Structural Terms (Architecture Board Exam Reviewer)

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ADDITION is an extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure.

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN is a method of proportioning structural elements such that computed stresses produced in the elements by the allowable stress load combinations do not exceed specified allowable stress (also called working stress design).

ALTER or ALTERATION is any change, addition or modification in construction or occupancy.

APPROVED as to materials and type of construction, refers to approval by the building official as the result of investigation and tests conducted by the building official, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by recognized authorities, technical or scientific organizations. BUILDING is any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. BUILDING, EXISTING, is a building erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a legal building permit has been issued. BUILDING OFFICIAL is the officer or other designated authority charged with the

administration and enforcement of this code, or the building official’s duly authorized


LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD) METHOD is a method of proportioning structural elements using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to all appropriate load combinations. The term “LRFD” is used in the design of steel and wood


STRENGTH DESIGN METHOD is a method of proportioning structural elements such that the computed forces produced in the elements by the factored load combinations do not exceed the factored element strength. The term “strength design” is used in the design of concrete and masonry structures. STRUCTURE is that which is built or

constructed, an edifice or building of any kind, or any piece of work artificially built up or

composed of parts joined together in some definite manner.

STRUCTURAL ENGINEER is a registered Civil Engineer with special qualification in the practice of Structural Engineering as recognized by the Board of Civil Engineering of the Professional Regulation Commission of the Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers through the Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines.


APPROVAL shall mean that the proposed work or completed work conforms to this section in the opinion of the building official.

AS GRADED is the extent of surface conditions on completion of grading.

BEDROCK is in-place solid rock.

BENCH is a relatively level step excavated into earth material on which fill is to be placed. BORROW is earth material acquired from an off-site location for use on grading on a off-site.

CIVIL ENGINEER is a professional engineer licensed to practice in the field of civil engineering.

CIVIL ENGINEERING is the application of the knowledge of the forces of nature, principles of mechanics and the properties of materials to the evaluation, design and construction of civil works.

COMPACTION is the densification of a fill by mechanical means.

EARTH MATERIAL is any rock, natural soil or fill or any combination thereof.

ENGINEERING GEOLOGIST is a licensed geologist experienced and knowledgeable in engineering geology.

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY is the application of geologic knowledge and principles in the investigation and evaluation of naturally occurring rock and soil for use in the design of civil works.


EROSION is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the movement of wind, water or ice.

EXCAVATION is the mechanical removal of earth material.

FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial means.

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER is an engineer experienced and knowledgeable in the practice of geotechnical engineering.

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING is the application of the principles of soil and rock mechanics in the investigation, evaluation and design of civil works involving the use of earth materials and the inspection or testing of the construction thereof.

GRADE is the vertical location of the ground surface.

GRADE, EXISTING, is the grade prior to grading.

GRADE, FINISH, is the final grade of the site that conforms to the approved plan.

GRADE, ROUGH, is the stage at which the grade approximately conforms to the approved plan.

GRADING is any excavating or filling or combination thereof.

KEY is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench excavated in earth material beneath the toe of a proposed fill slope.


inspection required by this code be performed by the civil engineer, geotechnical engineer or engineering geologist. Such inspections include that performed by persons supervised by such engineers or geologists and shall be sufficient to form an opinion relating to conduct of the work. SITE is any lot or parcel of land or contiguous combination thereof, under the same ownership, where grading is performed or permitted.

SLOPE is an inclined ground surface the inclination of which is expressed as a ratio of vertical distance to horizontal distance.

SOIL is naturally occurring superficial deposits overlying bedrock.

SOILS ENGINEER. See Geotechnical Engineer SOILS ENGINEERING. See Geotechnical Engineering

TERRACE is a relatively level step constructed in the face of a graded slope surface for drainage and maintenance purposes. III. GENERAL

ACCESS FLOOR SYSTEM is an assembly consisting of panels mounted on pedestals to provide an under-floor space for the installations of mechanical, electrical, communications or similar systems to serve as an air-supply or return-air plenum.

AGRICULTURAL BUILDING is a structure designed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. The structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN METHOD is a method of proportioning structural elements such that computed stresses produced in the elements by the allowable stress load

combinations do not exceed specified allowable stress (also called working stress design).

ASSEMBLY BUILDING is a building or portion of a building for the gathering together of 50 or more persons for such purposes as deliberation, education, instruction, worship, entertainment, amusement, drinking or dining, or awaiting transportation.

AWNING is a shelter supported entirely from the exterior wall of a building.

BALCONY, EXTERIOR, is an exterior floor system projecting from a structure and supported by that structure, with no additional independent supports.

DEAD LOADS consist of the weight of all materials and fixed equipment incorporated into the building or other structure.


DECK is an exterior floor system supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjoining structure and/or posts, piers, or other independent supports.

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are buildings and other structures that are intended to remain

operational in the event of extreme environmental loading from wind or earthquakes.

GARAGE is a building or portion thereof in which motor vehicle containing flammable or combustible liquids or gas in its tank is stored, repaired or kept.

GARAGE, PRIVATE, is a building or portion of a building, not more than 90 sq. m. in area, in which only motor vehicles used by the tenants of the building on the premises are kept or stored. LIMIT STATE is a condition in which a structure or component is judged either to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state). LIVE LOADS are forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants, and their possessions,

environmental effects, differential movements, and restrained dimensional changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude. All other loads are variable loads.

MARQUEE is a permanent roofed structure attached to and supported by the building and projecting over public property.

OCCUPANCY is the purpose for that a building, or part thereof, is used or intended to be used. WALLS

BEARING WALL is any wall meeting either of the following classifications:

1. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 0.5 KN per linear meter of superimposed load.

2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 1.0 KN per linear meter superimposed loads, or any such wall supporting its own weight for more than one story.

EXTERIOR WALL is any wall or element of a wall, or any member or group of members,

that defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and that has a slope of 60 degrees or greater with the horizontal plane.

NONBEARING WALL is any wall that is not a bearing wall

PARAPET WALL is the part of any wall entirely above the roof line.

RETAINING WALL is a wall designed to resist the later displacement of soil or other materials.


BASIC WIND SPEED, V is a 3-second gust speed at 10 meters above the ground in Exposure C and associated with an annual probability of 0.02 of being equaled or exceeded (50-year mean recurrence interval).

BUILDING, ENCLOSED, is a building that does not comply with the requirements for open or partially enclosed buildings.

BUILDING, OPEN, is a structure having all walls at least 80% open.

BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED is a building that complies with both of the following conditions:

1. The total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds the sum of the areas of the openings in the balance of the building envelope (walls and roof) by more than 10% and

2. The total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds 0.5 sq. m. or 1% of the area of that wall, whichever is smaller, and the percentage of openings in the balance of the building envelope does not exceed 20%.

BUILDING, LOW RISE, is an enclosed or partially enclosed building which complies with the following conditions:

1. Mean roof height, h, less than or equal to 18 meters.

2. Mean roof height, h, does not exceed least horizontal dimension.

COMPONENTS AND CLADDING are elements that do not qualify as part of the main wind-force resisting system.


DESIGN FORCE, F, is the equivalent static force to be used in the determination of wind loads for open buildings and other structures. DESIGN PRESSURE, p, is the equivalent static pressure to be used in the determination of wind loads for buildings.

EFFECTIVE WIND AREA is the area used to determined GCp. For cladding fasteners, the effective wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener. FLEXIBLE BUILDINGS AND OTHER

STRUCTURES are slender buildings and other structures that have a fundamental natural frequency less than 1 Hz. Included are buildings and other structures that have a height, h, exceeding four times the least horizontal dimension.

IMPORTANCE FACTOR, I, is a factor that accounts for the degree of hazard to human life and damage to property.

MAIN WIND-FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM is an assemblage of structural elements assigned to provide support and stability for the overall structure. The system generally receives wind loading from more than one surface.

RECOGNIZED LITERATURE are published research findings and technical papers that are approved by the authority having jurisdiction. V. EARTHQUAKE

BASE is the level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the structure or the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported.

BASE SHEAR, V, is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure.

BEARING WALL SYSTEM is a structural system without a complete vertical load-carrying space frame.

BOUNDARY ELEMENT is an element at the edges or openings or at perimeters of shear walls or diaphragms.

BRACED FRAME is an essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type that is provided to resist lateral forces.

BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM is an essentially complete space frame that provides support for gravity loads.

CANTILEVERED COLUMN ELEMENT is a column element provided to transfer lateral-force-resisting system that cantilevers from a fixed base and has minimal moment capacity at the top, with lateral forces applied essentially at the top.

COLLECTOR is a member or element provide to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a

structure top vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system.

COMPONENT is a part or element of an architectural, electrical, mechanical or structural system.

COMPONENT, EQUIPMENT, is a mechanical or electrical component or element that is part of a mechanical and/or electrical system.

COMPONENT, FLEXIBLE, is a component, including its attachments, having a fundamental period greater than 0.06 second.

COMPONENT, RIGID, is a component,

including its attachments, having a fundamental period less than or equal to 0.06 second. CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME is a braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces.

DESIGN BASIS GROUND MOTION is that ground motion that has a 10% chance of being exceeded in 50 years as by a site-specific hazard analysis or may be determined by a hazard map. A suite of ground motion time histories with dynamic properties representative of site characteristics shall be used to represent this ground motion. The dynamic effects of the Design Basis Ground Motion may be

represented by the Design Response Spectrum. DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRUM is an elastic response spectrum of 5% equivalent viscous damping used to represent the dynamic effects of the Design Basis Ground Motion for the design of structures. This response spectrum may be either a site-specific spectrum based on geologic, tectonic, seismological and soil


characteristics associated with a specific site or may be a spectrum.

DESIGN SEISMIC FORCE is the minimum total strength design base shear, factored and distributed.

DIAPHRAGM is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. The term

“diaphragm” includes horizontal bracing systems.

DIAPHRAGM OR SHEAR WALL CHORD is the boundary element of a diaphragm or shear wall that is assumed to take axial stresses analogous to the flanges of a beam.

DIAPHRAGM STRUT (drag strut, tie, collector) is the element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers diaphragm parallel to the applied load that collects and transfers diaphragm shear to the vertical-resisting elements or distributes loads within the diaphragm. Such members may take axial tension or compression.

DRIFT. See “story drift”

DUAL SYSTEM is a combination of moment-resisting frames and shear walls or braced frames.

ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME (EBF) is a steel-braced frame.

ELASTIC RESPONSE PARAMETERS are forces and deformations determined from an elastic dynamic analysis using an unreduced ground motion representation.

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES are those structures that are necessary for emergency operations subsequent to a natural disaster.

FLEXIBLE ELEMENT or system is one whose deformation under lateral load is significantly larger than adjoining parts of the system. HORIZONTAL BRACING SYSTEM is a horizontal truss system that serves the same function as a diaphragm.


LATERAL-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM is that part of the structural system.

MOMENT-RESISTING SYSTEM is a frame in which members and joints are capable of resisting forces primarily by flexure.

MOMENT-RESISTING WALL FRAME (MRWF) is a masonry wall frame especially detailed to provide ductile behavior.

ORDINARY BRACED FRAME (OBF) is a steel-braced frame or concrete-steel-braced frame.

ORDINARY MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME (OMRF) is a moment-resisting frame not meeting special detailing requirements for ductile behavior.

ORTHOGONAL EFFECTS are the earthquake load effects on structural elements common to the lateral-force-resisting systems along two orthogonal axes.

OVERSTRENGTH is a characteristic of structures where the actual strength is larger than the design strength. The degree of

overstrength is material-and-system-dependent. P∆ EFFECT is the secondary effect on shears, axial forces and moments of frame members induced by the vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced building system.

SHEAR WALL is a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of the wall

(sometimes referred to as vertical diaphragm or structural wall).

SHEAR WALL-FRAME INTERACTIVE SYSTEM uses combinations of shear walls and frames designed to resist lateral forces in proportion to their relative rigidities considering interaction between shear walls and frames on all levels. SOFT STORY is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70% of the stiffness of the story above.

SPACE FRAME is a three-dimensional structural system, without bearing walls, composed of members interconnected so as to function as a complete self-contained unit with or without the aid of horizontal diaphragms or floor-bracing systems.


SPECIAL CONCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAME (SCBF) is a steel-braced frame. SPECIAL MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME (SMRF) is a moment-resisting frame specially detailed to provide ductile behavior.

SPECIAL TRUSS MOMENT FRAME (STMF) is a moment-resisting frame specially detailed to provide ductile behavior.

STORY is the space between levels.

STORY DRIFT is the lateral displacement of one level relative to the level above or below.

STORY DRIFT RATIO is the story drift divided by the story height.

STORY SHEAR, V, is the summation of design lateral forces above the story under


STRENGTH is the capacity of an element or a member to resist factored load.

STRUCTURE is an assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist lateral forces. Structures may be

categorized as building structures or nonbuilding structures.

SUBDIAPHRAGM is a portion of a larger wood diaphragm designed to anchor and transfer local forces to primary diaphragm struts and the main diaphragm.

VERTICAL LOAD-CARRYING FRAME is a space frame designed to carry vertical gravity loads.

WALL ANCHORAGE SYSTEM is the system of elements anchoring the wall to the diaphragm and those elements within the diaphragm required to develop the anchorage forces, including subdiaphragms and continuous ties. WEAK STORY is one in which the story strength is less than 80% of the story above.


ADMIXTURE is material other than water, aggregate, or hydraulic cement used as an ingredient of concrete and added to concrete

before or during its mixing to modify its properties.

AGGREGATE is granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone and iron blast-furnace slag, and when used with a cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar.

AGGREGATE, LIGHTWEIGHT, is aggregate with a dry, loose weight of 1120 kg/cu.m. or less. AIR-DRY WEIGHT is the unit weight of a lightweight concrete specimen cured for seven days with neither loss nor gain of moisture at 15deg.C to 27deg.C and dried for 21 days in 50 +- 7 percent relative humidity at 23deg.C +- 1.1deg.C.

ANCHORAGE DEVICE in post-tensioning is a device used to anchor tendons to concrete member; in pretensioning, a device used to anchor tendons during hardening of concrete. ANCHORAGE ZONE in post-tensioned members is the portion of the member through which the concentrated prestressing force is transferred to the concrete and distributed more uniformly across the section. Its extent is equal to the largest dimension of the cross section. For intermediate anchorage devices, the anchorage zone includes the disturbed regions ahead of and behind the anchorage devices.

BASIC MONOSTRAND ANCHORAGE DEVICE is an anchorage device used with any single 16mm or smaller diameter bar that satisfies the anchorage device requirements of the Post-Tensioning Institute’s “Specification for Unbonded Single Strand Tendons”.

BASIC MULTISTRAND ANCHORAGE DEVICE is an anchorage device used with multiple strands, bars or wires, or single bars larger than 16mm diameter, that satisfies the bearing stress and minimum plate stiffness requirements of AASHTO Bridge Specifications.

BONDED TENDON is a prestressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting.

CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS are materials, which have cementing value when used in concrete either by themselves, such as Portland cement, blended hydraulic cements and


expansive cement, or such materials in combination with fly ash, raw or other calcined natural pozzolans, silica fume, or ground granulated blast-furnace slag.

COLUMN is a member with a ratio of height-to-least-lateral dimension of 3 or greater used primarily to support axial compressive load. COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS are concrete flexural members of precast and cast-in-place concrete elements, or both, constructed in separate placements but so interconnected that all elements respond to loads as a unit.

COMPRESSION-CONTROLLED SECTION is a cross section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel at nominal strength is less than or equal to the compression-controlled strain limit.

COMPRESSION-CONTROLLED STRAIN LIMIT is the net tensile strain at balanced strain conditions.

CONCRETE is a mixture of Portland cement or any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water, with or without admixtures.

CONCRETE, SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF (f’c) is the compressive strength of concrete used in design and expressed in megapascals (Mpa).

CONCRETE, STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT, is concrete containing lightweight aggregate and has an air-dry unit weight as determined by “Test Method for Unit Weight of Structural Lightweight Concrete” (ASTM C 567) not exceeding 1840 kg/cu.m. In this code, a lightweight concrete without natural sand is termed “all-lightweight concrete” and lightweight concrete in which all fine aggregate consists of normal-weight sand is termed “sand-lightweight concrete.”

CONTRACTION JOINT is a formed, sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete structure to create a weakened plane and regulate the location of cracking resulting from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure.

CURVATURE FRICTION is friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified prestressing tendon profile.

DEFORMED REINFORCEMENT is deformed reinforcing bars, bar and rod mats, deformed wire, welded smooth wire fabric and welded deformed wire fabric.

DEVELOPEMENT LENGTH is the length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design strength of reinforcement at a critical section.

EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION (d) is the distance measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement. EFFECTIVE PRESTRESS is the stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses have occurred, excluding effects of dead load and superimposed load.

EMBEDMENT LENGTH is the length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section.


reinforcement (prestressed or nonprestressed) that is the farthest from the extreme

compression fiber.

ISOLATION JOINT is a separation between adjoining parts of a concrete structure, usually a vertical plane, at a designed location such as to interfere least with performance of the structure, yet such as to allow relative movement in three directions and avoid formation of cracks

elsewhere in the concrete and through which all or part of the bonded reinforcement is


JACKING FORCE is the temporary force exerted by device that introduces tension into prestressing tendons in prestressed concrete. LOAD, DEAD, is the dead weight supported by a member.

LOAD, FACTORED, is the load, multiplied by appropriate load factors, used to proportion members by the strength design method. LOAD, LIVE, is the live load.


LOAD, SERVICE, is the load specified (without load factors).

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY is the ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below proportional limit of material.

NET TENSILE STRAIN is the tensile strain at nominal strength exclusive of strains due to effective prestress, creep, shrinkage and temperature.

PEDESTAL is an upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least lateral dimension not exceeding of 3. PLAIN CONCRETE is structural concrete with no reinforcement or with less reinforcement than the minimum amount specified for reinforced concrete.

PLAIN REINFORCEMENT is reinforcement that does not conform to definition of deformed reinforcement.

POST-TENSIONING is a method of prestressing in which tendons are tensioned after concrete has hardened.

PRECAST CONCRETE is a structural concrete element cast in other than its final position in the structure.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE is structural concrete in which internal stresses have been introduced to reduce potential tensile stresses in concrete resulting fro loads.

PRETENSIONING is a method of prestressing in which tendons are tensioned before concrete is placed.

REINFORCED CONCRETE is structural concrete reinforced with no less than the minimum amounts of prestressing tendons or nonprestressed reinforcement.

REINFORCEMENT is material excluding prestressing tendons unless specifically included.

RESHORES are shores placed snugly under a concrete slab or other structural member after the original forms and shores have been removed from a larger area, thus requiring the

new slab or structural member to deflect and support its own weight and existing construction loads applied prior to the installation of the reshores.

SHEATHING is a material encasing a prestressing tendon to prevent bonding the tendon with the surrounding concrete, to provide corrosion protection, and to contain the

corrosion inhibiting coating.

SHORES are vertical or inclined support members designed to carry the weight of the formwork, concrete and construction loads above.

SPECIAL ANCHORAGE DEVICE is an anchorage device that satisfies the standard acceptance tests of AASHTO “Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges”, Division II. SPIRAL REINFORCEMENT is continuously wound reinforcement in the form of a cylindrical helix.

SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH (fct) is the tensile strength of concrete determined in accordance with ASTM C 496 as described in “Specifications for Lightweight Aggregate for Structural Concrete” (ASTM C 330).

STIRRUP is reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a structural member, typically bars, wires, or welded wire fabric (plain or deformed) bent into L, U or rectangular shapes and located perpendicular to or at an angle longitudinal reinforcement. (The term “stirrups” is usually applied to lateral

reinforcement in flexural members and the term “ties” to those in compression members.) STRENGTH, DESIGN, is the nominal strength multiplied by a strength-reduction factor, φ. STRENGTH, NORMAL, is the strength of a member or cross section calculated in

accordance with provisions and assumptions of the strength design method before application of any strength-reduction factors.

STRENGTH, REQUIRED, is the strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations.


STRUCTURAL CONCRETE is all concrete used for structural purposes, including plain and reinforced concrete.

TENDON is a steel element such as wire, cable, bar, rod or strand, or a bundle of such elements, used to impart prestress forces to concrete. TENSION-CONTROLLED SECTION is a cross section in which the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel at nominal strength is greater than or equal to 0.005.

TIE is a loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement. A continuously wound bar or wire in the form of a circle, rectangle or other polygon shape without re-entrant corners is acceptable.

TRANSFER is the act of transferring stress in prestressing tendons from jacks or pretensioning bed to concrete member.

UNBONDED TENDON is a tendon that is permanently prevented from bonding to the concrete after stressing.

WALL is a member, usually vertical, used to enclose or separate spaces.

WOBBLE FRICTION in prestressed concrete, is friction caused by unintended deviation of prestressing sheath or duct from its specified profile.

YIELD STRENGTH is the specified minimum yield strength or yield point of reinforcement in megapascals (Mpa). Yield strength or yield point shall be determined in tension according to applicable ASTM standards.


BASE OF STRUCTURE is a level at which earthquake motions are assumed to be imparted to a building. This level does not necessarily coincide with the ground level.

BOUNDARY ELEMENTS are portions along structural wall and structural diaphragm edges strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement.

COLLECTOR ELEMENTS are elements that serve to transmit the inertial forces within

structural diaphragms to members of the lateral-force-resisting system.

CONFINED CORE is the area within the core defined by h.

CONNECTION is an element that joins two precast members or a precast member and a cast-in-place member.

COUPLING BEAM is a horizontal element in plane with the connecting two shear walls. CROSSTIE is a continuous reinforcing bar having a seismic hook at one end and a hook not less than 90 degrees with at least six-diameter extension at the other end. The hooks shall engage peripheral longitudinal bars. The 90-degree hooks of two successive crosstie engaging the same longitudinal bars shall be alternated end for end.

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT is the total lateral displacement expected for the design-basis earthquake, as required by the governing code for earthquake-resistant design.

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR A BAR WITH A STANDARD HOOK is the shortest distance between the critical section (where the strength of the bar is to be developed) and a tangent to the outer edge of the 90-degree hook.

DRY CONNECTION is a connection used between precast members, which do not qualify as a wet connection.

HOOP is a close tie or continuously wound tie. A closed tie can be made up of several reinforcing elements, each having seismic hooks at both ends. A continuously wound tie shall have a seismic hook at both ends.

JOINT is the geometric volume common to intersecting members.

LATERAL FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM is that portion of the structure composed of members proportioned to resist forces related to

earthquake effects.

LIGHTWEIGHT-AGGREGATE CONCRETE is an all-lightweight or sand-lightweight aggregate concrete made with lightweight aggregates.


MOMENT FRAME is a space frame in which members and joints resist forces through flexure, shear, and axial force.

NONLINEAR ACTION LOCATION is the center of the region of yielding in flexure, shear or axial action.

NONLINEAR ACTION REGION is where the member length over which nonlinear action takes place. It shall be taken as extending a distance of no less than h/2 on either side of the nonlinear action location.

SEISMIC HOOK is a hook on a stirrup, hoop or crosstie having a bend not less than 135 degrees, except that circular hoops shall have a bend of not less than 90 degrees. Hooks shall have a six-diameter (but not less than 75mm), extension that engages the longitudinal

reinforcement and projects into the interior of the stirrup or hoop.

SHELL CONCRETE is the concrete outside the transverse reinforcement confining the concrete. SPECIFIED LATERAL FORCES are lateral forces corresponding to the appropriate distribution of the design base shear force prescribed by the governing code for earthquake-resistant design.

STRONG CONNECTION is a connection that remains elastic, while the designated nonlinear action regions undergo inelastic response under the Design Basis Ground Motion.

STRUCTURAL DIAPHRAGMS are structural members, such as floor and roof slabs, that transmit inertial forces to lateral force resisting members.

STRUCTURAL TRUSSES are assemblages of reinforced concrete members subjected primarily to axial forces.

STRUCTURAL WALLS are walls proportioned to resist combinations of shears, moment, and axial forces induced by earthquake motions. STRUT is an element of a structural diaphragm used to provide continuity around an opening in the diaphragm.

TIE ELEMENTS are elements that serve to transmit inertia forces and prevent separation of building components such as footings and walls. WALL PIER is a wall segment with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio between 2.5 and 6, and whose clear height is at least two times its horizontal length.

WET CONNECTION uses any of the splicing methods to connect precast members and uses cast-in-place concrete or grout to fill the splicing closure.


BLOCKED DIAPHRAGM is a diaphragm in which all sheathing edges not occurring on framing members are supported on an connected to blocking.


CONSTRUCTION is a type of construction whose primary structural elements are formed by a system of repetitive wood-framing members.

DIAPHRAGM is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements. When the term “diaphragm” is used, it includes horizontal bracing systems.

FIBERBOARD is a fibrous-felted, homogenous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers (usually wood or crane) having a density of less than 497 kg/cu.m. but more than 160 kg/cu.m.

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBERS are structural elements, the section of which is composed of built-up lumber, wood structural panels or wood structural panels in combination with lumber, all parts bonded together with adhesive.

GRADE (Lumber), the classification of lumber in regard to strength and utility in accordance with the grading rules of an approved lumber grading agency.

HARDBOARD is a fibrous-felted, homogenous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers

consolidated under heat and pressure in a hot press to a density not less than 497 kg/cu.m. NOMINAL SIZE (Lumber), the commercial size designation of width and depth, standard sawn


lumber grades; somewhat larger than the standard net size of dressed lumber. NORMAL LOADING is a design load that stressed a member or fastening to the full allowable stress. This loading may be applied for approximately 10 years, either continuously or cumulatively, and 90 percent of this load may be applied for the remainder of the life of the member or fastening.

PARTICLE BOARD is a manufactured panel product consisting of particles of wood or combinations of wood particles and wood fibers bonded together with synthetic resins or other suitable bonding system by a bonding process, in accordance with approved nationally

recognized standard.

PLYWOOD is a panel of laminated veneers. ROTATION is the torsional movement of a diaphragm about a vertical axis.

SUBDIAPHRAGM is a portion of a larger wood diaphragm designed to anchor and transfer local forces to primary diaphragm struts and the main diaphragm.

TREATED WOOD is wood treated with an approved preservative under treating and quality control procedures.

WOOD OR NATURAL RESISTANCE TO DECAY OR TERMITES is the heartwood of the species set forth below. Corner sapwood is permitted on 5% of the pieces provided 90% or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood. Recognized species are:

Decay resistant: Narra, Kamagong, Dao, Tangile Termite resistant: Narra, Kamagong

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL is a structural panel product composed primarily of wood. Wood structural panels include all-veneer plywood, composite panels containing a combination of veneer and wood-based material, and mat0formed panel such as oriented stranded board and waferboard. IX. GENERAL


BEDDED AREA is the area of the surface of a masonry unit, which is in contact with mortar in place of the joint.

EFFECTIVE AREA OF REINFORCEMENT is the cross-sectional area of reinforcement multiplied by the cosine of the angle

between the reinforcement and the direction for which effective area is to be determined. GROSS AREA is the total cross-sectional area of a specified section.

NET AREA is the gross cross-sectional area minus the area of ungrouted cores, notches, cells and unbedded areas. Net area is the actual surface area of a cross section of masonry.

TRANSFORMED AREA is the equivalent area of one material to a second based on the ratio of moduli of elasticity of the first material to the second.


ADHESION BOND is the adhesion between masonry units and mortar or grout.

REINFORCING BOND is the adhesion between steel reinforcement and mortar or grout.

BOND BEAM is a horizontal grouted element within masonry in which reinforcement is embedded.

CELL is a void space having a gross cross-sectional area greater than 967 sq. mm. CLEANOUT is an opening to the bottom of a grout space of sufficient size and spacing to allow the removal of debris.

COLLAR JOINT is the mortared or grouted space between wythes of masonry.

COLUMN, REINFORCED, is a vertical structural member in which both the reinforcement and masonry resist compression.

COLUMN, UNREINFORCED, is a vertical structural member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to the thickness does not exceed three times the thickness.


ACTUAL DIMENSIONS are the measured dimensions of s designed item. The actual dimension shall not vary from the specified dimension by more than the amount allowed in the appropriate standard of quality.

NOMINAL DIMENSIONS of masonry units are equal to its specified dimensions plus the thickness of the joint with which the unit is laid.

SPECIFIED DIMENSIONS are the dimensions specified by the manufacturer for construction of masonry, masonry units, joints or any other component of a structure. GROUT LIFT is an increment of grout height within the total grout pour.

GROUT POUR is the total height of masonry wall to be grouted prior to the erection of additional masonry. A grout pour will consist of one or more grout lifts.


GROUTED HOLLOW-UNIT MASONRY is that form of grouted masonry construction in which certain designated cells of hollow units are continuously filled with grout. GROUTED MULTIWYTHE MASONRY is that form of grouted masonry construction in which the space between the wythes is solidly or periodically filled with grout.


BED JOINT is the mortar joint that is horizontal at the time the masonry units are placed.

HEAD JOINT is the mortar joint having a vertical transverse plane.

MASONRY JOINT is brick, tile, stone, and glass block or concrete block.

HOLLOW-MASONRY JOINT is a masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area (solid area) in any plane parallel to the surface containing cores, cells or deep frogs is less than 75% of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

SOLID-MASONRY JOINT is a masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane

parallel to the surface containing the cores or cells is at least 75% of the gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane. PRISM is an assemblage of masonry units and mortar with or without grout used as a test specimen for determining properties of the masonry.

REINFORCED MASONRY is that form of masonry construction in which reinforcement acting in conjunction with the masonry is used to resist forces.

SHELL is the outer portion of a hollow masonry unit as placed in masonry. WALLS:

BONDED WALL is a masonry wall in which two or more wythes are bonded to act as a structural unit.

CAVITY WALL is a wall containing

continuous air space with a minimum width of 51mm and a maximum width of 114mm between wythes, which are tied with metal ties.

WALL TIE is a mechanical metal fastener, which connects wythes of masonry to each other or to other materials.

WEB is an interior solid portion of a hollow-masonry unit as placed in hollow-masonry.

WYTHE is the portion of a wall, which is one masonry unit in thickness. A collar joint is not considered a wythe.




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