Telephone Exchange

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VOCATIONAL TRAINING

Report

D.L.W. VARANSI

NAME

- VINOD KUMAR

BRANCH

- ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

YEAR

- 2

ROLL NO.

– 10105EN066

COLLEGE

- IT-BHU VARANASI

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1. Acknowledgment 2. Preface 3. Introduction to D.L.W. 4. Telephone Exchange 5. AC Plant 6. Electronics Lab 7. Assembly Shop 8. Conclusion

INDEX

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would sincerely like to thank the employees and the officers of DLW, VARANASI for their help and support during the vocationaltraining. Despite their busy schedules, they took time out for us andexplained to us the various aspects of the working of the plant, from the production shops.

I would sincerely like to thank Shri Amit Kumar(ACWI/Elect.) andMr. Rajendra P.Srivastava(SSE/AC Plant),Mis. Ratna Singh(SSE/Telephone Exchange) who was instrumental in arranging thevocational training at DLW Varanasi, and without whose help andguidance the training could not have materialized.

I express my deep sense of gratitude toMr. S. P. Singh (Principal,TTC) for given me such a great opportunity

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The objectives of the practical training are to learn something aboutindustries practically and to be familiar with the working style of atechnical person to adjust simply according to the industrial environment.

It is rightly said practical life is far away from theoretical one.We learn in class room can give the practical exposure or real lifeexperience no doubt they help in improving the personality of thestudent, but the practical exposure in the field will help the student

inlong run of life and will be able to implement the theoreticalknowledge.

As, a part of academic syllabus of four year degree course in

Electronics Engineering, every student is required to undergo a practical training.

I am student of Second year Electronics and this report is written on the basis of practical knowledge acquired by me during the periodof practical training taken at Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi

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Introduction to D.L.W.

Background

– Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) is production unitunder the ministry of

railways. This was setup in collaboration withAmerican locomotive company (ALCO) USA in 1961 and the firstlocomotive was rolled out in 1964. This unit produces diesel electroniclocomotives and DG sets for Indian railways and other customers in Indiaand Abroad.

Subsequently a contract for transfer of technology of 4000 HPMicroprocessor Controlled AC/AC Freight (GT 46 MAC) / passenger (GT 46 PAC) locomotives and family of 710 engines has been signedwith electro motive division of general motors of USA for manufacturein DLW. the

production of these locomotives has now started and thusDLW is the only manufacturers of Diesel Electric Locomotives with bothALCO and General motors technologies in the world.

Brief History

•Set up in 1961 as a green-field project in technical collaboration with ALCO/USA to Manufacture Diesel Electric Locomotives.

•First locomotive rolled out and dedicated to nation in January,1964.

•Transfer-of-Technology agreement signed with General Motors/ USAin October,95 to manufacture state-of-the-art high traction AC-ACdiesel locomotives.

•A flagship company of Indian Railways offering complete range of flanking products in its area of operation

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•State-of-the art Design and Manufacturing facility to manufacturemore than 150 locomotives per annum with wide range of related products viz. components and sub-assemblies.

•Unbeatable trail-blazing track record in providing cost-effective, eco-friendly and reliable solutions to ever-increasing transportation needsfor over three decades.

•Fully geared to meet specific transportation needs by putting Price-Value-Technology equation perfectly right.

•A large base of delighted customers among many countries viz. SriLanka, Malaysia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Tanzania to name a few, bearing testimony to product leadership in its category.

SALIENT FEATURES:

Annual production capacity 25 Locomotives Annual turn-over (Rs) 5000 million Total number of staff 223 Workshop land 89 Hectares

Township area 211 Hectares Covered area in shops 86300 Sq.m

Covered area of other service buildings 73700 Sq.m Electrical power requirement 3468 KVA (Average maximum demand)

Electrical energy consumption (units/year) 19.8 million Stand by power generation capacity 3000 KW

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PRODUCT OF DLW:

DLW is an integrated plant and its manufacturing facilities are flexible innature. these can be utilized for manufacture of different design of locomotives of various gauges suiting costomer requirments and other products. the product range avilable is as under. :

•WDG4 4000 HP AC/AC Frieght traffic Locomotive

•WDP4 4000 HP AC/AC Broad Gauge High SpeedLocomotive

•WDG3D 3400 HP AC/AC Broad Gauge Mixed TrafficMicro-Processor Controlled Locomotive.

•WDM3C 3300 HP AC/DC Broad Broad Gauge MixedTraffic Locomotive. •WDM3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed TrafficLocomotive.

•WDP3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge High SpeedPassenger Locomotive. •WDG3A 3100 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge FreightLocomotive.

•WDM2 2600 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed TrafficLocomotive. •WDP1 2300 HP AC/DC Broad Gauge Intercity ExpressLocomotive. •WDM7 2150 HP DC/DC Broad Gauge Mixed TrafficLocomotive.

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PARTS OF EXCHANGE

1. Charger

2. Battery

3. Exchange (switching system)

4. Internal Distribution Frame (IDF)

5. Main Distribution Frame (MDF)

6. Distribution box (DB)

7. Distribution Pole (DP)

8. Consumers

9. Facilities Provided to Consumer

10.Transmission Bridge

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Types Of Telephone Exchange

MAX1

MAX2

MAX3

SAX

PAX

-

Private Auto Exchange

PBY -

Private Branch Exchange

1. Main Auto Exchange

2. 100 – 600 lines

3. Cabinet type

1. Small Auto Exchange

2. Less than 5 – 50lines

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Telephone Exchange - This Is the place form where extension of

phone line distribute to the user.

Internal Distribution Frame(IDF)- In if the framing of jumper is done . The cables which are coming out of the exchange are terminated in IDF and in MDF

 1. Crown type

 2. Block type

Main Distibution Frame(MDF)- Exchange is also provided in the rack type of tag block which is called MDF which is the main distribution frame. In MDF we mount the fuse hold tag at the Back of the Block and jumper in front.

Distribution Board(DB)- it is the box board in which cable pads are distributed according to the number which are to be provided near the distribution .DB are

installed after accretion interval of the distance making a proper distribution of cable which is easier with the consumer.

Distribution Pole- Distribution poles are much nearer to the consumer here it is easier to take cables from the consumer

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There are three types of faults-

1. Line Contacts

– It mean that the drop wire is connected

either with a pole or a tree if is broken down and a husky

voice is obtain when we ring.

2. Line Earth

– It means that drop wire breaks on its own when

it touches a pole or a tree ,a soft humming sound comes

when we dial a number.

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Telephone Exchange BSNL Modem DSLAM DB Splitter Phone Computer Load Balance Load Balance Load Balance

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2 1 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 3 2 4 5 1 2 obc TTC 800A D&D AC plant 800A Tele Ac plant 800A Spare 800A BC 1600A LTDB No.2 800A West wing 800A ADM?AC PLANT ILCT TR.2 1600A D&D w/s shop 800A COMPU TER 800A I/C TR-I 1600A I/C TR-2 1600A I/C TR-I 1600A East wing 800A Spare 800A I&C SF/1 400A 100A G.M. AC ADMS STREAT LIGHT 100A Central Wing 200A Staff Canteen 100A

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Cooling Tower

Liquid refrigerant Line Chiller water Line MOTOR COMP.

CONDENSER

Condenser water Line COND.

PUMP

Chiller EXP.

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SOFTWARE FEATURE-

1. Option of auto/semi auto/ manual mode.

2. Sequential start starting of condenser water pump ,chilled water pump and compressor with fine delay of 15 second.

3. Sequential load/unloading.

4. Auto start on power restoration. 5. CHW pump starting interlock. 6. Auto stop.

7. Auto restart of Chiller. 8. Anti recycle timer. 9. Maintenance trip.

10. Automatic lead or lag of compressor. 11. Crank case heater.

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12. Analog input error.

13. One gear programming. 14. Scheduling .

15. Under lower current and voltage trip. 16. condenser/C.T. Fan cycling.

17. Delay star to delta change over. 18. Easy diagnosis.

19. Continuous display of all reliant parameter. 20. Fault indication

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Electronics Lab

1. FET (FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR) Amplifier

2. Digital Ohm-Meter

3. Cascaded Amplifier

4. Cascoded Amplifier

5. Electro Optical

6. SCR Speed control of Universal AC/DC Motor.

7. Digital Logic

8. D.O.R. Single Phase Motor

9. Thermo Couple

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FET Amplifier

INTRODUCTION :

The FET transistor is a semiconductor device which depend for its operation on the control of current by an electric field.

TYPES :

1. JUNCTION FET TRANSISTOR(JFET) 2. Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOSFET)

FET Vs. FJT

1. Its operation depends upon flow of majority carrier only .So it is a unipolar device 2. It is simpler to fabricate and occupies less space in integrated form.

3. It exhibits a high input resistance,tepically many maga ohm. 4. It is less noisy than a bipolar device.

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P P P SUBSTRATE N SUBSTRATE GATE DRAIN SOURCE

SINGLE ENDED GEOMETRY JUNCTION FET

VGS VDS VGG VDD IG ID G S D

CKT OF FET Amplifier

D G S IG ID DRAIN GAIN G Current SOURCE D Current

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CASCADED AMPLIFIER

RE RE Rc Rc RB V CE

c

E CC VO VCC

A CASCADED Amplifier is the combination of Common emitter- Common emitter Transistor. The output of first transistor act as out put of second transistor.

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CASCODED AMPLIFIER

RL

VO

VI

The CASCODED amplifier is the combine Common emitter transistor

and common base transistor.

In this common emitter’s output will work as the input of the Common

base Transistor.

This is an AC circuit equivalent with batteries and the capacitor

replaced by short circuit

Figure

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References

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