXFLDOWRWKHVXFFHVVRIWKHVHW\SHVRIVSDFHV&RPPXQLW\UHIHUVWREHORQJLQJ

FRPPLWPHQWDQGVKDUHGIDLWKZKHUHDVSODFHLVUHODWHGWRDWWDFKPHQWDQGLGHQWLW\)UDQFLV*LOHV&RUWL:RRG .QXLPDQS(PEUDFLQJWKHQRWLRQRIFRPPXQLW\DQGVHQVHRISODFHFDQEHDFKDOOHQJHIRU

megacities like SP where urban blasé deters people’s engagement.

0HJDFLWLHVXVXDOO\SRVVHVVDQXQFRQYHQWLRQDOGLVWULEXWLRQRIVSDFHVVKDSHGE\LQWHUQDODQGH[WHUQDOIRUFHV

where space appropriation is based on spatial relations (Magnani, 2002, p. 15). Under this understanding

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,PSOHPHQWLQJ QHWZRUNV LQVWHDG RI VWDQGDORQH SXEOLF VSDFHV DFNQRZOHGJHV WKH PRELOLW\ GLPHQVLRQ RI WKHLU IXQFWLRQDOLW\1HWZRUNLQJJRHVLQOLQHZLWK5ROQLN¶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±DVH[SUHVVHGE\RQHRIWKHLQWHUYLHZHHVDVZHOODVLQ0RUHLUD¶VGRFWRUDOWKHVLVSOHQW\RI VLGHZDONVIDOOXQGHUWKHFUDFNVRI³JKRVWPDQDJHPHQW´ZKHUHODFNRIDJHQF\UHVXOWVLQSRRUTXDOLW\IRUWKHVH VSDFHV6LGHZDONVDUHIRUJRWWHQE\SODQQHUVDQGJRYHUQPHQWDOLQVWLWXWLRQV0RUHLUDSGHVSLWHWKHLU LPSRUWDQFHIRUSXEOLFVSDFHGHYHORSPHQW$GGUHVVLQJLVVXHVRIRZQHUVKLSDQGPDQDJHPHQWDUHFUXFLDOIRU

planning, maintenance and civic agenda.

6RPHWKHRULVWVDUJXHWKDWIRFXVLQJRQWKHVLGHZDONDVDQRSHQSXEOLFVSDFHFDQKHOSZLWKLVVXHVRIVRFLDO MXVWLFH0RUHLUDS$W¿UVWLWVHHPHGQDwYHIRUPHWRDVVXPHWKDWSXWWLQJSHRSOHLQWKHVDPHVSDFH ZRXOGJHWULGRIVRFLDOVWLJPDVKRZHYHUE\SURYLGLQJDQRSHQDUHQDH[VLGHZDONFKDQFHVRIFODLPLQJWKH

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VSDFHEHFRPHUHODWLYHO\HTXDO2QWKHRWKHUKDQGDQHQFORVHGVSDFHRUYHKLFOHOLPLWVWKHDELOLW\RISHRSOHWR UHODWHEULQJLQJIRUWKWKHLPSRUWDQFHRIKHDOWK\SXEOLFVSDFHVDQGVRFLDOMXVWLFHGHYHORSPHQWLQWKHFLW\

3.3 | INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORTATION

7KHDYHUDJHFRPPXWLQJWLPHLQ63LVFORVHWRKUVSHUGD\5ROQLN .OLQWRZLW]SGXHWRKLJKO\ FRQJHVWHGURDGVIDLOLQJWRPHHWWKHGHPDQGIRUGDLO\WULSVQRZFRXQWLQJ0DFFRUGLQJWRWKHPRVWUHFHQW PRELOLW\ VXUYH\ 0HWU{63 5 5ROQLN KDV DXWKRUHG PDQ\ SXEOLFDWLRQV WKDW ORRN DW SXEOLF SROLFLHV IRU WUDQVSRUWDWLRQGLVWULEXWLRQRIUHVRXUFHVDQGPRELOLW\LQ635ROQLNDUJXHVIRUWUDQVSRUWDWLRQDVDQ³LQEHWZHHQ ULJKW´WRRWKHUIXQGDPHQWDOULJKWVLHHGXFDWLRQIRRGDQGVKHOWHUVLQFHZLWKRXWWKHULJKWWRPRELOLW\SHRSOH

cannot access services provided by the city.

7KHSULRULWL]DWLRQRIWKHSK\VLFDOH[SDQVLRQRIWKHURDGV\VWHPLQ63LQZDVIXHOOHGE\5REHUW0RVHV¶³XUEDQ KLJKZD\V´FRQFHSWIRUPHUO\SURSRVHGLQ1HZ<RUN&LW\5ROQLN .OLQWRZLW]S$OPRVWH[FOXVLYH GHYHORSPHQWIRUWKHDXWRPRELOHIURPWR$YHOOD1HWWR 5DPRVSKDVOHGWRWUHPHQGRXV LVVXHVLQWKHFLW\LQWHUPVRIWUDI¿FFRQJHVWLRQLQUHODWLRQWRXUEDQH[SDQVLRQ&RQJHVWLRQZDVIXUWKHUDJJUDYDWHG LQWKH¶VZLWK%UD]LO¶VLQWHQWWRPDNHWKHPLGGOHFODVV9DVFRQFHOORVSZKLFKXVHGSXEOLFPRQH\ WRSURYLGHLQIUDVWUXFWXUHSULPDULO\IRUDXWRPRELOHVH[H[SDQGLQJURDGV SDUNLQJDUHDV,QDGGLWLRQWRWKLV UHIRUPVDQGDYDLODEOHFUHGLWPDGHLWHDVLHUIRUIDPLOLHVWRDFTXLUHWKHLURZQYHKLFOHV%HWZHHQGDLO\ WULSVLQ6305LQFUHDVHGE\0HWU{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¿FDQWDPRXQWRI63¶VSRSXODWLRQ WR¿QGFKHDSHUODQGLQWKHRXWVNLUWVRIWKHFLW\3OHQW\RIWKLVODQGZDVXQUHJXODUL]HGLHLQIRUPDORULOOHJDO DQGZDVRIOLWWOHLPSRUWDQFHWRWKHFROOHFWLYHLQWHUHVWPDNLQJWKHSHULSKHU\ORZSULRULW\DUHDVIRULPSOHPHQWLQJ DFFHVVLELOLW\DQGFRQQHFWLYLW\6RPHDQDO\VWVUHIHUWRWKHSHULSKHU\DVDQDUHDRI“uncontrolled and unorganized

growth”$YHOOD1HWWR 5DPRVSZKHUHGXHWRWKHLULOOHJDOLW\DQGLQIRUPDOLW\OLWWOHSXEOLFPRQH\

is invested. Naturally resulting in “alternative informal social organization and social order… where the state

appears to have abandoned its citizens”8QLWHG1DWLRQV+XPDQ6HWWOHPHQWV3URJUDPPH81+$%,7$7

p. 73).

,Q WHUPV RI SROLF\ GHYHORSPHQW (GXDUGR 9DVFRQFHOORV ±DXWKRU RI PXOWLSOH SXEOLFDWLRQV RQ XUEDQ WUDQVSRUW GHYHORSPHQWLQ%UD]LOH[SODLQVJHQHUDOO\SHRSOHZLOOVHDUFKIRULPSURYHPHQWVWKDWDUHUHOHYDQWWRWKHPDORQH LQVWHDGRIWKHSXEOLF6LQFHPRVWSHGHVWULDQV6 represent low income populations they lack the political leverage to SUHVVXUHWKHDXWKRULWLHVZKHUHDVKLJKLQFRPHSRSXODWLRQVFDQDIIRUGWROREE\WKHLURZQLQWHUHVWV9DVFRQFHOORV

2017, p. 3). Further supporting Vasconcellos’ argument, Carmona’s writings about the developing process and

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$FWLYLVWJURXSVWKDWSXUVXHRWKHUPRGHVRIWUDQVSRUWDWLRQIRFXVRQPRELOLW\DVDIRUPRIUHFUHDWLRQDQGOHLVXUH LQWKHKRSHVWRGLYHUWSROLWLFDODWWHQWLRQIURPD³ULJKWWRPRELOLW\´LVVXHWRDVWUDWHJ\IRUSURYLGLQJUHFUHDWLRQDO VHUYLFHVIRUWKHJHQHUDOSRSXODWLRQ7KLVW\SHRIVRFLDOUHIRUPLVQRWDVFRQWURYHUVLDOIRUWKHSRZHUIXOKLJK

income groups since low-income populations cannot easily access the new proposed services anyway. There

KDYHEHHQVXFFHVVIXOUHIRUPVIRULPSOHPHQWLQJZHHNHQGRQO\ELNHODQHVVXFKDVWKH0LQKRFmR([SUHVVZD\ DQG3DXOLVWD$YHQXHERWKLQFHQWUDO637KHVHUHIRUPVIUDPHGF\FOLQJDVOHLVXUHLQVWHDGRIDPDLQPRGHRI transportation. 5ROQLN¶VRXWORRNRQPRELOLW\DVDULJKWDQWDJRQL]HV0RVHV¶FRQFHSWIRU³XUEDQKLJKZD\V´DOPRVWH[FOXVLYHWR YHKLFOHRZQHUV([HUFLVLQJPRELOLW\DVD³ULJKWIRUDOO´LQWUDQVSRUWDWLRQGHYHORSPHQWEULQJVIRUZDUGDKXPDQ GLPHQVLRQDEOHWRKDUYHVWVRFLDOYDOXHVZLWKLQKLJKHUOHYHOVRIFLW\SODQQLQJ(PSKDVL]LQJVRFLHWDOYDOXHVIRU LQIUDVWUXFWXUHGHYHORSPHQWFDQGUDVWLFDOO\FKDQJHWKHSULRULWL]DWLRQRISXEOLFSURMHFWVDQGKRZSODQQHUVDVVHVV

mobility and accessibility as means to improve the urban experience.

3.4 | SOCIAL JUSTICE

3HUWDLQLQJWRWKHGLVFRXUVHRIVRFLDOMXVWLFH+HQUL/HIHEYUH¶VZULWLQJVRQ³5LJKWWRWKH&LW\´DQG³7KH 3URGXFWLRQRI6SDFH´FDQEHUHIHUHQFHGDORQJVLGH'DYLG+DUYH\¶VDUJXPHQWDWLRQVRQPRGHUQKXPDQ JHRJUDSK\DQGLQMXVWLFHLQFDSLWDOLVPDVDV\VWHP,QWKHLUUHVSHFWLYHWLPHVERWKDXWKRUV¶KDYH ZLGHQHG0DU[LVWWKHRU\E\HPEUDFLQJGDLO\OLIHVSUHDGRILQGXVWU\DQGLWVUHODWLRQWRWKHFLW\7KHLUH[SORUDWLRQ RIWKHmundaneEURXJKWUHOHYDQFHWRWKHHIIHFWVRIVRFLDOLQMXVWLFHZLWKLQWKHXUEDQFRQWH[W%HLQJDJOREDOFLW\ LQDGHYHORSLQJFRXQWU\63IDFHVFRPSOH[LVVXHVLQUHODWLRQWRXUEDQGHYHORSPHQWDQGLQMXVWLFH,QRUGHUWR DGYRFDWHIRUSXEOLFVWUHHWVDVDGHPRFUDWLFULJKW¿UVWLWLVQHFHVVDU\WRDUJXHZKRKDVULJKWVRYHUWKDWVSDFHDQG ZK\)XUWKHUPRUHZKHWKHUWKHFRQFHSWRIpublic involves open access to everybody or just those populations

FRQVLGHUHGYDOXDEOHIRUFLW\GHYHORSPHQW

5DTXHO5ROQLN¶VDUWLFOHSURYLGHVDQRYHUYLHZRI63¶VLVVXHVRQSROLF\DQGLQIUDVWUXFWXUHGHYHORSPHQWIURPHDUO\ ¶VWRDQGSRLQWVRXWRQVHOHFWLYHPXQLFLSDOHFRQRPLFLQYHVWPHQWRQURDGLQIUDVWUXFWXUHZLWK“…almost 50 percent of the investments were directed to regions where the population has the highest purchasing power in

the city”5ROQLN .OLQWRZLW]S7KHUHDUHKXJHFRQWUDVWVRILQIUDVWUXFWXUHEHWZHHQQHLJKERXUKRRGV

LQUHODWLRQWRWKHLUQRELOLW\DQGHFRQRPLFDGYDQWDJH7KHH[SHQGLWXUHRIPXQLFLSDOEXGJHWH[HPSOL¿HVVRPHRI WKHXQGHUO\LQJVRFLHWDOYDOXHVLQWKHFLW\ZKLFKFDQEHKXUGOHIRUIDLULQIUDVWUXFWXUHGHYHORSPHQWDQGSROLF\ PDNLQJ,UUHVSHFWLYHRIHFRQRPLFJURZWK%UD]LOFRQWLQXHVWREHRQHRIWKHZRUOG¶VWRSSODFHVIRUVHJUHJDWLRQDQG

inequality ranking 10th worldwide according to Gini ratings (United Nations Human Settlements Programme

81+$%,7$7S

6RPHVFKRODUVGHIHQGSXEOLFSROLF\UHIRUPLQIDYRXURILQFUHDVLQJWKHORFDOYDOXHRIWKHFLW\WKURXJKWKUHH DJHQWV PXOWLODWHUDO RUJDQLVPV ZRUNLQJ ZLWK LQWHUQDWLRQDO FRQVXOWDQWV WUDQVQDWLRQDO FRUSRUDWH LQWHUHVW ORFDO HOLWHV0DJQDQLS7KLVVRUWRIWKLQNLQJFDQEHVHHQDVDPDQLIHVWDWLRQRIFDSLWDOLVWYDOXHVPDNLQJ WKHLUZD\LQWRDFDGHPLD,QIDFW%UD]LOGHDOVZLWKYHU\VWURQJDQGGLVWLQFWYDOXHVIURPGLIIHUHQWVRFLDOJURXSV FRQVWDQWO\(YHQWXDOO\LVQRWVRPXFKDPDWWHURIULJKWHRXVQHVVEXWDPDWWHURISRZHUDQGH[HFXWLRQZKHUHWKH

latter are mostly exercised by agents with the highest economic advantage.

3ROLWLFLDQVDQGUHDOHVWDWHGHYHORSHUVHPEUDFHXUEDQJURZWKWKURXJKFRQVWDQW³FUHDWLYHGHVWUXFWLRQ´RIWKHFLW\ %yJXVHWDOSDVDZD\WRIXHOHFRQRPLFJURZWK%HVWFDVHVFHQDULRLID0DVWHU3ODQLVSXWLQ

place, strong political-economic interdependence can cause planners to promote selective interests and ideas

IRUFLW\JURZWK8LWHUPDUN 1LFKROOVSWKDWKDYHEHHQVSRQVRUHGE\WKRVHDJHQWVZLWKWKHPRVW

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Nicholls, 2017, p. 35).

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4| CONTEXT OF RESEARCH

4.1 | PRESENTATION OF DATA

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the quantitative data gathering.

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(40)

Interview Process

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participation. A diverse sample –or as diverse as it could possibly be- was key to expand on the qualitative data

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spring 2017. My aim was to gather qualitative data via journey mapping, photos and interviews. Eventually the

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Initial Contact Photos

Interview Transcribe Analyse

Reflect START HERE

I

II

III

38

(41)

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(1) A letter involving the process written in English and portuguese was sent to the interviewees.

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4.2 | SÃO PAULO: A HISTORY

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attempt to illustrate how SP and SPMR arrived to its current state. Further and more importantly, how transit

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Leonardo $QW{QLR Ana Bruna Thiago Marcos 45 24 15 24 45 27 3URIHVVRU Student Student

Architect and Urban Planner

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),*85(_6mR3DXORFLW\63DQG6mR3DXOR0HWURSROLWDQ5HJLRQ6305 63053RSXODWLRQ0_$UHDNP(PSODVD,%*(

633RSXODWLRQ0_$UHDNP,%*( ,OOXVWUDWLRQE\$XWKRU

Porto Seco: The Dry Port

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shaping SP into a radial design.

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SPMR

20M Inhabitants 7 946 823 km2

SP

11.4 Inhabitants 1 521 101 km2 RIO DE JANEIRO Distance 447 km BELO HORIZONTE Distance 587 km 40

(43)

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plantations began to emerge in SP in 1860 which brought more wealth to the city (Barbosa, 2001, p. 44). Many

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met which implied a change in commerce and land use in the city (Barbosa, 2001, p. 52). Many plantations by

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Socio-Political

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For the 1st time

urban population surpases rural population in Brazil Increased concern from society for city issues 1940-’60

Brazil truly embraces capitalism as a

model for national development

resulting in rapid economic growth and

migration from rural to urban

1964-’85 Military dictatorship in Brazil Rio becomes saturated and cof fee plantations begin in SP W orld demand for cof fee is met leading to a loss in capitalization for Brazil New Constitution Impeachment by the state SOCIO-POLITICAL 1860 1900’s 1930 85% of SPMR lives in SP 1840 Convergence of ideas 1950 1970 1st gay parade in Paulista A v. 1997 Simultaneous occupations in the centre 2003 2016 40% of SPMR lives in SP 2014 1988 42

(45)

(

Dependency Theory

)

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“São Paulo’s school of thought [ISEB] adopted a point of view that was cosmopolitan and antidistress,

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interested in criticizing the imperial relationship between developed and underdeveloped countries”

(Bresser-Pereira, 2010, p. 24) 7KLVGHOLEHUDWHEOLQGIROGHGDWWLWXGHIURPWKHLQWHOOHFWXDOJURXSVWRZDUGVHFRQRPLFWHFKQRORJLFDODQG VRFLDOGHYHORSPHQWZDVQRWIDUIURPWKHDWWLWXGHSURMHFWHGE\RWKHUVRFLDOJURXSV7KHVXSSUHVVLRQ RIDOWHUQDWLYHSROLWLFDODQGHFRQRPLFRULHQWDWLRQVLHVRFLDOLVWRU³OHIWZLQJ´RULHQWDWLRQVOHGWRWKH FUHDWLRQRISROLFLHVWKDWIDFLOLWDWHGFDSLWDOLVWDQGLQGLYLGXDOLVWLFYDOXHV7RZDUGWKHHQGRI¶VWKHVH YDOXHVEHFDPH³SRSXODUL]HG´DNDSRSXOLVPRHFRQRPLFRDQGDSSURSULDWHGDVUHGHPRFUDWL]DWLRQDQG VRFLDOMXVWLFHFRQWULEXWLQJWRWKHORVVRIQDWLRQDOLGHQWLW\WKURXJKWKHJURZWKRIQHROLEHUDOKHJHPRQ\ (Bresser-Pereira, 2010, p. 41). %HJLQQLQJLQWKHHDUO\¶VOHIWLVWSROLWLFDOWHQGHQFLHVVHWRIIWKHSUHYLRXVO\PHQWLRQHGPLOLWDU\FRXS)URP WR%UD]LOZDVVXEMHFWWRDUXWKOHVVGLFWDWRUVKLSWKDWSXVKHGWKHFRXQWU\¶VHFRQRP\IRULQWHUQDWLRQDOWUDGH

and economic growth –during this time human rights were second to national development-. A new constitution was put in place in 1988 (Bonduki, 2011, p. 27), human rights were restored and minorities began to gradually

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spaces by minorities in the city as an open resource. Land Use

As SP’s commercial importance in the region grew, it also became more populated. New laws began to

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accessibility to acquire land over other social groups.

(46)

),*85(_/DQG8VH7 LPHOLQH $XWKRU Verticalization of SP’ s centre Urban planning focused on amplyfing avenues

for thorough traf

fic

1882-90

Begins the allotment of

plantations in São Paulo

(i.e.: Campos Eliseos)

Public buildings & the wealthy move out

of the centre. Lower income population

moves in (i.e.: cortiços). Urban park

Ibirapuera is built.

1974-’90

The “elite city” separates from

the “informal city” reconfiguring

the urban structure

1970-’80

Economic crisis &

accelerated growth of

favelas

People living in

informal housing

(i.e.: favelas, cortiços):

50% in SPMR 70% in SP LANDUSE 1920 1911 1930-50’ s

Allotments in the periphery are

made without proper city services

or infrastructure. Private developers

invest in the centre

1950

Planning proposals seek

to integrate but there’

s too

many irregularities already

1990’s 2012 +18% of homes in the centre are abandoned 2000 2010 Favelas as the residences of 20% of SP’ s population 44

(47)

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with high-end buildings pushed the lower income populations out to the periphery (United Nations Human

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the 1920’s.

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homeless.

5RXJKO\EHWZHHQDQGRFFXUVDVWURQJVHSDUDWLRQEHWZHHQWKHHOLWHDQGLQIRUPDOFLW\GXHSULPDULO\WR VRFLDOH[FOXVLRQ7KLVVHSDUDWLRQIXUWKHUUHFRQ¿JXUHGWKHXUEDQVWUXFWXUHRIWKHFLW\ZKHUH “…new urban duality as both cause and consequence of exclusion, insecurity and violence […] led to social and spatial fragmentation, creating an alternative informal social organization and social order in places where the state appears to have

abandoned its citizens.”8QLWHG1DWLRQV+XPDQ6HWWOHPHQWV3URJUDPPH81+$%,7$7S3DUDOOHO

SRZHUVWUXFWXUHVDQGDOWHUQDWLYHRUGHUIRVWHUHGFULPLQDODFWLYLW\DQGLOOHJDOLW\7KHWZRGHPRJUDSKLFH[WUHPHV EHFDPHWKHHOLWHLHSULYLOHJHGDQGOHJDOYHUVXVWKHSRRULHXQSULYLOHJHGDQGLOOHJDO7KHUHPDLQGHURIWKH OHJDOQRQHOLWHSRSXODWLRQLHPLGGOHFODVVZDVDGRSWHGE\WKHV\VWHP )DYHODVDUHNQRZQDVWKH%UD]LOLDQ³VKDQW\WRZQV´ZKHUHHQWLUHFRPPXQLWLHVDUHEXLOWLOOHJDOO\8VXDOO\WKHVHFRPPXQLWLHVDUH GHYHORSHGE\WKHIDYHODGRVWKHPVHOYHVZKLFKLQFUHDVHVULVNRIVWUXFWXUDOIDLOXUHDQGRYHUDOOH[FHVVLYHKRUL]RQWDOGHQVL¿FDWLRQRIWKHVH SODFHV2I¿FLDOSROLF\LVXVXDOO\QRWIROORZHG &RUWLoRVUHVXOWIURPLQYDVLRQVRIDEDQGRQHGEXLOGLQJV7KHVHDUHWKHKRPHRIYXOQHUDEOHSRSXODWLRQVZKRDUHVXEMHFWWR HYLFWLRQDWDQ\WLPH0DQ\RIWKHVHEXLOGLQJVGRQ¶WKDYHEDVLFVHUYLFHVVXFKDVSURSHUVHZDJHHOHFWULFLW\RUDIXQFWLRQLQJHOHYDWRU7KHUH DUHSOHQW\RIFRUWLoRVLQ63¶VKLVWRULFFHQWUH

( )

Social Exclusion ³>,Q(XURSH@H[FOXVLRQLVDVVRFLDWHGZLWKVRFLDOGLVTXDOL¿FDWLRQDQGUHODWLYHGHSULYDWLRQLQDFRQWH[W

in which most citizens have relatively high living standards. By contrast, in developing countries, people may never have had acceptable living conditions, so social exclusion must be based on an understanding of what a basic standard of living would be in that context. Social exclusion/inclusion… [measures] …the gap that separates the wealthiest section of a society from the less privileged in any

given location.”8QLWHG1DWLRQV+XPDQ6HWWOHPHQWV3URJUDPPH81+$%,7$7S

(48)

),*85(_6mR3DXOR¶V0DVWHU3ODQ0HWURSROLWDQ'\QDPLFV

´5HRUJDQL]LQJPHWURSROLWDQ'\QDPLFV´'HSDUWPHQWRI8UEDQ'HYHORSPHQW60'8S

:KLOHSOHQW\RIFLW\GHYHORSPHQWGHFLVLRQVZHUHWDNHQLQIDYRXURIWKHelite population, the informal population

EHJDQWRGHYHORSLWVHOIZKHUHYHUVSDFHZDVDYDLODEOHZLWKRXWFLW\VHUYLFHVRULQIUDVWUXFWXUH%\¶VSODQQLQJ

proposals sought to integrate the land use but there were too many irregularities already (Moura et al., 2014, p.

,QWKH0DVWHU3ODQ3,78EHJDQWRHQYLVLRQDSRO\FHQWULFFLW\ZKLFKZDVDOUHDG\WDNLQJSODFH organically (Barbosa, 2001, p. 71). ),*85(_6mR3DXOR¶V0DVWHU3ODQ+RXVLQJ3ROLFLHV ³,PSOHPHQWLQJ+RXVLQJ3ROLFLHV)RU7KRVH:KR1HHG,W7KH0RVW´'HSDUWPHQWRI8UEDQ'HYHORSPHQW60'8 S 46

(49)

Over the past century SP has grown economically and demographically (Lajut, 2016, p. 29). Nevertheless,

LUUHJXODULWLHVLQLWVXUEDQJURZWKKDYHOHGWRDQXQKHDOWK\VLWXDWLRQLQWKHFLW\ZKHUHDERXWRILWVSRSXODWLRQ OLYHLQVXEVWDQGDUGLQIRUPDOKRXVLQJ8QLWHG1DWLRQV+XPDQ6HWWOHPHQWV3URJUDPPH81+$%,7$7S ,QDGGLWLRQWRSURYLGLQJSURSHUVHUYLFHVLQSHULSKHUDOUHJLRQVLVWKHFLW\¶VUHVSRQVLELOLW\WRSURYLGHDGHTXDWH LQIUDVWUXFWXUHLQFOXGLQJDFFHVVWRPRELOLW\IRUDOOSRSXODWLRQV/DMXWS8QIRUWXQDWHO\WKHLQIRUPDO

city remains abandoned by the state to this day.

),*85(_/LEHUGDGH1HLJKERXUKRRGIURP7ZR3HUVSHFWLYHV63 +RPHOHVVSHUVRQVOHHSLQJ/HIWVDPHSODFHWZREORFNVDZD\5LJKW$XWKRU Transportation 7KH¿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±³EHOWZD\PRGHO´SURSRVHGE\3UHVWHV0DLDLQ%DUERVD S DQG ³XUEDQ VXSHU KLJKZD\V´ SODQ LQGXFHG E\ 5REHUW 0RVHV LQ %DUERVD S ,QWHQVL¿FDWLRQRIWKHDXWRPRELOHLQGXVWU\ZDVIXQGDPHQWDOGXULQJWKHVHGHFDGHV ,QDERXWWKUHHTXDUWHUVRI63¶VSXEOLFWUDQVLWFRQVLVWHGRIWUDPVWKDWE\EHJDQVZLWFKLQJWREXVHV SXWWLQJPRUHGHPDQGRQWKHURDGQHWZRUN'XULQJWKLVVDPHSHULRGWKHUHZDVDVLJQL¿FDQWLQFUHDVHRQWKH XVHRISULYDWHYHKLFOHV/R\DOW\WRWKHDXWRPRELOHLQGXVWU\HYHQVKLQHGWKURXJKODZVWKDWPDGHSDUNLQJVSDFH PDQGDWRU\IRUUHVLGHQWLDOEXLOGLQJVLQ%DUERVDS 47

(50)

),*85(_7 UDQVSRUWDWLRQ7 LPHOLQH $XWKRU Electric trams arrive

“Beltway model” began

with Prestes Maia (a.k.a.

the avenues plan)

Shift from

trams to

buses began

Robert Moses proposes

“urban superhighways”

plan for Sao Paulo

Mandatory parking

spaces for residential

buildings

Metro reinforces

the importance of

the historic centre

1/4 of Sao Paulo’

s public

transit system began to

be managed by a private company Integrated ticket system (bilhete único) is put in place 1939-’60

Roadworks were developed

instead of railroads

First Origin-Destination

survey

. Results were

used to come up with

metro network design

2007-2012 +2% population in SPMR but +15% of daily trips TRANSPOR TA TION First railroad for cargo 1900 1850 Increased use of private vehicles 1920 1930-60 Public funding goes to radial

avenues plan &

urban beltways 1930 1957 1970 1942 1949 1993 1967 2001 48

(51)

7KH¿UVW2ULJLQ'HVWLQDWLRQ2'VXUYH\ZDVGRQHLQ7KHUHVXOWVZHUHODWHURQXVHGIRUWKHGHYHORSPHQW RIWKHPHWURQHWZRUNLQZKLFKUHLQIRUFHGWKHLPSRUWDQFHRI63¶VKLVWRULFFHQWUH%DUERVDS,W

took several decades to build up the metro network in SP, with line-4 (yellow) still under construction in 2018.

/LQH\HOORZZDVWKH¿UVWOLQHWRFUHDWHDPHVKHIIHFWLQWKHHQWLUHQHWZRUN7KH¿UVWPHWUROLQHLQ63ZDV/LQH EOXH¿QLVKHGLQZLWKNPDQGVWDWLRQV7KHVHFRQGZDV/LQHUHGDQGWKLUGZDVOLQHJUHHQ 7KHFRPSOHWHPHWURQHWZRUNKDVNP±QRWH3,780DVWHU3ODQLQGLFDWHGNP

,QSXEOLFWUDQVSRUWDWLRQEHJDQWREHPDQDJHGE\DSULYDWHFRPSDQ\WKDWVKLIWHGWKHZD\UHYHQXHZDV

calculated. From that moment revenue was not measured by distance travelled but by square meters occupied

SHUSDVVHQJHU7KLVPHDQWIRUEHWWHUEXVLQHVVPRUHSHRSOHKDGWR¿WLQIHZHUYHKLFOHVLHEXVHVPHWURRU train). ),*85(_3XEOLF7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ9HKLFOHVLQ6mR3DXOR /HIWWR5LJKW+LVWRULF7UDP)DJXQGHV$UWLFXODWHG%XV(GXDUGR0HWUR$QW{QLR>,QWHUYLHZHH@ 7KHUHVXOWVIURPDVXUYH\QRWHGDSRSXODWLRQLQFUHDVHRILQ63YHUVXVDPRELOLW\LQFUHDVHRI 3HRSOHZHUHPDNLQJPRUHWULSVWKDWOHDGWRTXHVWLRQZKRZHUHDEOHWRPDNHWKHVHWULSV5HVHDUFKVKRZHG DGLUHFWUHODWLRQEHWZHHQWKHDPRXQWRIVDODULHVSHUIDPLO\DQGWKHLUDELOLW\WRPRYHWKURXJKWKHFLW\3RSXODWLRQ FRQVLGHUHGSRRUOHVVWKDQWKUHHVDODULHVSHUIDPLO\GHSHQGHGRQSXEOLFWUDQVSRUWDWLRQDQGWRRNVLJQL¿FDQWO\ ORQJHUWKDQWKRVHIDPLOLHVHDUQLQJKLJKHUVDODULHV

As pointed out by Bonduki’s article on SP’s urban development “…in order to be universal, public transport should be able to compete on equal terms with the private car. Achieving this condition is a key challenge facing

the new urban model to be implemented in São Paulo.” (Bonduki, 2011, p. 34). One way to understand what

ZRXOGPDNHVRPHRQHFKRRVHRQHPRGHRYHUDQRWKHU±LIJLYHQWKHIUHHGRPDQGRSSRUWXQLW\LVVWXG\LQJWKH PLFURHOHPHQWVRIWKHMRXUQH\LHLQGLYLGXDOSHUVSHFWLYHV7KHVHFDQEH±EXWDUHQRWOLPLWHGWRSHUVRQDO VSDFHVHFXULW\UHOLDELOLW\DQGFRPIRUW:LWK0GDLO\WULSVLQ63050HWU{6310TXDOLW\RIWKHWUDQVLW

experience is an issue worth examining. Combined Timelines )LJXUHVKRZVLPSRUWDQWHYHQWVWKDWRYHUODSSHGRYHUWKHODVWFHQWXU\$QXQIRUWXQDWHGLVFUHSDQF\EHWZHHQ GHQVL¿FDWLRQLQ63¶VKLVWRULFFHQWUHLQDQGD³EHOWZD\PRGHO´XUEDQSODQLQFRXOGRQO\SUHGLFWIXUWKHU LVVXHVRIWUDI¿FIRUGHFDGHVWRFRPH%HWZHHQDQGDQLQGXVWULDOFDSLWDOLVWLFPRGHOVRXJKWWRJORULI\ PRWRUL]HGSULYDWHWUDQVSRUWDWLRQ5RDGGHYHORSPHQWDEVRUEHGPRVWSXEOLFWUDQVSRUWDWLRQIXQGVOHDYLQJULGHUV ZLWKRYHUFURZGHGDQGXQGHUGHYHORSHGSXEOLFWUDQVSRUWDWLRQQHWZRUNV5DPL¿FDWLRQVRIWKHVHGHFLVLRQVIXUWKHU LQÀXHQFHGVRFLDOVWUDWL¿FDWLRQLQ63DQG6305 10 1XPEHURIGDLO\WULSVLQFOXGHFROOHFWLYHLQGLYLGXDOPRWRUL]HGDQGQRQPRWRUL]HGPRGHV 49

Figure

FIGURE 1 | Universidade de Brasília (Left) and Superblock (Right)

FIGURE 1

| Universidade de Brasília (Left) and Superblock (Right) p.16

References