According to Edwin B. Flippo, recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation”. Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are:
A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected.
It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.
Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool of prospective employees for the organisation so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process.
Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacancies do not exist. Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee requisition for a specific vacancy or an anticipated vacancy.
Recruitment and Selection are the two phases of the employment process. The differences between the two are:
1. The recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation whereas selection involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts.
2. The basic purpose of recruitments is to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation, by attracting more and more employees to apply in the organisation whereas the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the various positions in the organisation.
3. Recruitment is a positive process i.e. encouraging more and more employees to apply whereas selection is a negative process as it involves rejection of the unsuitable.
1.1.1 The Purpose and Importance of Recruitment are given below :
Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organisation.
Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organisation.
Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.
Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees.
Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost
Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants.
Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time.
Figure No: 1.1.1
SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT
Figure No: 1.1.2
Selection is defined as the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of applicants) who has the appropriate qualification and competency to do the job.
Selection done by two steps namely, STEP 1 : PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW STEP 2 : SELECTION TEST:
The following are the type of tests taken: 1). Ability tests 2). Aptitude test 3). Intelligence test 4). Interest Test 5). Personality Test 6). Projective Test
7). General knowledge Test 8). Perception Test 9). Graphology Test 10). Polygraph Test 1.1.3Types of interview 1) Informal Interview 2) Formal Interview 3) Non-directive Interview 4) Depth Interview 5) Stress Interview 6) Group Interview 7) Panel Interview 8) Sequential Interview
9) Structured Interview
The following chart gives an idea about selection process: Figure No: 1.1.3 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW SELECTION TESTS EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW
Reference and Background Analysis SELECTION DECISION PHYSICAL EXAMINATION JOB OFFER EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT Evaluation R ej ec te d A p p li ca ti on
1.2 INDUSTRY PROFILE
Dairy is a place where handling of milk and milk products is done and technology refers to the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. Dairy technology has been defined as that branch of dairy science, which deals with the processing of milk and the manufacture of milk products on an industrial scale.
The dairy sector in the India has shown remarkable development in the past decade and India has now become one of the largest producers of milk and value-added milk products in the world.
The dairy sector has developed through co-operatives in many parts of the State. During 1997-98, the State had 60 milk processing plants with an aggregate processing capacity of 5.8 million litres per day. In addition to these processing plants, 123 Government and 33 co-operatives milk chilling centers operate in the State.
Also India today is the lowest cost producer of per litre of milk in the world, at 27 cents, compared with the U.S' 63 cents, and Japan’s $2.8 dollars. Also to take advantage of this lowest cost of milk production and increasing production in the country multinational companies are planning to expand their activities here. Some of these milk producers have already obtained quality standard certificates from the authorities. This will help them in marketing their products in foreign countries in processed form.
The urban market for milk products is expected to grow at an accelerated pace of around 33% per annum to around Rs.43,500 crores by year 2005. This growth is going to come from the greater emphasis on the processed foods sector and also by increase in the conversion of milk into milk products. By 2005, the value of Indian dairy produce is expected to be Rs 10,00,000 million. Presently the market is valued at around Rs7,00,000 mn.
1.2.1 MILK PRODUCTION FROM 1950 TO 2020 IN INDIA 1950 – 17 million tonnes
1996 – 70.8 million tonnes
1997 – 74.3 million tonnes
(Projected) 2020 – 240 million tonnes
Expected to reach- 220 to 250 mt – 2020
India contributes to world milk production rise from 12-15 % & it will increase up to 30-35% (year 2020)
TABLE NO. 1.2.1 WORLD'S MAJOR MILK PRODUCERS (MILLION MTS)
Country 2007-08 2008-09 (Approx.) India 81 84.5 Brazil 75 77 Russia 34 33 Germany 27 27 France 24 24 Pakistan 21 22 USA 71 71 UK 14 14 Ukraine 15 14 Poland 12 12
1.2.2 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN DAIRY INDUSTRY:
The research and development need to the dairy industry to develop and survives for long time with better status. The various institute and milk dairy companies R&D results provide base for today’s industry growth and development. The research and development of products of dairy, like yogurt and cheese market research and company reports provides
insights into product and market trends, analysis opportunities, sales and marketing strategies will help local milk unions to develop and spread world wide through obtaining this knowledge. Specific on market share, segmentation, size and growth in the US and global markets are also helps industry to expand its market worldwide even small union also.
1.2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY:
The food processing industry sector in India is one of the largest in terms of production, consumption, export and growth prospects. The government of accorded it is a high priority, with a number of fiscal relieves and incentives, to encourage commercialization and value addition to agriculture produce, for minimizing harvest wastage, generating employment and export growth.
Food processing industry is providing backbone support to the milk industry. The development food products by using milk can give good market opportunities to produces milk.
1.2.4 PRODUCTS AND INDUSTRY STATUS:
Among the products manufactured by organized sector are Ghee, Butter, Cheese, Ice-Creames, Milk powders, Melted milk food, Infant food, condensed milk etc.. some milk products like Casein and Lactose are also being manufactured lately. Therefore, there is good scope for manufacturing these products locally.
Liberalization of the economy has led to a flood of new entrants, including MNCs due to good prospects and abundant supply.
1.2.5 INVESTMENT POTENTIAL IN MILK PRODUCTS:
At the present rate of growth, India is expected to overtake the US in milk production by the year 2010, when demand is expected to be over 125.69 ml.tn. Being largely imported, manufacture of casein and lactose has good scope in the country.
Exports of milk products have been decentralized and export in 2005-2010 is estimated at 71.875 cr.
TABLE NO. 1.2.2 PRODUCTION OF MILK INCREASE IN INDIA
Year Production in million MT
1993-94 61.2% 1994-95 63.5% 1995-96 65.0% 1996-97 68.0% 1997-98 71.0% 1998-99 74.5% 1999-00 78.0% 2000-01 81.51% 2001-02 85.17% 2002-03 89.0% 2003-04 93.0% 2004-05 97.65% 2005-06 102.45% 2006-07 107.58%
1.2.6 INDUSTRY PROFILE ON DAIRY PRODUCT
A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal milk—mostly from
cows or goats, but also from buffalo, sheep, horses or camels —for human consumption. Typically it is a farm (dairy farm) or section of a farm that is concerned with the production of milk, butter and cheese.
Terminology differs slightly between countries. In particular, in the U.S. a dairy can also be a facility that processes, distributes and sells dairy products, or a room, building or establishment where milk is kept and butter or cheese is made. In New Zealand English a dairy means a corner convenience store, or Superette—and dairy factory is the term for what is elsewhere called a dairy.
As an attributive, the word dairy refers to milk-based products, derivatives and processes, and the animals and workers involved in their production: for example dairy cattle, dairy goat. A dairy farm produces milk and a dairy factory processes it into a variety
of dairy products. These establishments constitute the dairy industry, a component of the
1.2.7 STRUCTURE OF THE INDUSTRY
While most countries produce their own milk products, the structure of the dairy industry varies in different parts of the world. In less developed countries the producer generally sells directly to the public, whereas in major milk-producing countries most milk is distributed through wholesale markets. In Ireland and Australia, for example, farmers' co-operatives own many of the large-scale processors, while in the United States many farmers and processors do business through individual contracts. In the United States, the country's 196 farmers' cooperatives sold 86% of milk in the U.S. in 2002, with five cooperatives accounting for half that. This was down from 2,300 cooperatives in the 1940s.
As in many other branches of the food industry, dairy processing in the major dairy producing countries has become increasingly concentrated, with fewer but larger and more efficient plants operated by fewer workers. This is notably the case in the United States, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. In 2009, charges of anti-trust violations have been made against major dairy industry players in the United States.
Government intervention in milk markets was common in the 20th century. A limited anti-trust exemption was created for U.S. dairy cooperatives by the Capper-Volstead Act of 1922. In the 1930s, some U.S. states adopted price controls, and Federal Milk Marketing Orders started under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 and continue in the 2000s. The Federal Milk Price Support Program began in 1949. The
Northeast Dairy Compact regulated wholesale milk prices in New England from 1997 to 2001.
Plants producing liquid milk and products with short shelf life, such as yogurts, creams and soft cheeses, tend to be located on the outskirts of urban centres close to consumer markets. Plants manufacturing items with longer shelf life, such as butter, milk powders, cheese and whey powders, tend to be situated in rural areas closer to the milk supply. Most large processing plants tend to specialise in a limited range of products.
Exceptionally, however, large plants producing a wide range of products are still common in Eastern Europe, a holdover from the former centralized, supply-driven concept of the market.
As processing plants grow fewer and larger, they tend to acquire bigger, more automated and more efficient equipment. While this technological tendency keeps manufacturing costs lower, the need for long-distance transportation often increases the environmental impact.
Milk production is irregular, depending on cow biology. Producers must adjust the mix of milk which is sold in liquid form vs. processed foods (such as butter and cheese) depending on changing supply and demand.
1.2.8 OPERATION OF THE DAIRY FARM
When it became necessary to milk larger numbers of cows, the cows would be brought to a shed or barn that was set up with bails (stalls) where the cows could be confined while they were milked. One person could milk more cows this way, as many as 20 for a skilled worker. But having cows standing about in the yard and shed waiting to be milked is not good for the cow, as she needs as much time in the paddock grazing as is possible. It is usual to restrict the twice-daily milking to a maximum of an hour and a half each time. It makes no difference whether one milks 10 or 1000 cows, the milking time should not exceed a total of about three hours each day for any cow.
As herd sizes increased there was more need to have efficient milking machines, sheds, milk-storage facilities (vats), bulk-milk transport and shed cleaning capabilities and the means of getting cows from paddock to shed and back.
Farmers found that cows would abandon their grazing area and walk towards the milking area when the time came for milking. This is not surprising as, in the flush of the milking season, cows presumably get very uncomfortable with udders engorged with milk, and the place of relief for them is the milking shed.
As herd numbers increased so did the problems of animal health. In New Zealand
two approaches to this problem have been used. The first was improved veterinary medicines (and the government regulation of the medicines) that the farmer could use. The other was the creation of veterinary clubs where groups of farmers would employ a
veterinarian (vet) full-time and share those services throughout the year. It was in the vet's interest to keep the animals healthy and reduce the number of calls from farmers, rather than to ensure that the farmer needed to call for service and pay regularly.
Most dairy farmers milk their cows with absolute regularity at a minimum of twice a day, with some high-producing herds milking up to four times a day to lessen the weight of large volumes of milk in the udder of the cow. This daily milking routine goes on for about 300 to 320 days per year that the cow stays in milk. Some small herds are milked once a day for about the last 20 days of the production cycle but this is not usual for large herds. If a cow is left unmilked just once she is likely to reduce milk-production almost immediately and the rest of the season may see her dried off (giving no milk) and still consuming feed for no production. However, once-a-day milking is now being practised more widely in New Zealand for profit and lifestyle reasons. This is effective because the fall in milk yield is at least partially offset by labour and cost savings from milking once per day. This compares to some intensive farm systems in the United States that milk three or more times per day due to higher milk yields per cow and lower marginal labor costs.
Farmers who are contracted to supply liquid milk for human consumption (as opposed to milk for processing into butter, cheese, and so on—see milk) often have to manage their herd so that the contracted number of cows are in milk the year round, or the required minimum milk output is maintained. This is done by mating cows outside their natural mating time so that the period when each cow in the herd is giving maximum production is in rotation throughout the year.
Northern hemisphere farmers who keep cows in barns almost all the year usually manage their herds to give continuous production of milk so that they get paid all year round. In the southern hemisphere the cooperative dairying systems allow for two months on no productivity because their systems are designed to take advantage of maximum grass
dry (winter) season to carry the farmers through the mid-winter break from milking. It also means that cows have a rest from milk production when they are most heavily pregnant. Some year-round milk farms are penalised financially for over-production at any time in the year by being unable to sell their overproduction at current prices.
1.2.9 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING
A Fonterra cooperative dairy factory in Australia. Interior of a cheese factory in Seine-et-Marne, France Main article: dairy products
Dairy plants process the raw milk they receive from farmers so as to extend its marketable life. Two main types of processes are employed: heat treatment to ensure the safety of milk for human consumption and to lengthen its shelf-life, and dehydrating dairy products such as butter, hard cheese and milk powders so that they can be stored.
1.2.10 CREAM AND BUTTER
Today, milk is separated by large machines in bulk into cream and skim milk. The cream is processed to produce various consumer products, depending on its thickness, its suitability for culinary uses and consumer demand, which differs from place to place and country to country.
Some cream is dried and powdered, some is condensed (by evaporation) mixed with varying amounts of sugar and canned. Most cream from New Zealand and Australian factories is made into butter. This is done by churning the cream until the fat globules coagulate and form a monolithic mass. This butter mass is washed and, sometimes, salted to improve keeping qualities. The residual buttermilk goes on to further processing. The butter is packaged (25 to 50 kg boxes) and chilled for storage and sale. At a later stage these packages are broken down into home-consumption sized packs. Butter sells for about US$3200 a tonne on the international market in 2007 (an unusual high).
The product left after the cream is removed is called skim, or skimmed, milk. Reacting skim milk with rennet or with an acid makes casein curds from the milk solids in skim milk, with whey as a residual. To make a consumable liquid a portion of cream is returned to the skim milk to make low fat milk (semi-skimmed) for human consumption. By varying the amount of cream returned, producers can make a variety of low-fat milks to suit their local market. Other products, such as calcium, vitamin D, and flavouring, are also added to appeal to consumers.
1.2.12 MILK POWDERS
Milk is also processed by various drying processes into powders. Whole milk, skim milk, buttermilk, and whey products are dried into a powder form and used for human and animal consumption. The main difference between production of powders for human or for animal consumption is in the protection of the process and the product from contamination. Some people drink milk reconstituted from powdered milk, because milk is about 88% water and it is much cheaper to transport the dried product. Dried skim milk powder is worth about US$5300 a tonne (mid-2007 prices) on the international market.
1.2.13 TRANSPORT OF MILK
Historically, the milking and the processing took place in the same place: on a dairy farm. Later, cream was separated from the milk by machine, on the farm, and the cream was transported to a factory for buttermaking. The skim milk was fed to pigs. This allowed for the high cost of transport (taking the smallest volume high-value product), primitive trucks and the poor quality of roads. Only farms close to factories could afford to take whole milk, which was essential for cheesemaking in industrial quantities, to them. The development of
refrigeration and better road transport, in the late 1950s, has meant that most farmers milk their cows and only temporarily store the milk in large refrigerated bulk tanks, whence it is later transported by truck to central processing facilities.
1.2.14 MILKING MACHINES
machine for removing milk from an udder. It is made up of a claw, four teatcups, (Shells and rubber liners) long milk tube, long pulsation tube, and a pulsator. The claw is an assembly that connects the short pulse tubes and short milk tubes from the teatcups to the long pulse tube and long milk tube. (Cluster assembly) Claws are commonly made of stainless steel or plastic or both. Teatcups are composed of a rigid outer shell (stainless steel or plastic) that holds a soft inner liner or inflation. Transparent sections in the shell may allow viewing of liner collapse and milk flow. The annular space between the shell and liner is called the pulse chamber.
Milking machines work in a way that is different from hand milking or calf suckling. Continuous vacuum is applied inside the soft liner to massage milk from the teat by creating a pressure difference across the teat canal (or opening at the end of the teat). Vacuum also helps keep the machine attached to the cow. The vacuum applied to the teat causes congestion of teat tissues (accumulation of blood and other fluids). Atmospheric air is admitted into the pulsation chamber about once per second (the pulsation rate) to allow the liner to collapse around the end of teat and relieve congestion in the teat tissue. The ratio of the time that the liner is open (milking phase) and closed (rest phase) is called the pulsation ratio.
The four streams of milk from the teatcups are usually combined in the claw and transported to the milkline, or the collection bucket (usually sized to the output of one cow) in a single milk hose. Milk is then transported (manually in buckets) or with a combination of airflow and mechanical pump to a central storage vat or bulk tank. Milk is refrigerated on the farm in most countries either by passing through a heat-exchanger or in the bulk tank, or both.
In the photo above is a bucket milking system with the stainless steel bucket visible on the far side of the cow. The two rigid stainless steel teatcup shells applied to the front two quarters of the udder are visible. The top of the flexible liner is visible at the top of the shells as are the short milk tubes and short pulsation tubes extending from the bottom of the shells to the claw. The bottom of the claw is transparent to allow observation of milk flow. When milking is completed the vacuum to the milking unit is shut off and the teatcups are
Milking machines keep the milk enclosed and safe from external contamination. The interior 'milk contact' surfaces of the machine are kept clean by a manual or automated washing procedures implemented after milking is completed. Milk contact surfaces must comply with regulations requiring food-grade materials (typically stainless steel and special plastics and rubber compounds) and are easily cleaned.
Most milking machines are powered by electricity but, in case of electrical failure, there can be an alternative means of motive power, often an internal combustion engine, for the vacuum and milk pumps. Milk cows cannot tolerate delays in scheduled milking without serious milk production reductions.
1.2.15 TEMPORARY MILK STORAGE
Milk coming from the cow is transported to a nearby storage vessel by the airflow leaking around the cups on the cow or by a special "air inlet" (5-10 l/min free air) in the claw. From there it is pumped by a mechanical pump and cooled by a heat exchanger. The milk is then stored in a large vat, or bulk tank, which is usually refrigerated until collection for processing.
1.2.26 ASSOCIATED DISEASES
• Leptospirosis is one of the most common debilitating diseases of milkers, made somewhat worse since the introduction of herringbone sheds, because of unavoidable direct contact with bovine urine
• Cowpox is one of the helpful diseases; it is barely harmful to humans and tends to inoculate them against other poxes such as small pox.
• Tuberculosis (TB) is able to be transmitted from cattle mainly via milk products that are unpasteurised. TB has been eradicated from many countries by testing for the disease and culling suspected animals.
• Brucellosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans by dairy products and direct animal contact. Brucellosis has been eradicated from certain countries by testing for the disease and culling suspected animals
• Listeria is a bacterial disease associated with unpasteurised milk, and can affect some cheeses made in traditional ways. Careful observance of the traditional cheesemaking methods achieves reasonable protection for the consumer.
• Johne's Disease (pronounced "yo-knees") is a contagious, chronic and sometimes fatal infection in ruminants caused by a bacterium named Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis). The bacteria are present in retail milk, and are believed by some researchers to be the primary cause of Crohn's disease in humans. This disease is not known to infect animals in Australia and New Zealand.
HATSUN AGRO PRODUCT LTD., was incorporated in the year of 1986. Shri R.G.Chandramogan is the promoter of the company. He is the chairman and managing director of the company. He has initially started icecream business in early 1970s and later ventured into milk and milk related products. In the year 1986 he formed the business into a private limited company, which was later converted into a public limited company.
184.108.40.206 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
The company is managed by the Managing Director, Joint Managing Director and Executive Director - Operations subject to the superintendence, control and direction of the board of directors.
The board of Directors of the company have an optimum combination of executive, Non-Executive and independent directors, which compels with clause 49 of the listing requirements as well. The entire board of the company is involved in selection, Orientation and succession of directors.
220.127.116.11 EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS
Shri R.G.Chandramogan Chairman & Managing Director
Shri R.G.Chandramogan is the promoter of the company. He is the chairman and managing director of the company. He has initially started icecream business in early 1970s and later ventured into milk and milk related products. In the year 1986 he formed the business into a private limited company, which was later converted into a public limited company.
Shri K.S.Thanarajan Joint Managing Director
Shri K.S.Thanarajan is a post-graduate in economics and is in-charge of day-by-day operations of the dairy division of the company. Shri Thanarajan has had more than 30 years of experience.
Shri C.Sathyan Executive Director-Operations
Shri C.Sathyan, a Company Executive, is a Bachelor of Business Management with specialization in Marketing. He has held various executive positions during his career spanning over 10 years.
18.104.22.168 NON - EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS Shri P. Vaidyanathan
Shri P.Vaidyanathan is a fellow member of The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and associate member of The Institute of Company Secretaries of India and The
Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India. Shri Vaidyanathan is the Chairman of M/s Integrated Enterprises (India) Limited. He is also on the Board of reputed companies viz., City Union Bank Limited, Economist Communications Limited and Templeton Asset Management Pvt. Limited. Shri Vaidyanathan has had more than 32 years of experience in the Finance functions.
Shri Kirti P Shah
Shri Kirti P Shah, an Industrialist, is an Engineering Graduate. Shri Shah is a Non-Resident Indian. At present he is the President of M/s Custom Magnetics Inc., U.S.A. Shri Shah has had more than 40 years of experience in the field of Engineering.
Shri S. Thiagarajan
Shri. S.Thiagarajan is a post graduate in Economics and a Certified Associate of the Indian Institute of Bankers. He has over four decades of experience in the financial services sector and has held various senior positions in Reserve Bank of India, Industrial Development Bank of India and Small Industrial Development Bank of India.
Shri B. S. Mani
Shri. B.S.Mani is a post graduate in Literature and has a Diploma in Journalism from Cardiff England. He has over 4 decades of experience in the Journalism. He is the Chairman of Karnataka News Publications Private Limited, which publishes a Tamil Daily outside Tamilnadu.
Shri N Chandrasekaran
Shri N.Chandrasekaran is a Mechanical Engineering Graduate with about 38 years experience. He has held various executive positions during his career. He is the Managing Director of M/s Fichtner Consulting Engineers (India) Pvt. Ltd. and M/s Fortune Valley Agro Forms Pvt. Ltd. He is also on the Board of reputed companies viz., M/s EPT Engineering Services Pvt. Ltd. and M/s Enmas Process Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
The Company has an excellent milk collection system with chilling centers in more than 36 locations and a fleet of more than 1348 vehicles on contract for procurement.
FIGUR 22.214.171.124 MILK PROCUREMENT
Its milk shed area is spread over 10 districts in Tamilnadu and 3 in Karnataka and covers over 52,000 milk producers and 2000 medium and bulk milk vendors.
The Company is also involved in dairy extension services to farmers for the development of livestock quality and yields.
Besides this the company also has tie up with banks for arranging agricultural loans to milk producers.
More than 110 veterinary doctors under direct employment rendering full-scale animal care to the milk producers.
126.96.36.199 PROCESSING PLANTS
Hatsun's state of the art processing and packaging plants are located in Salem, Kancheepuram, Madurai, Palacodu in TamilNadu and Honnali, Belgaum in Karnataka. After procurement, milk vans then take the procured milk to these plants where the milk has to undergo a quality test again to enter the plant. Then the weight is checked. After that, using superior technologies milk is subjected to pasteurisation, homogenisation, and bacteria clarification.
Hatsun is a pioneer in India of the world-acclaimed homogenisation processes where the fat globules are broken and evenly distributed in the milk making it rich and wholesome. An unyielding commitment to quality has formed the backbone of Hatsun's business ethics right from its start. At every stage, intensive procedures to preserve quality are undertaken to ensure the purity of the milk. The entire Hatsun staff work in harmony as one family in enforcing the tough standards that Hatsun set for itself as basic guidelines.
Each milk packet packaged-using German technology-reaches the consumer with this assurance: The Hatsun Quality.
FIGUR 188.8.131.52 DISTRIBUTION VEHICLE
Everyday Hatsun's fleet of puff-insulated trucks travel 3.9 times the distance around the world, i.e. 1,82,730 km taking milk for consumption by homes across the states of Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Goa and Kerala. Hatsun takes pride in having its large cold-chain network in India ensuring that each and every one of its consumers gets fresh milk day after day. 184.108.40.206 LOGISTICS
The company has a strong logistics and distribution network in icecream and milk. Around 1100 exclusive Arun Icecreams parlours spread over the entire Tamilnadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
The company has six cold room distribution points, strategically located for quick and easy distribution of its products.
In the milk segment, the Company's distribution network comprises of 150 wholesale distributors and above 10,000 dealers for Arokya and around 850 direct selling agents for Hatsun Komatha milk.
More than 1348 vehicles handling distribution, and each covering a distance of 200 to 250 km every day.
The total distance travelled by company vehicles in procurement, marketing and other administrative activities per day comes close to 1, 82, 730 km, which is equivalent to going around the world 3.9 times a day.
Hatsun's dairies are ISO 9001:2000and HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) certified. The Salem plant has received ISO 14001and been certified eco-friendly.
The quality assurance of Hatsun ensures that stringent quality standards and norms of American Dairy Products Institute (ADPI) are fully met. The success of Arun Icecreams has been taken as a case study by the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India's leading business school.
1.3.4 OUR NETWORK
The company has achieved excellence in establishing an extremely efficient supply chain management, better logistics and widespread distribution network spearheaded by exclusive franchisee outlets. All the brands of the company enjoy very strong brand equity and despite being in a price sensitive market, its brands command a premium.
ARUN Icecream is sold through exclusive franchisee outlets and is occupying the top slot in Tamilnadu and figures within the top three in the south India. With the commissioning of plant in Belgaum, the company has entered into the Goa, Pune and southern districts of Maharashtra markets. The company has also entered into International markets during the financial year (2004-05). The company has implemented an arrangement, whereby Arun icecream is now available in Seychelles. Arun Icecream is also being exported to Brunei.
1.3.5 CORPORATE MILESTONES Arun Icecream Launch.
• 1970 - M/s. R.G. Chandramogan & Co. set up.
• 1986 - March- M/s. Hatsun Foods (HFPL) incorporated as a private limited company. The same year HFPL was admitted as a partner in M/s. R.G. Chandramogan & Co.
• 1986 - April HFPL takes over M/s. R.G. Chandramogan & Co. HFPL was allowed to register the brand name 'Arun' in its own name subject to a royalty payment of 1% on the gross icecream sales.
• 1991 - MPD Factory (Atlantic) - Salem Inauguration.
• 1993 - Hatsun Dairy Private Limited (HDPL), promoted by M/s. Hatsun Foods Private Limited, established.
• Salem Dairy - Inauguration.
• 1995 - M/s. Hatsun Foods goes public. Changes name to Hatsun Agro Product Limited. Icecream Factory - Red Hills - Inauguration.
• 1998 - Hatsun Milk Product Limited (formerly known as HFPL amalgamated with Hatsun Agro Product Limited.
• 2000 - Belgaum Dairy - Inauguration.
Kanchipuram Dairy Acquisition.
• 2004 - Dairy Ingredient Plant - Inauguration (Salem & Kanchipuram)
1.3.6 FINANCIAL RESULTS
The company's sales have grown from a level of INR 190.9 million (approx. USD 4 million) in 1997 to INR 8694 million (approx. US$ 183 million) in 2008. The company's PBDITA has increased from INR 25.14 million (approx. US$ 0.53 million) in 1997 to INR 614 million (approx US$ 12.92 million) in 2008. The equity base with reserves stand at Rs.481 million (approx US$ 10.12 million) and gross asset base of more than Rs.2332 million (approx US$ 49.09 million).
1.3.7 SHARE CAPITAL
The Company made its maiden public issue of 18,00,000 equity shares of Rs.10/- at a premium of Rs.35/- per share. The issue was well subscribed. The present listed and paid-up Equity Share Capital of the company is Rs.6.79 Crore with a shareholder base of 3,772 as of 30th September, 2008.
1.3.8 LIST OF SHARES
The Company's Equity Shares are listed on Bombay Stock Exchange Limited and the shares are regularly traded.
1.3.9 PROCURING WITH CARE
The company procures around 1.65 million litre of liquid milk per day by directly collecting it from farmers spread over 4500 villages in south India. Hatsun has its own infrastructure of milk collection centre & chilling centre for procuring & handling of raw milk.
Over 350 field's staffs are employed to ensure timely collection, testing of milk at the point of collection, weekly payment; cattle feed sales, encouraging farmers to grow their herd size, bank loans, animal insurance, training farmers on a better animal management and clean milking.
Over 100 veterinary doctors and 160 inseminators under direct employment, assist in artificial insemination, feed management, breed management, vaccination program and render full scale animal health care.
1.3.10 HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED PROCESSING FACILITIES
With high-tech processing plants operating at 7 locations, Hatsun ensures rigors testing of milk before processing.
Intensive procedures to ensure the purity of milk with handling capacity of 1.7million litre of milk per day, proves Hatsun's unyielding commitment to quality. The facilities comprise of highly advanced technology from westfalia called Bactofuge which bacteria clarifies the milk resulting in a high quality end product.
There are state-of-the-art laboratories (chemical & microbiological) for process control, product quality control and product development. Validations of critical parameters are also done at our fully quipped central lab located at Chennai. These ISO 22000:2005; 9001:2000, 14001:2004 and HACCP certified manufacturing facilities have been regularly upgraded to meet the requirement & standards of various large multinational companies.
1.3.10 MILK PROCESS
Hatsun operates state of the art processing plants at 6 locations. Rigorous milk testing is done at each of these locations. The raw milk when
received is bacteria clarified by use of west Falia Bactofuge. The milk is then sent either for fresh product processing or for manufacturing of dairy ingredients.
An unyielding commitment to quality has formed the backbone of Hatsun's business ethics right from its start. Intensive procedures to pressure the quality are undertaken to ensure the purity. Handling capacity of 1.7 million litre of milk per day, including Fresh milk and Dairy ingredients.
ISO 22000:2005, ISO 14001:2004 and ISO 9001:2000 certified manufacturing facilities that have been extensively upgraded in the last three years.
Only company in India using Bactofuge Technology (from West Falia-Germany) to clarify liquid milk.
State-of-the-art laboratory for process control, product quality control including Micro Biological lab and product development.Capable of being scaled up for higher volumes and enhanced product range.
1.4 PRODUCT PROFILE
Arun: An insight Arun Icecreams believes in the motto "Customer is the King". Arun Icecreams, a feather in the cap of Hatsun is a brand leader in the icecream market. Today, Arun is the largest selling icecream brand in south India. It sells its icecreams through exclusive parlours spread all over Tamilnadu, and parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. With over 70 unforgettable varieties, Arun continues to delight millions of customers.
Arun Icecreams success was due to the below said reasons
• Pure Milk based Icecreams with rich and creamy taste. • Range of flavours and varieties
• Innovative product concepts
• Packaging at par with International standards
Arun: First to Take the Parlour Route
Arun introduced the concept of exclusive franchise parlours selling only Arun Icecreams. This is admittedly one of the major reasons for Arun Icecreams' strong performance over the years. By reaching out to towns with a population of 30,000 and in some cases even smaller towns, Arun has boldly taken a path that is less traveled. Arun Icecreams continue to come up with new varieties and flavours which should help it maintain its strong performance and brand image.
Arun: Parlour Standardisation
Arun has now brought about standardisation of its parlours. This will help maintain the unique identity of the parlours. This, in turn, enhances uniformity in the image of the brand among the consumers leading to utmost satisfaction.
Arun Icecreams parlours have been hugely successful. The reasons for this are explained briefly:
• Well-decorated parlours where cleanliness given top priority • Convenient working hours (10 A.M to 10 P.M.)
• Regular maintenance of freezer to keep them functioning at optimum levels • Courteous and unmatched service
• Knowledge of product/variety among the staff
• Ability to understand customers' needs so as to satisfactorily cater to their tastes
220.127.116.11 ICE CREAM MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE
The basic steps in the manufacturing of ice cream are generally as follows:
• Blending of the mix ingredients • Pasteurization
• Homogenization • Aging the mix • Freezing • Packaging • Hardening
Process flow diagram for ice cream manufacture: the red section (Blending of mix ingredients, Pasteurization) represents the operations involving raw, unpasteurized mix, the pale blue section (Homogenization, Cooling, Aging) represents the operations involving pasteurized mix, and the dark blue section (Continuous Freezing, Batch freezing, Packaging, Hardening, Storage/Distribution) represents the operations involving frozen ice cream.
First the ingredients are selected based on the desired formulation and the calculation of the recipe from the formulation and the ingredients chosen, then the ingredients are weighed and blended together to produce what is known as the "ice cream mix". Blending requires rapid agitation to incorporate powders, and often high speed blenders are used.
The mix is then pasteurized. Pasteurization is the biological control point in the
system, designed for the destruction of pathogenic bacteria. In addition to this very important function, pasteurization also reduces the number of spoilage organisms such as psychrotrophs, and helps to hydrate some of the components (proteins, stabilizers).
Pasteurization (Ontario regulations): 69° C/30 min. 80° C/25s Both batch pasteurizers and continuous (HTST) methods are used.
Batch pasteurizers lead to more whey protein denaturation, which some people feel gives a better body to the ice cream. In a batch pasteurization system, blending of the proper ingredient amounts is done in large jacketed vats equipped with some means of heating, usually steam or hot water. The product is then heated in the vat to at least 69 C (155 F) and held for 30 minutes to satisfy legal requirements for pasteurization, necessary for the destruction of pathogenic bacteria. Various time temperature combinations can be used. The heat treatment must be severe enough to ensure destruction of pathogens and to reduce the bacterial count to a maximum of 100,000 per gram. Following pasteurization, the mix is homogenized by means of high pressures and then is passed across some type of heat exchanger (plate or double or triple tube) for the purpose of cooling the mix to refrigerated temperatures (4 C). Batch tanks are usually operated in tandem so that one is holding while the other is being prepared. Automatic timers and valves ensure the proper holding time has been met.
Continuous pasteurization is usually performed in a high temperature short time (HTST) heat exchanger following blending of ingredients in a large, insulated feed tank. Some preheating, to 30 to 40 C, is necessary for solubilization of the components. The HTST system is equipped with a heating section, a cooling section, and a regeneration
section. Cooling sections of ice cream mix HTST presses are usually larger than milk HTST presses. Due to the preheating of the mix, regeneration is lost and mix entering the cooling section is still quite warm.
The mix is also homogenized which forms the fat emulsion by breaking down or
reducing the size of the fat globules found in milk or cream to less than 1 µ m. Two stage homogenization is usually preferred for ice cream mix. Clumping or clustering of the fat is reduced thereby producing a thinner, more rapidly whipped mix. Melt-down is also improved. Homogenization provides the following functions in ice cream manufacture:
• Reduces size of fat globules • Increases surface area • Forms membrane
• Makes possible the use of butter, frozen cream, etc.
By helping to form the fat structure, it also has the following indirect effects:
• Makes a smoother ice cream
• Gives a greater apparent richness and palatability • Better air stability
• Increases resistance to melting
Homogenization of the mix should take place at the pasteurizing temperature. The high temperature produces more efficient breaking up of the fat globules at any given pressure and also reduces fat clumping and the tendency to thick, heavy bodied mixes. No one pressure can be recommended that will give satisfactory results under all conditions. The higher the fat and total solids in the mix, the lower the pressure should be. If a two stage homogenizer is used, a pressure of 2000 - 2500 psi on the first stage and 500 - 1000 psi on the second stage should be satisfactory under most conditions. Two stage homogenization is usually preferred for ice cream mix. Clumping or clustering of the fat is reduced thereby producing a thinner, more rapidly whipped mix. Melt-down is also improved.
The mix is then aged for at least four hours and usually overnight. This allows time for the fat to cool down and crystallize, and for the proteins and polysaccharides to fully hydrate. Aging provides the following functions:
• Improves whipping qualities of mix and body and texture of ice cream
It does so by:
• providing time for fat crystallization, so the fat can partially coalesce;
• allowing time for full protein and stabilizer hydration and a resulting slight viscosity increase;
• allowing time for membrane rearrangement and protein/emulsifier interaction, as emulsifiers displace proteins from the fat globule surface, which allows for a reduction in stabilization of the fat globules and enhanced partial coalescence.
Aging is performed in insulated or refrigerated storage tanks, silos, etc. Mix temperature should be maintained as low as possible without freezing, at or below 5 C. An aging time of overnight is likely to give best results under average plant conditions. A "green" or unaged mix is usually quickly detected at the freezer.
18.104.22.168 FREEZING AND HARDENING
Following mix processing, the mix is drawn into a flavour tank where any liquid flavours, fruit purees, or colours are added. The mix then enters the dynamic freezing process which both freezes a portion of the water and whips air into the frozen mix. The "barrel" freezer is a scraped-surface, tubular heat exchanger, which is jacketed with a boiling refrigerant such as ammonia or freon. Mix is pumped through this freezer and is drawn off the other end in a matter of 30 seconds, (or 10 to 15 minutes in the case of batch freezers) with about 50% of its water frozen. There are rotating blades inside the barrel that keep the ice scraped off the surface of the freezer and also dashers inside the machine which help to whip the mix and incorporate air.
Ice cream contains a considerable quantity of air, up to half of its volume. This gives the product its characteristic lightness. Without air, ice cream would be similar to a frozen ice cube. The air content is termed its overrun, which can be calculated mathematically.
As the ice cream is drawn with about half of its water frozen, particulate matter such as fruits, nuts, candy, cookies, or whatever you like, is added to the semi-frozen slurry which has a consistency similar to soft-serve ice cream. In fact, almost the only thing which differentiates hard frozen ice cream from soft-serve, is the fact that soft serve is drawn into cones at this point in the process rather than into packages for subsequent hardening.
After the particulates have been added, the ice cream is packaged and is placed into a blast freezer at -30° to -40° C where most of the remainder of the water is frozen. Below about -25° C, ice cream is stable for indefinite periods without danger of ice crystal growth; however, above this temperature, ice crystal growth is possible and the rate of crystal growth is dependant upon the temperature of storage. This limits the shelf life of the ice cream.
A primer on the theoretical aspects of freezing will help you to fully understand the freezing and recrystallization process.
Hardening invloves static (still, quiescent) freezing of the packaged products in blast freezers. Freezing rate must still be rapid, so freezing techniques involve low temperature (-40oC) with either enhanced convection (freezing tunnels with forced air fans) or enhanced conduction (plate freezers).
The rate of heat transfer in a frezing porcess is affected by the temperature difference, the surface area exposed and the heat transfer coefficient (Q=U A dT). Thus, the factors affecting hardening are those affecting this rate of heat transfer:
• Temperature of blast freezer - the colder the temperature, the faster the hardening, the smoother the product.
• Rapid circulation of air - increases convective heat transfer.
• Temperature of ice cream when placed in the hardening freezer - the colder the ice cream at draw, the faster the hardening; - must get through packaging operations fast.
• Size of container - exposure of maximum surface area to cold air, especially important to consider shrink wrapped bundles - they become a much larger mass to freeze. Bundling should be done after hardening.
• Composition of ice cream - related to freezing point depression and the temperature required to ensure a significantly high ice phase volume.
• Method of stacking containers or bundles to allow air circulation. Circulation should not be impeded - there should be no 'dead air' spaces (e.g., round vs. square packages).
• Care of evaporator - freedom from frost - acts as insulator.
• Package type, should not impede heat transfer - e.g., styrofoam liner or corrugated cardboard may protect against heat shock after hardening, but reduces heat transfer during freezing so not feasible.
Ice cream from the dynamic freezing process (continuous freezer) can also be transformed into an array of novely/impulse products through a variety of filling and forming machines, which have ben identified on a separate page.
1.4.2 ARUN ICECREAM UNLIMITED
And now Arun introduces the whole new concept in icecream retailing in south India, the Unlimited concept.
Arun unlimited offers the customer a wide range of flavours with unlimited options of creating ones own sundaes. The customer is given the option to choose his own choice of icecream and toppings or sauces to go with it. In addition to allowing customers to create their own combinations, The Arun unlimited has a sundae menu of proprietary and innovative creations ready for customers to enjoy. We even offer take away icecreams. The parlours are decorated to offer a vibrant,fun and friendly experience.
Currently operational at Chennai's leading shopping mall - Spencer plaza and also stand alone parlours at Annanagar, R.K.Salai , Besant nagar, Egmore etc
Arun Unlimited also operates inside the most renowned IT parks like Chennai one and IT giants like Accenture.
1.4.3 AROKYA MILK OVERVIEW
Arokya - Milk that suits children & adults alike !!!
Arokya has more nutrition and butterfat. Growing children can consume Arokya because it's wholesome and nourishing. It fortifies the bones with calcium, proteins and minerals. In case of adults, Arokya can be diluted with water & used.
Arokya is a healthy and ready nourishment for growing children. Fortified with 4.5% butterfat, Arokya helps in the growth of vital strengths of a child - both physical and mental. It contains adequate quantities of calcium and phospholipids for development of the bones and brain respectively.
Unlike toned milk where butterfat is removed to make it only 3%, Arokya has 4.5% butterfat. Hence the catchy slogan attached to it: Nothing added. Nothing removed.
Nobody underscores the need for healthy foods more than the World Health Organisation (WHO). In fact, World Children's Fund (WCF)-a body recognized by WHO-believes that milk with 4.5% butterfat is best for growing children.
It is very critical to give every child the right kind of food and nutrients, and to give the child just when he needs them the most. If you are looking to make your child skilled, agile and admired, switch to Arokya. And watch your child excel.
Hatsun's all-natural high-quality Cooking Butter has something that makes it stand out from the crowd - it has dollops of 'zeal' in it. Hatsun Pasteurised Cooking Butter is made from the choicest of creams, churned from pure farm fresh milk. It is then processed in a high-tech dairy plant where hygiene and quality are given utmost importance. This ensures that sweets, savouries and cakes have a great taste and aroma.
1.4.5 HATSUN COW GHEE
At Hatsun, we decided that Hatsun would be different from other branded ghees that jostle for your attention. So, what makes Hatsun Ghee different? The nutty taste of Hatsun Ghee - a special grade ghee, is perfect for Indian cuisine in general and sweet making in particular. Being made only from cow milk, all the freshness and uniqueness associated with cow milk can be found in Hatsun Ghee. It has the distinct property of carrying and enhancing the flavour of practically any dish that one briefly fries in Hatsun Ghee. Hatsun Ghee comes with the 'Agmark' seal of quality.
Hatsun Curd is a semi-solid fermented milk product, with excellent consistency. It has a very low bacteria count making it extremely healthy in nature and delightfully tasty in character.
Made from farm-fresh milk.
Higher milk solids make it more tasty and helps in retaining texture & shape.
1.4.8 DAIRY INGREDIENTS PRODUCTS OVERVIEW Quality that's perfect for the World
Hatsun's Range of Dairy Ingredients is made directly from Liquid Milk and contains all the premium qualities and Nutritional benefits of Fresh COW'S MILK.
Hatsun's Procurement team ensures timely collection, testing of milk at the point of collection, cattle feed sales, encouraging farmers to grow their herd size, training farmers on a better animal management and clean milking. Over 110 veterinary doctors under direct employment assist in artificial insemination, feed management, breed management, vaccination program and also render full-scale animal care.
Hatsun's Dairy Ingredients are processed at the state-of-the-art processing technology run by people with strong technological capabilities. These, together with an innovative and flexible approach, enable us to manufacture a range of high quality products. Hatsun has an annual production of 20,000 MT of Milk Powders and 11,000 MT of milk Fat at present.
Preamble: We at "Hatsun" from management to down the line i.e. land/floor are conscious and continue to strive hard to achieve high level of pledge in obtaining pure milk and safe products. Scruple sly & sincerely IS standard of analysis are followed "before - during - after"; at procurement point, collection bank point, raw fresh milk reception point, Chilled milk point, market milk point, dairy ingredients point, dairy by-products point. Particularly physical, chemistry, microbiology, residue monitoring are applied at all necessary point in order to comply & to provide comfortable milk & milk products. This applies from cow to commercial.
At Fresh milk collection centre i.e. Hatsun Milk bank (HMB) First stage analysis):-Fresh Milk is procured and poured at our dedicated (major) fresh milk collection centre i.e. Hatsun Milk Bank (HMB).
1.4.10 PHYSICAL EVALUATION:
• Organ optic evaluation i.e. sensory evaluation is carried out by our trained HMB personal
• Milk is measured i.e. computerized. • Cleanliness of milk cans.
1.4.11 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS:
• Gerber method applied to find out fat percentage • Lactometer method is applied to find out Solid non fat
At Chilling centre raw fresh milk reception dock (Second tire analysis):
-1.4.12 PHYSICAL EVALUATION:
• Organ optic evaluation i.e. sensory evaluation is carried out by our trained HMB personal
• Milk is measured i.e. computerized. • Cleanliness of milk cans.
1.4.13 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS:
• Gerber method applied to find out fat percentage • Lactometer method is applied to find out Solid non fat • Adulteration test are carried out.
• MBRT is conducted. • COB is conducted.
• Sensory evaluation is carried out by our trained HMB personal • Milk is measured i.e. computerized.
• Cleanliness of milk cans.
1.4.15 CHEMICAL OF MILK:
• Gerber method applied to find out fat percentage • Lactometer method is applied to find out Solid non fat • Adulteration test are carried out.
• COB is conducted. • Acidity test
1.4.16 MICROBIOLOGY OF MILK: • MBRT of milk
• Antibiotic residue test • CAP residue test
• Standard plat count enumeration • Coli form enumeration
1.4.17 DURING AND AFTER PROCESS OF MARKET MILK: • Homogenization efficiency
• The entire test stated above to confirm its declaration on the package.
1.4.18 DURING AND AFTER PROCESS OF DAIRY INGREDIENTS:
• Entire IS standard of analysis and enumerations (Chemistry, microbiology, residue monitoring both quantitative and qualitative) are carried out scrupulously with out any deviations.
• Shelf-life studies are in place. • Third party analyses are in place. • Third party frequent audit are in place.
Constant monitoring, feed-back and collection of various datas have played and playing a major role in our assurance of safe products to our royal - real ultimate customers.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.5.1 PRIMARY OBJECTIVE
To find out the effective recruitment and selection process in HATSUN AGRO PRODUCT LTD with reference to ARUN ICE CREAMS, CHENNAI
1.5.2 SECONDARY OBJECTIVES
1. To evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.
2. To identify the various factors companies undertake prior to the recruitment process. 3. To study how the companies establish a balance between their business strategy and
4. To find the recruitment and selection system in the organization.,
5. To study the process of intake of employees with relation to experience , communication skills and qualification in the organization.,
6. To find out the reason why the people choose Hatsun Agro Product Ltd.,
7. To identify the reason why they are leaving the present company and also the reason to join Hatsun Agro Product Ltd.,
8. To evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.,
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
o HR professional is having a big responsibility to hire a best person from the available talent team. At the same time, one needs to be cost conscious. It is a good practice in recruitment to be objective and seek to identify the candidates' abilities. Judge on individual merits and set the same standards for all. Whereas generalized assumptions made about ability or ambition, based on applicant's sex, caste, age, religious belief, sexual orientation or any disability, is a bad practice. One need to use the technology, to get the best results from recruitment process.
o This study helps in finding the improvements to be done in recruitment and selection process.
o This study able to know about the expectations of the candidates from the company.This study able to learn about the strength and weakness of the strategies followed by the company.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
It cannot be generalized to any other organization.
There may be personal bias in the information provided, as some employees like to underestimate or appreciate their organization.
The results and findings are confined to a limited area.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 BOOK REVIEW
2.1.1. BOOK: EXPERIENCING RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Author: Jon Billsberry
this process? "Experiencing Recruitment and Selection" offers readers a unique insight into this life-changing event; one that is very different to the current recruitment literature as it gives a voice to both applicants and recruiters. Using real-life stories, this book explores applicants' and selectors' experiences of the recruitment and selection process. The author offers original insights into: differences between internal and external applicants; perceptions of fairness; how failure to get appointed influences internal applicants; how recruiters select for 'fit'; the reasons why people apply for jobs; the influence of market forces on selection decisions.
Each chapter focuses on a key topic in recruitment and selection and features at least three related stories. The stories are interwoven with analyses that demonstrate the key lessons for practitioners and students. Each chapter concludes with a series of provocative questions and a guide to further reading.With its practical, easy-to-use format, "Experiencing Recruitment and Selection" is essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students in disciplines including organisational psychology, organisational behaviour, management studies and HRM, as well as personnel or HR managers and occupational psychologists. "Experiencing Recruitment and Selection" uses real-life stories to explore issues such as why people apply for jobs, perceptions of fairness, how failure affects internal applicants, the impact of market forces on decisions, how recruiters select for 'fit' and much more. In each chapter Jon Billsberry tackles a particular topic, drawing on at least three related stories and concluding with provocative questions and a guide to further reading. The stories are interwoven throughout with analyses that highlight key lessons.
2.2 PROJECT REVIEW
2.2.1 REVIEW ON A STUDY ON RECRUITMENT AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS. Author : Nayab Naseer
Rcruitment is the process of soliciting, screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm, and therefore the process by which organizations fulfill their human
resource requirements. Small and Medium scale industries are relatively small enterprises employing far less manpower compared to large scale firms and usually concentrated on a specific area or region, tapping into the resources available in such areas. Recruitment is one of the major Human Resource activities of an enterprise. An enterprise first determines the number of employees required to run its operations through a manpower planning exercise, and then lists out the skills and qualifications required for each of these employees through a Job Analysis. The Human Resource department then conducts the recruitment process wherein they sources candidates through various ways to fulfill such requirements. The short listing and eventual selection the appropriate candidates from the candidates sourced for the vacancies count as the selection process, which is a sub-set of the recruitment process. This process repeats itself whenever there are new vacancies on when an existing employee leaves.
2.2.2. AUDITING RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION USING GENERIC BENCHMARKING
This article provides an account of an audit on the recruitment and selection systems and procedures in place within a printing company based in the West Midlands (England). A human resource audit (HRA) of generic benchmarks was developed from a literature review. The audit subsequently was applied to establish the current position of the company in the areas of recruitment and selection. The empirical investigation process primarily consisted of content analysis of documents and the interviewing of 13 staff within the company. As a result of the audit, the recruitment and selection processes, systems and procedures were identified as ineffective. Consequently, an action plan was developed as part of a quality improvement process and preparation for Investors in People Award. As a result of the implementation of the recommendations, the culture of the company and the staff should become more focused, systematic and of a higher quality.
2.2.3. TEACHER RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION: A REVIEW OF THE RECENT EMPIRICAL LITERATURE
Author: Glenn A. Daley
This article critically reviews the recent empirical literature on teacher recruitment and retention published in the UnitedStates. It examines the characteristics of individuals who enterand remain in the teaching profession, the characteristics ofschools and districts that successfully recruit and retain teachers, and the types of policies that show evidence of efficacy inrecruiting and retaining teachers. The goal of the article isto provide researchers and policymakers with a review that is comprehensive, evaluative, and up to date. The review of theempirical studies selected for discussion is intended to serve not only as a compendium of available recent research on teacherrecruitment and retention but also as a guide to the merit andimportance of these studies.
2.2.4. E-RECRUITMENT AND THE BENEFITS OF ORGANIZATIONAL WEB APPEAL
Author: Lori Foster Thompson
This study examined the influences of website design on prospective job seekers. A total of 182 participants accessed and reviewed an online job ad. Afterwards, they rated: (a) the attractiveness of the ad's formatting, (b) the usability of the website, (c) overall evaluations of the organization's web appeal, (d) impressions of the organization, and (e) willingness to pursue employment with the hiring organization. Although both the formatting attractiveness and usability of online recruitment materials influenced participants' inclinations to pursue jobs, formatting was more important than usability. Moreover, impressions of the employer mediated the relationship between satisfaction with the website and willingness to pursue employment with the organization. Overall, this research advances knowledge by applying signaling theory to the web-based recruitment domain and by testing a mediated relationship implied therein. In addition, this is the first study to introduce relative weights analysis to the recruitment literature.
2.2.5. THE STUDY ABOUT VARIOUS ASPECTS OF RECRUITMENT AND
Author: K. W. Smith
"Management is the art of getting things done through people": Mark Parker Follet. The above quote implies management to be a process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling all other organizational resources to achieve the stated organizational goals, which in turn would help in bringing up the organizational effectiveness and attaining optimum profits. All the efforts of the organization could be achieved through employing the organizational elements like Land, Labor and Capital.
Until recently, human resources where not given prior importance. With the emergence of industrialization and mass production, the concept of human resource started to change. After further studies, it was understood that human resources was one of the most important elements, in fact the assets of the organization. It involves human elements in an organization that contribute their maximum efforts towards the attainment of the organizational goals. When the human elements are properly managed, the concept of Human Resource Management emerges, which is defined as the planning, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resource to the end that individual, organizational and social objectives are accomplished.
2.2.6. STUDY ABOUT THE VARIOUS BENEFITS OFFERED BY RECRUITMENT TECHNIQUES
Author: Gareth Roberts.
Recruitment is a core of human resource activity carried out in organization of all kinds, whether they are manufacturing, trading, service or not-for-profit organizations. The recruitment activity makes it possible for these organizations to acquire the number and types of personnel necessary to ensure the continued operation of the business.