Branchipus blanchardi Daday 1908 in the Alps : redescription from type locality and synonymy with B. alpinus Colosi 1922 (Crustacea, Anostraca)

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Annls Limnol. 25 (1) 1989 :47-53

Branchipus blanchardi D a d a y 1908 in the A l p s :

redescription from type locality and synonymy with B. alpinus

Colosi 1922 (Crustacea, Anostraca)

M . A l o n s o1

Keywords : Branchipus blanchardi, B. alpinus, Anostraca, France.

Branchipus blanchardi Daday 1908 is redescribed from the type locality, a small temporary pond nearCristoI lake (Hautes-Alpes, France). The redescription shows that the male of this species is characterized by two bilobated outgrowths on the anterior side of clypeus, the distal segments of antenna 2 broadly enlarged in the middle and two conical outgrowths on the I I to VII abdominal segments. This last characteristic does not agree with Daday's original description in which four outgrowths figured and allows us to establish the synonymy between B. blanchardi and B. alpinus Colosi 1922.

Branchipus blanchardi D a d a y 1908 dans les Alpes : redescription à partir de la localité type et synonymie avec B. alpinus Colosi 1922 (Crustacea, A n o s t r a c a ) ,

Mots clés : Branchipus blanchardi, B. alpinus, Anostraca, France.

Branchipus blanchardi Daday 1908 est redécrit à partir d'échantillons récoltés dans la localité type, une petite mare temporelle près du lac Cristol (Hautes-Alpes, France). La redescription montre que le mâle de cette espèce est caractérisé

p a r deux processus bilobulés à la part antérieure du clypeus, par les segments distaux de la deuxième antenne beaucoup plus élargis à la moitié, et par deux excroissances coniques aux segments abdominaux I I à VII. Ce dernier caractère n'est pas en accord avec la description originale de Daday dans laquelle sont figurées quatre excroissances et nous permet d'établir

la synonymie entre B. blanchardi et B. alpinus Colosi 1922.

Introduction

T h e purpose of this paper i s to redescribe B. blan-chardi from type l o c a l i t y in o r d e r to g i v e m o r e details about the m o r p h o l o g y of this species and t o make further taxonomical analysis within the genus easier. T h e r e d e s c r i p t i o n shows some d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Daday's d e s c r i p t i o n , the most important con-cerns w i t h the m o r p h o l o g y o f abdominal s e g m e n t s since the n e o t y p e has o n l y t w o o u t g r o w t h s instead four. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e w a s h i t h e r t o used to s e p a r a t e Branchipus alpinus C o l o s i 1922 f r o m B. blanchardi t h e r e f o r e both species must b e considered as identical.

Branchipus blanchardi Daday 1908 w a s described f r o m s p e c i m e n s c o l l e c t e d in a p o n d c l o s e to C r i s t o l lake ( H a u t e s - A l p e s ) by R . B l a n c h a r d in S e p t e m b e r 1888. T h e most outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in

defi-n i defi-n g the species w e r e the expadefi-nded secodefi-nd adefi-ntedefi-ndefi-na a n d f o u r o u t g r o w t h s o n each a b d o m i n a l segment.

After the d e s c r i p t i o n only additional i n f o r m a t i o n of this species can be found in Daday (1910) and in N o u -risson & Thiéry (1988). T y p e material ( t w o males and one f e m a l e ) is d e p o s i t e d in the M u s e u m d ' H i s t o i r e N a t u r e l l e , Paris, but unfortunately it is n o w a d a y s almost d i s t r o y e d and useless f o r t a x o n o m i c a l

stu-dies ( T h i é r y in Hit).

Materials and methods

1. Departament d'Ecologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain).

Samples w e r e taken w i t h a 100 ^ m mesh sampling net and fixed w i t h 4 % f o r m a l i n e . M a t e r i a l e x a m i -ned : 120 males and 20 females collected in t w o

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4 8 M. A L O N S O (2)

p o n d s near C r i s t o ! lake, Hautes-Alpes at 2 000 m a.s.l. in 6 A u g u s t 1987 ; one o f the ponds w a s loca­ ted in the s h o r e l i n e o f the lake and the o t h e r 300 m far f r o m it. T h e s a m p l e of the first pond had only m a l e s w h e r e a s b o t h m a t u r e m a l e s and females w e r e c o l l e c t e d in the s e c o n d pond. C a m e r a lucida dra­ w i n g s w e r e m a d e w i t h a O l y m p u s BH-2 c o m p o u n d m i c r o s c o p e p r o v i d e d w i t h phase-contrast optics. T e r m i n o l o g y f o l l o w s L i n d e r (1941) and F r y e r (1983).

Results

B r a n c h i p u s b l a n c h a r d i D a d a y 1908 ( E m e n d . A l o n s o ) SYNONYMY

Branchipus blanchardi Daday 1908, Daday 1910, Nouris-son & Tiery 1988. B. alpinus Colosi 1922, Cotlarelli 1968, Cottarelli & Mura 1983.

NEOTYPE

A mature male 11,7 mm in length preserved in 4 % for­ maline with glycerol has been deposited in the Department of Ecology of Barcelona University, Catalog number E.M.A. H.OOS^This specimen agrees completely with the descrip­ tion given in this work.

TYPE LOCALITY

Very close to that of the first description. A pond 300 m east from Cristol lake, Nevache, Hauts Alpes (France). It is a temporary water body frequented by sheep, with a sur­ face of about 150 m2 and 40 cm maximum deep. Water was clean, very low mineralized and macrophytic vegetation scarce.

PARATYPES

20 females and 120 males preserved in 90 % ethanol have been deposited in the collection of the Department of Eco­ logy, Barcelona University, Catalog number E.M.A. P.008.

Description

F E M A L E

L e n g t h t o e n d o f c e r c o p o d s 9.5- 11,5 m m (Accor­ d i n g t o D a d a y (1910), m a x i m u m length can reach 18 m m ) . R a t i o o f h e a d and thorax length to abdomen

a n d c e r c o p o d s l e n g t h about 1 : 1 . N o p i g m e n t e d

b o d y .

H e a d {Fig. 1, a, b ) . N u c h a l o r g a n e l l i p t i c . Antenna 1 biarticulate w i t h three long sub-terminal setae and e i g t h aesthetascs. Antenna 2 conical with sharp end ; t w o tufts o f s e n s o r y setae, o n e p r o x i m a l and the o t h e r subdistal. L a b i u m (Fig. 1, c ) ends in a small l a m e l l a and has n o a p i c a l p r o t u b e r a n c e s {Fig. 1 a) ;

spinous pad (SP) acute. Maxilla 1 p r o v i d e d w i t h 18-20 setae and a small p o s t e r i o r ventral spine (Fig. 1 d ) . M a x i l l a 2 [Fig. 1 f) has s w o l l e n p r o x i m a l part p r o v i d e d w i t h t w o soft setae ; finger-like dis­ tal part w i t h a long plumose seta at tip. T w o g r o u p s of six small setae at the b e g i n n i n g of oesophagus (Fig- 1 g, 1 h).

T h o r a c i c limbs. T e n first thoracic limbs (Fig. 2 a) with one single p r a e e p i p o d i t e w i t h no d e e p l y serra­ ted m a r g i n and an incision in half the height. Epi-p o d i t e w i t h smooth m a r g i n . E x o Epi-p o d i t e e l o n g a t e d with five p r o x i m a l spine-like setae on outer m a r g i n . E n d o p o d i t e sub-quadrangular with t w o - four proxi­ mal short spine-like setae on inner m a r g i n (Fig. 2 c, 2 1). P e c t i n a t e scales w i t h 3-10 small tooth in base of setae (Fig. 2 a'). Endites 3, 4 and 5 with 2, 2, 1 (first limb m a y have 2, 2, 2) anterior short setae and 3, 2, 2, long p o s t e r i o r setae (Fig. 2 c, 2 1). A n t e r i o r spine of p r o x i m a l p a r t of endite 2 is almost t w i c e anterior spine of e n d i t e 1, both t w o have a small roughly c h i t i n i z e d denticle at he base (Fig. 2 a " ) . T h e r e are about 9 setae each 100 in m i d d l e part of f i l t e r i n g c o m b of endite 1.

Last (eleventh) thoracic l i m b (Fig. 2 b, 2 m ) . w i t h m a r g i n o f p r a e e p i p o d i t e only serrated on distal part ; m e d i a l incision present. E p i p o d i t e w i t h mar­ gin s e r r a t e d at tip. Endites 2, 3, 4 and 5 of about same size and g l o b u l a r . A n t e r i o r spine of e n d i t e 2 very small w i t h a small denticle c l o s e to its base. Anterior spine of endite 1 substituted by a small den­ ticle. O v i s a c (Fig. 1 î, 1 .n) short and not e x p a n d e d laterally ; short ventral e l o n g a t i o n extends until m i d d l e of thirth a b d o m i n a l segment ; ventral ante­ rior lobe as high as abdominal s e g m e n t w i t h poste­ rior side h e a v i l y p i g m e n t e d ; 6-8 resting e g g s (Fig. 1 n, 1 p) o f i r r e g u l a r outline with several p o l y g o n a l crests ; a p p r o x i m a t e d i a m e t e r 0.35 m m .

A b d o m i n a l segments smooth (Fig. 1 i, 1 k). V e n t r a l sensory setae on segments 4, 6 and 8 ; lateral sen­ sory setae on segments 3, 5, 7 and 8 ; dorsal sensory setae o n l y on s e g m e n t 8.

C e r c o p o d s (Fig. 1 i) as long as three last a b d o m i ­ nal s e g m e n t s plus telson p r o v i d e d w i t h long setae on both inner and o u t e r sides.

MALE

Length to end of c e r c o p o d s 9.7- 12 m m (specimens f r o m smal pool in the shoreline o f Cristol lake w e r e 13- 14.2 m m and a c c o r d i n g to Daday, 1910, maxi­ m u m length is 17 m m ) . N o p i g m e n t e d b o d y .

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Fig. 1 : Branchipus blanchardi Daday from Cristol lake (Hautes Alpes). Female : a, lateral view of head ; b, dorsal view of head ; c, ventral view of labrum ; d, maxilla 1 (PVS = posterior ventral spine) ; e, detail of seta of maxilla 1 ; f, maxilla 2 (SS = soft setae) ; g, mouth appendages (M = mandible ; P = paragnath ; Mxt — maxilla 1 ; Mx2 = maxilla 2) ; h, setae of beginning of oesophagus ; i, ventral view of abdomen, telson and cercopods ; j , lateral view of abdomen ; k, dorsal view of abdomen ; I, lateral view of ovisac ; m, ventral view of ovisac ; n-p, resting eggs.

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50 M . A L 0 N S O (4)

Antenna 2 {Fig. 3 a, 3 g ) . Basal segments of antenna 2 a r e c o m p l e t e l y j o i n e d m e d i a n l y f o r m i n g the c l y p e u s as is n o r m a l in t h e f a m i l y Branchipodidae. A n t e r i o r quitinous o u t g r o w t h s o f clypeus w e l l deve­ l o p e d w i t h t w o l o b e s , d o r s a l o n e l o n g e r than ven­ tral o n e ; f r o m dorsal v i e w , d o r s a l l o b e a p p e a r s clo­ ser t o m i d l i n e o f b o d y than v e n t r a l l o b e ; tip o f b o t h l o b e s e x c e e d distal e n d o f c l y p e u s . T w o dorsal soft setulated o u t g r o w t h s in each side o f clypeus ; proxi­ m a l ones near the base of frontal appendages b a r e l y p r o t r u d i n g ; distal ones m o r e e l o n g a t e d « turkey-c r e s t »-shaped. F r o n t a l a p p e n d a g e s turkey-c o n s i s t i n g in t w o w h i p - s h a p e d f o r m a t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m d o r s a l p r o x i m a l p o r t i o n o f c l y p e u s as is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c in the genus ; p r o x i m a l p o r t i o n b r o a d and c o m p r e s s e d w i t h « 8 »-shaped section ; distal p o r t i o n w i t h roun­ ded section ; tip r o u g h l y exceeds antenna 2 in length and a p p e a r s c u r v e d v e n t r a l w a r d . Distal s e g m e n t s a l m o s t as long a s c l y p e u s ; they a p p e a r c u r v e d i n w a r d f r o m d o r s a l and v e n t r a l v i e w and « S » sha­ p e d f r o m lateral v i e w ; m e d i a l p a r t s t r o n g l y enlar­ g e d as is s h o w n i n Fig. 3 d and in the cross-section (Ffg. 3 g ) ; distal e n d w i t h t w o tips, v e n t r a l o n e lon­ g e r and s h a r p e r than d o r s a l one.

A n t e n n a 1 as in f e m a l e (Fig. 2 g ) .

T h o r a c i c l i m b s . G e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e as in f e m a l e . E n d i t e s 4 a n d 5 o f first t h o r a c i c l i m b (Fig. 2n, 2 n ' ) p r o v i d e d w i t h three a n t e r i o r setae instead of t w o as in t h e f e m a l e ( o c c a s i o n a l l y there a r e a l s o o n l y t w o in m a l e s ) .

G e n i t a l o r g a n s . G e n i t a l s e g m e n t s h i g h e r than the o t h e r s e g m e n t s ( F i g . 3 i) but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y broa­ d e r . V e s i c u l a s e m i n a l i s not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m vas d e f e r e n s (Fig. 2 o ) . B a s a l part o f p e n i s j o i n e d w i t h a m e d i o - v e n t r a l p o r e - l i k e s t r u c t u r e w h o s e signifi­ c a n c e r e m a i n s still u n c l e a r (Fig. 2 o). I n inner side of basal part of penis a curved spine-like o u t g r o w t h s is d e v e l o p e d . R e t r a c t i l e part o f penis c l e a r l y diffe­ r e n t i a t e f r o m basal part and s o m e w h a t longer, pro­ v i d e d w i t h t w o dorsal longitudinal r o w s of small spi­ nes ; d o u b l i n g spines a p p e a r t o w a r d tip (Fig. 2 p).

A b d o m i n a l s e g m e n t s (Fig. 3 h, 3 k ) . T w o ventral-l a t e r a ventral-l c u t i c u ventral-l a r o u t g r o w t h s o n b o t h sides o f poste­ r i o r r i m o f s e c o n d t o seventh s e g m e n t s ; w h o s e of s e c o n d s e g m e n t a r e v e r y s m a l l . S e n s o r y setae dis­ t r i b u t i o n as in f e m a l e .

C e r c o p o d s as l o n g a s four last a b d o m i n a l seg­ m e n t s plus telson, s t r o n g l y c u r v e d i n w a r d ; inner

and distal lateral setae v e r y reduced in length (Fig- 3 h).

Geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d e c o l o g y

T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of Branchipus branchardi us u p to n o w restricted t o the Alps o v e r 1 800 m a.s.l. I t c o l o n i z e s small t e m p o r a r y mountain w a t e r b o d i e s , sometimes isolated but also related w i t h b i g g e r per­ manent lakes. T h e w a t e r is clean but scarcely colo­ nized b y aquatic v e g e t a t i o n ; sediment is c l a y e y . A c c o m p a n y i n g crustacean species a r e Arctodiapto-mas bacillifer, Chydorus sphaericus s. lat., Daphnia longispina and Moina brachiata. T h e three f o r m e r species are very c o m m o n in the mountain w a t e r s of the Alps ( T o n o l l i & T o n o l l i 1951), h o w e v e r M. bra­ chiata seems m o r e characteristic o f steppic aqua­ tic e n v i r o n m e n t s ( A l o n s o 1985).

Discussion

C o m p a r e d with the rest of the k n o w n Branchipus, B. blanchardi is p r o b a b i l y the most distinct species. T h e m o s t outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in separating it f r o m the rest o f the species of the genus a r e the f o l l o w i n g :

1) T h e a n t e r i o r o u t g r o w t h s o f the clypeus have t w o prominent lobes in B. blanchardi w h e r e a s there is o n l y a lobe in the o t h e r species (B. schaefferi Fis­ her 1934 ; B. laevicornis D a d a y 1912,5. pasai Cotta-relli 1969, Branchipus visnyai K e r t é s z 1956).

2) Distal segments o f antenna 2 p r o v i d e d w i t h large flat lateral expansions in the m i d d l e .

3) T w o ventral-lateral conical cuticular out­ g r o w t h s o n the second to seventh m a l e a b d o m i n a l segments. Such structures a r e c o m m o n a m o n g the o r d e r Anostraca but a r e unique a m o n g the species b e l o n g i n g the genus Branchipus (In D a d a y ' s origi­ nal d e s c r i p t i o n there a r e f o u r o u t g r o w t h s i n each s e g m e n t ) .

4) T w o - f o u r p r o x i m a l short spine-like setae on inner m a r g i n o f e n d o p o d i t e .

T h e d e s c r i p t i o n of B. blanchardi g i v e n in t h e pre­ sent p a p e r differs f r o m that o f D a d a y (1910) in the s t r u c t u r e o f the m a l e a b d o m i n a l segments ; in m y o p i n i o n it is w i t h i n the bounds o f p o s s i b i l i t y that Daday's description of this character was incorrect. On the o t h e r hand, if w e accept that B. blanchardi has t w o conical o u t g r o w t h s on the a b d o m i n a l seg­ m e n t s instead four as figures b y Daday, B. blan­ chardi f r o m C r i s t o l lake and B. alpinus C o l o s i 1922

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Fig. 2 : Branchipus blanchardi Daday From Cristol lake (Hautes Alpes). Female : a, fifth thoracic limb (numbers corres­ pond to different endites ; EN = endopodite ; EX — exopodite ; EP — epipodite ; PE = praeepipodite); a', detail of setae of distal part of endopodite (PS = pectinate scales) ; a", detail of anterior spines of endite 1 and 2 ; b, eleventh thoracic limb ; c-m, endites 3, 4 and 5, and spine-like setae of the proximal part of endopodite of thoracic limbs I to X I . Male : o, genital segment showing basal part of penis (P — pore-like structure ; V S = vesiculae séminales) ; p, basal and retractile parts of penis; q, distal end of antenna 1 (AE = aesthetascs).

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52 M . A L O N S O (6)

Fig. 3 : B ranch i pus blanchardi Daday from Cristol lake (Hautes Alpes). Maie : a, dorsal view of antennae 2 (CL — clypeus, DPO — dorsal proximal outgrowth, DDO — dorsal distal outgrowth, AO = anterior outgrowth, FA, frontal appendage) ; b, lateral view of inner side of right antenna 2 ; c, lateral view of outer side of right antenna 2 ; d, detail of dorsal-lateral view of second segment of left antenna 2 ; d', detail of distal end of antenna 2 ; e, ventral view of antennae 2 ; frontal view of right anterior outgrowth of clypeus ; g, cross-section of enlarged part of second segment of right antenna 2 ; h, ventral view of abdominal segments, telson (TE) and cercopods ; i, lateral view of abdominal segments and tel-son ; j , dorsal view of last abdominal segment and teltel-son ; k, cross-section of seventh abdominal segment.

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(?) BRANCH/PUS BLANCHARDI D A D A Y 1908 I N T H E ALPS 53 f r o m P i e m o n t e ( I t a l y ) r e d e s c r i b e d by C o t t a r e l l i (1968) have to be c o n s i d e r e d s y n o n y m o u s . B o t h taxa s h a r e the most s i g n i f i c a t i v e m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s in d e f i n i n g B. blanchardi, t h e i r l o c a l i t i e s a r e v e r y c l o s e in the A l p s (75 k m in a s t r a i g h t l i n e b e t w e e n t w o l o c a l i t i e s ) a n d t h e i r a u t o e c o l o g y is v e r y s i m i l a r . M i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d b e t w e e n C r i s t o l and P i e ­ m o n t e p o p u l a t i o n s such as the n u m b e r of a b d o m i ­ nal s e g m e n t s w i t h o u t g r o w t h s ( T h e y a r e a b s e n t in s e v e n t h s e g m e n t in the p o p u l a t i o n of P i e m o n t e ) c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n t r a s p e c i f i c v a r i a b i l i t y . References

Alonso (M.). 1987. — Las lagunas de la Es pana peninsular : Taxo-nomia, ecologia y distribution de los cladoceros. Col. lectio Tesis Doctorals Microfitxades 139, Universitat de Barcelona, 795 pp.

Cottarelli (V.). 1968. — Su Branchipus alpinus Colosi (Euphyllo-poda, Anostraca). Archivto Zoologico Ilaliano, 53 : 353-365. Daday de Dees (E.). 1910. — Monographie Systématique des

Phyllo-podes Anostracés. Annls. Sci. nat. Zool., 9. ser., 9 : 91-489. Fryer (G.). 1983. — Functional ontogenetic changes in Branchinecta

ferox (Milne-Edwards) (Crustacea ; Anostraca). Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Loud. B. 303 : 229-343.

Linder (F.). 1941. — Contributions to the morphology and the taxo­ nomy of the Branchiopoda Anostraca. Zool Birdr. Uppsala, 20 : 101-302.

Nourisson (M.) & Thiéry (A.). 1988. — Crustacés Branchiopodes in Introduction pratique à la systématique des organismes des eaux continentales françaises. Bull. mens. Soc. linrt. Lyon, 57 fasc. 3, 53 pp.

Tonolli (V.) & Tonolli (L.). 1951. — Osservacioni sulla biologia et ecologia di 170 popolament zooplantonici di laghi italiani di alla quota. Mem. 1st. liai. Idrobiol., 6 ; 53136.

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