Air Force Combat Fundamentals AFTTP 3-3.8

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COMBAT

FUNDAMENTALS

UNCLASSIFIED // FOUO

UNCLASSIFIED // FOUO

BY ORDER OF THE

SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE

3-3.8

AIR FORCE TACTICS,

TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES

GUARDIAN ANGEL and

Special Tactics Forces (U)

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NOTICE: AFTTP 3-1 and 3-3 volumes are available on-line via SIPRNET at the following web

site: http://www.nellis.af.smil.mil/units/JASTC/default.htm.

OF THE AIR FORCE AND PROCEDURES 3-3.8

1 July 2006 Tactical Doctrine COMBAT FUNDAMENTALS— GUARDIAN ANGEL and Special Tactics Forces

OPR: AFSOC/DOXT (1Lt Luke Bates) 14 WPS (Capt Ed Espinoza)

Certified by: HQ AFSOC/CC (Lt Gen Michael W. Wooley)

Supersedes NA Pages: 936

Distribution: X (Controlled by USAFWC/DOTW)

PURPOSE: The Air Force Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (AFTTP) 3-3 series publications

are the primary aircraft fundamental reference document for the USAF This series provides considerations to be used in planning and execution for effective mission accomplishment. These recognized best practices are presented as the foundation of employment and standardization for all USAF weapons systems.

APPLICATION: This publication applies to all regular, Air Force Reserve, and Air National

Guard personnel. In accordance with AFI 33-360 V1 “TTP and TTP(I) publications are not directive.” The tactics, techniques, and procedures in this document are still authoritative; deviations require sound judgment and careful consideration. In cases where this publication and AFIs conflict, the applicable AFI will take precedence. The following joint publication definitions apply:

Tactics—The employment and ordered arrangement of forces in relation to each other. (JP 1-02)

Techniques—Non-prescriptive ways or methods used to perform missions, functions, or tasks. (JP 1-02)

Procedures—Standard, detailed steps that prescribe how to perform specific tasks. (JP 1-02)

SCOPE: This manual addresses basic weapon system tasks. AFTTP 3-3 provides information

and guidelines on basic procedures and techniques used for standardization. It presents a solid foundation on which effective tactics can be executed.

SERIES: The series of AFTTP 3-3 volumes includes the following:

Volume 3 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—A/OA-10

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Volume 5 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—F-16C/D

Volume 8 Combat Fundamentals—GUARDIAN ANGEL

and Special Tactics Forces

Volume 15 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—AWACS

Volume 17 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—F-15E

Volume 18 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—F-117

Volume 19 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—B-52

Volume 20 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—B-1

Volume 22A Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—KC-10

Volume 22B Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—KC-135

Volume 24 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—HH-60G

Volume 25A Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—C-130

Volume 25B Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—C-130J

Volume 30 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—JSTARS

Volume 31 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—AC-130

Volume 33 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—HC/MC-130

Volume 34 Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—MH-53

Volume 35A Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—C-17

Volume 35B Combat Aircraft Fundamentals—C-5

AUTHORS: The following people assisted in writing and preparing this volume:

Maj Scott Shepard HQ AFSOC/DOXJ

Capt Mike Branston 720 OSS

Capt Brian Gebo 347 OSS/OSKW

Capt Travis Woodworth AFSOC/DOXF

1Lt Luke Bates 34 WPS (Vol OPR)

1Lt Greg Lowdermilk 308 RQS

CMSgt Tom Phillips HQ AFSOC/DOXJ

SMSgt Don Allie 131 RQS

SMSgt Mike Barnes HQ ACC/A3TOP

SMSgt Brain Douglas HQ AFSOC/DOTW

SMSgt Leif Eiriksson 131 RQS

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SMSgt Steve Lupenski 123 STS

SMSgt Lee Shaffer HQ AFSOC/DOV

MSgt Bryan Kasmenn 563 OSS/SERE

MSgt Jerry Nowlin 16 OSS/OSTS

MSgt Jeff Murphy 38 RQS

MSgt John Romspert 212 RQS

TSgt Brady Armistead 720 OSS

TSgt Travis Butikofer 563 OSS/SERE

TSgt Jim Goyet 103 RQS

TSgt Jeff Green 103 RQS

TSgt Alexander Guerrero 58 RQS

TSgt Scotty Howell 720 OSS

TSgt Mike Merritt CENTAF A3 DOOR

TSgt Don Nickel 720 OSS

TSgt Mike McBee 58 RQS

TSgt Mike Malloy 131 RQS

Tsgt Paul Orse 720 OSS

TSgt Rob Sanders 38 RQS

TSgt Todd Swartz 23 STS

SSgt Dirk Baier 58 RQS

LEAD PRODUCTION TEAM. The following individuals prepared, edited, and published this

volume:

Capt Lisa Kruger USAFWC/DOTW Volume Manager

Mr Dale Mitcham USAFWC/DOTW Technical Editor

Mr Dave Foote USAFWC/DOTW Layout Editor

Mr Mike Davis USAFWC/DOTW MM/VI Specialist

DISTRIBUTION: The AFTTP 3-3 series is distributed worldwide to the USAF and the combat

forces of the other US services. These volumes are for official use only (FOUO) and are not releasable to non-US government agencies or contractors, in any form, without USAFWC/DOTW approval as coordinated through AFSOC/A-3.

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Military units may contact USAFWC/DOTW directly to request initial distribution or to update their requirements. Contact:

USAFWC/DOTW

5490 Pease Drive, Bldg 1114 Nellis AFB NV 89191-6203 DSN: 682-3421

fax: 682-9725

Non-military units (e.g., contractors) may request AFTTP 3-3 volumes from the approving authority. Contact:

AFSOC/A-3

100 Bartley Street/ Suite 153 West Hurlburt Field FL

fax: 579-5555

A paper copy of AFTTP 3-3 series publications may be obtained in two ways. Units may either provide their local base DAPS with a CD-ROM and arrange for printing, or units may purchase a paper copy of AFTTP 3-3 volumes by contacting:

Defense Automated Printing Service Attn: Tony Bowker

4349 Duffer Drive, Bldg 625 Nellis AFB, NV 89191 DSN: 682-2871

fax: 682-9256

Cost of the volumes will vary depending on number of pages (size of volume) and method of shipment requested (FEDEX or regular registered mail). Payment may be made via IMPAC card, MIPR, or DD Form 282. Responsibility for payment rests with the unit ordering the paper copy.

MICHAEL W. WOOLEY Lt General, USAF

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Paragraph Page CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview . . . 1-1 1.1.1 General . . . 1-1 1.1.2 Specifics . . . 1-1 1.2 Purpose . . . 1-2 1.3 Contents . . . 1-2

1.4 Responsibilities and Discipline . . . 1-2 1.4.1 Commanders . . . 1-2 1.4.2 Weapons and Tactics Personnel . . . 1-2 1.4.3 Operators . . . 1-2

1.5 Security . . . 1-2 1.5.1 Distribution X . . . 1-3 1.5.2 Reproduction . . . 1-3

1.6 Change Procedures . . . 1-3

CHAPTER 2—MISSION PREPARATION

2.1 General . . . 2-1

2.2 Operational Cycle . . . 2-1 2.2.1 Predeployment . . . 2-1 2.2.2 Deployment and Stand-Up Planning . . . 2-13 2.2.3 Employment . . . 2-15 2.2.4 Stand-Down and Redeployment Planning . . . 2-72 2.2.5 Postdeployment . . . 2-73

2.3 Specific PR/RO Planning Guides and Considerations . . . 2-74 2.3.1 Mission Commander Planning . . . 2-74 2.3.2 Personnel Recovery Coordination Center Planning . . . 2-74 2.3.3 Battlestaff and Liaison Planning . . . 2-74

2.4 Considerations for Immediate Surface Operations . . . 2-87 2.4.1 Opportunity for Success . . . 2-88

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2.4.2 Control/Coordination Agencies . . . 2-88 2.4.3 Notification . . . 2-88 2.4.4 Recovery Teams . . . 2-89 2.4.5 Assets and Capability . . . 2-89 2.4.6 Recovery . . . 2-89 2.4.7 Location . . . 2-89 2.4.8 Authentication . . . 2-89 2.4.9 Extraction . . . 2-89 2.4.10 Mission Termination . . . 2-89 2.5 Pararescue Team Leader Specific Considerations . . . 2-89 2.5.1 Team Leader Checklist . . . 2-90 2.5.2 Receive and Study the Operation . . . 2-90 2.5.3 Plan Use of Time . . . 2-92 2.5.4 Study Terrain and Situation . . . 2-92 2.5.5 Make Tentative Plan . . . 2-94 2.5.6 Select and Organize the Recovery Team, Weapons, and Equipment 2-95 2.5.7 Issue a Warning Order . . . 2-96 2.5.8 Coordination . . . 2-97 2.5.9 Make Reconnaissance . . . 2-98 2.5.10 Complete Detailed Plan . . . 2-98 2.5.11 Issue the Operations Order . . . 2-105 2.5.12 Briefback . . . 2-105 2.5.13 Briefback the Command Releasing Authority . . . 2-105 2.5.14 Supervise (At All Times), Inspect, Rehearse . . . 2-105 2.5.15 Include Provisions for Test Firing all Weapons . . . 2-105 2.6 SERE Specialist Specific Mission Planning Considerations . . . 2-105 2.6.1 Documents . . . 2-106 2.6.2 Qualification and Training . . . 2-106 2.6.3 Concept of Employment . . . 2-106 2.6.4 PR Operational Support Duties at Home Unit . . . 2-106 2.6.5 PR Duties while Deployed . . . 2-106 2.6.6 SERE Program Manager . . . 2-106

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2.6.7 Sere Specialist Assigned to a Unit Other Than the JPRC/PRCC (i.e., flying unit, joint ground unit, coalition unit, rescue squadron,

or SOF/OGA) . . . 2-108 2.6.8 Evasion Plan of Action Guide . . . 2-109 2.6.9 Evasion Plan of Action . . . 2-110 2.6.10 Isolated Personnel Report (DD Form 1833) Guidance . . . 2-110 2.6.11 SERE Specific Mission Planning/Execution Tools Terminology . 2-121

CHAPTER 3—GENERAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS

3.1 Airmanship . . . 3-1 3.2 General . . . 3-1 3.2.1 Responsibilities . . . 3-1 3.2.2 Crew Coordination/Duties . . . 3-1 3.2.3 Aircraft Communications . . . 3-1 3.2.4 Interphone . . . 3-1 3.2.5 Common Crew Terminology . . . 3-3 3.2.6 Voice Procedures . . . 3-3 3.2.7 Disabling of Aircraft Systems and Destruction of Classified . . . 3-6

3.3 Alternate Loading Operations . . . 3-6 3.3.1 Alternate Loading Methods . . . 3-6 3.3.2 Restraining Devices . . . 3-6

3.4 Aircraft Marshalling . . . 3-6

3.5 Aircraft Egress . . . 3-6

3.6 Pararescue/CRO Duties . . . 3-7 3.6.1 En Route Operations . . . 3-8 3.6.2 Objective Area Threat Assessment and Control . . . 3-8

3.7 Vertical Lift Operations . . . 3-8 3.7.1 Pre-Mission . . . 3-8 3.7.2 Pararescue Minimum Force . . . 3-8 3.7.3 Time Warnings and Alternate Insertion Extraction Preparation . . . 3-9 3.7.4 Vertical Lift Transload Procedures . . . 3-9 3.7.5 Combat Search and Rescue Terminal Area Operations . . . 3-9

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3.7.6 Individual/Team Equipment . . . 3-9

3.8 Fixed-Wing (FW) Operations . . . 3-15 3.8.1 General . . . 3-15

3.9 Fixed-Wing Airborne Operations . . . 3-16

3.10 Aerial Delivery . . . 3-16 3.10.1 Special Equipment . . . 3-16

3.11 Airland Operation . . . 3-16 3.11.1 Engine Running On-Load/Off-Load . . . 3-16 3.11.2 Combat Loading . . . 3-17 3.11.3 Recovery and Transload . . . 3-18 3.11.4 Patient Treatment . . . 3-18 3.11.5 Forward Arming and Refueling Point . . . 3-19

3.12 Aircraft and Airfield Security . . . 3-19 3.12.1 Security Element Procedures . . . 3-19 3.12.2 Basic Plan for all Fixed-Wing Aircraft . . . 3-21

CHAPTER 4—INSERTION/EXTRACTION OPERATIONS

4.1 General . . . 4-1

4.2 Alternate Loading . . . 4-1 4.2.1 Restraining Devices . . . 4-1 4.2.2 Equipment . . . 4-1

4.3 Contingencies and Emergency Procedures . . . 4-1

4.4 Alternate Insertions and Extractions . . . 4-2 4.4.1 Time Calls . . . 4-2 4.4.2 Rope Deployment . . . 4-2

4.5 AIE Master . . . 4-2

4.6 General Setup and Preparation . . . 4-2

4.7 Rope Ladder . . . 4-3 4.7.1 Setup and Preparation . . . 4-4 4.7.2 Installation . . . 4-4 4.7.3 Etrier Assist . . . 4-4

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4.7.4 Caving Ladder . . . 4-4 4.7.5 Advantages . . . 4-4 4.7.6 Disadvantages . . . 4-4

4.8 Rappel . . . 4-4 4.8.1 Setup and Preparation . . . 4-4 4.8.2 Installation . . . 4-4 4.8.3 Rope Diameter . . . 4-5 4.8.4 Deployment Bag . . . 4-5 4.8.5 Personal Equipment . . . 4-5 4.8.6 Deployment Preparation . . . 4-5 4.8.7 Hook Up . . . 4-6 4.8.8 Rope Deployment . . . 4-6 4.8.9 Rope Retrieval . . . 4-6 4.8.10 Contingencies and Emergency Procedures . . . 4-6 4.8.11 Advantages . . . 4-6 4.8.12 Disadvantages . . . 4-6

4.9 Short Haul . . . 4-6 4.9.1 Setup and Preparation . . . 4-6 4.9.2 Execution . . . 4-6 4.9.3 Contingencies and Emergency Procedures . . . 4-7 4.9.4 Advantages . . . 4-7 4.9.5 Disadvantages . . . 4-7

4.10 Fast Rope . . . 4-7 4.10.1 Setup and Preparation . . . 4-9 4.10.2 Installation . . . 4-9 4.10.3 Time Warnings . . . 4-9 4.10.4 Unsafe Drift or Premature Lift Off . . . 4-10 4.10.5 Fastroping With Combat Equipment . . . 4-10 4.10.6 Night Deployments . . . 4-11 4.10.7 NVG Overwater Operations . . . 4-11 4.10.8 Advantages . . . 4-11 4.10.9 Disadvantages . . . 4-11

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4.10.10 Extractions Using Fast Rope Insertion Extraction System . . . 4-11

4.11 Hoist Operations . . . 4-12 4.11.1 Primary Rescue Device . . . 4-12 4.11.2 Climbing Harness . . . 4-12 4.11.3 Forest Penetrator . . . 4-12 4.11.4 Rescue Seat . . . 4-14 4.11.5 Stokes Litter . . . 4-15 4.11.6 Tag Line . . . 4-15 4.11.7 Rescue Basket . . . 4-17 4.11.8 Rescue Net . . . 4-17 4.11.9 Rescue Strop (Horse Collar) . . . 4-17 4.11.10 Quick Strop . . . 4-19 4.11.11 Execution . . . 4-19 4.11.12 Water Hoist Operations . . . 4-28 4.11.13 Free-Fall Swimmer Deployment . . . 4-29 4.11.14 Predeployment Considerations . . . 4-29 4.11.15 Aircraft Procedures . . . 4-30 4.11.16 Deployment Procedures . . . 4-30 4.11.17 Safety Considerations . . . 4-31

4.12 Special Patrol Insertion/Extraction System . . . 4-31 4.12.1 Planning . . . 4-31 4.12.2 Setup and Preparation . . . 4-31 4.12.3 Installation . . . 4-32 4.12.4 Land Operating Procedures . . . 4-34

4.13 Rapid Equipment Delivery System and Equipment . . . 4-34 4.13.1 REDS Container/Contents Inspection/Storage Requirements . . . . 4-34

4.14 Tethered Duck Operations . . . 4-39 4.14.1 Set Up and Preparation . . . 4-39

4.15 Helicopter Freefall Equipment Delivery . . . 4-43 4.15.1 Preparing Raft for Drop . . . 4-43 4.15.2 Delivery Procedures . . . 4-43 4.15.3 Safety Procedures . . . 4-43

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4.16 Kangaroo Duck Operations . . . 4-43 4.16.1 Equipment Installation and Configuration . . . 4-44 4.16.2 CRRC Preparation . . . 4-44

4.17 Soft Duck Procedures . . . 4-46 4.17.1 Construction of the Soft Duck and Platform . . . 4-46 4.17.2 Loading the Soft Duck in the Aircraft . . . 4-47 4.17.3 Deployment Procedures . . . 4-48 4.17.4 De-Rigging the Soft Duck . . . 4-48

4.18 Vehicle On/Off Loading . . . 4-48 4.18.1 Preparation/Infiltration . . . 4-48 4.18.2 Preparation/Exfiltration . . . 4-49

CHAPTER 5—PARACHUTE OPERATIONS

5.1 General . . . 5-1 5.1.1 Regulatory Guidance Overview . . . 5-1 5.1.2 Recovery Considerations . . . 5-1 5.1.3 Operational Risk Management . . . 5-1 5.1.4 Insertion Considerations . . . 5-2 5.1.5 Exit Altitudes . . . 5-2 5.1.6 Drop Zone Elevation . . . 5-2 5.1.7 Surface Winds . . . 5-2 5.1.8 Drop Zone Conditions . . . 5-3 5.1.9 Parachute Types . . . 5-3 5.1.10 Coordination for Airdrop . . . 5-4 5.1.11 Ram Air Static Line . . . 5-16 5.1.12 Free-Fall . . . 5-16 5.1.13 The ML-4 kit or Pararescue Flotation . . . 5-34

5.2 Land Parachute Deployment Procedures . . . 5-46 5.2.1 Prepare to Land. . . . 5-46 5.2.2 Landing. . . . 5-46 5.2.3 Equipment Release Procedures . . . 5-46

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5.2.4 Delivery Containers . . . 5-46

5.3 Rescue Jumpmaster Procedures . . . 5-54 5.3.1 Terms and Definitions . . . 5-55 5.3.2 General Responsibilities . . . 5-55

5.4 Airdrop Release Methods . . . 5-57 5.4.1 Computed Air Release Point . . . 5-57 5.4.2 High Altitude Release Point . . . 5-58 5.4.3 Ground Marking Release System . . . 5-58 5.4.4 Verbally Initiated Release System . . . 5-58 5.4.5 Wind Streamer Vector Count . . . 5-58 5.4.6 Other Airdrop Methods . . . 5-58

5.5 Jumpmaster Directed Drops . . . 5-59 5.5.1 Sight Alignment . . . 5-59 5.5.2 Head Alignment . . . 5-59 5.5.3 Movement . . . 5-59 5.5.4 Location . . . 5-59 5.5.5 Jumpmaster Release . . . 5-59 5.5.6 Fixed (Normal) Target Pattern . . . 5-59 5.5.7 Moving Target Pattern . . . 5-60

5.6 General Jumpmaster Information/Requirements . . . 5-62

5.7 Chief, Standardization Certifier/Evaluator (Stan/Eval) Responsibilities . 5-62

5.8 Static Line Aircraft Deployment Procedures . . . 5-62 5.8.1 HH-60 Aircraft . . . 5-63 5.8.2 C-130 Aircraft . . . 5-64 5.8.3 HC-130 Aircraft . . . 5-65

5.9 Free-Fall Deployment Procedures . . . 5-67 5.9.1 C-130 Aircraft . . . 5-67 5.9.2 H-1 Aircraft . . . 5-67 5.9.3 H-60 Aircraft . . . 5-67 5.9.4 Other Aircraft . . . 5-68 5.9.5 Visual Meteorological Conditions Restrictions . . . 5-68 5.9.6 Deployment to a Vessel . . . 5-68

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5.9.7 Spotting and Aerial Delivery—Crosswind Procedures . . . 5-69

5.10 High Altitude/High Opening . . . 5-71 5.10.1 DZ Limitations . . . 5-71 5.10.2 Weather . . . 5-71 5.10.3 Altitudes . . . 5-71

5.11 Container Ramp Loads . . . 5-72 5.11.1 Building . . . 5-72 5.11.2 Loading . . . 5-72 5.11.3 Deploying/Exit . . . 5-72 5.11.4 Watercraft . . . 5-72

CHAPTER 6—AERIAL DEPLOYMENT EQUIPMENT

6.1 Purpose . . . 6-1

6.2 Types of Airdrops . . . 6-1 6.2.1 Low-Velocity Airdrop . . . 6-1 6.2.2 High-Velocity Drop . . . 6-1 6.2.3 High-Speed/Low-Level Aerial Delivery System . . . 6-1 6.2.4 Free-Fall Airdrops . . . 6-1 6.2.5 Cushioning Materials for Aerial Delivery Loads . . . 6-1

6.3 Methods of Airdrops . . . 6-2 6.3.1 Door Loads . . . 6-2 6.3.2 Wing Loads . . . 6-2 6.3.3 Gravity-Release Loads . . . 6-2 6.3.4 Extraction Loads . . . 6-2 6.3.5 External Transport Loads . . . 6-2

6.4 Cargo Parachutes . . . 6-2 6.4.1 General . . . 6-2 6.4.2 Routine Inspection . . . 6-2 6.4.3 Parachute Types . . . 6-3 6.4.4 Poncho Expedient Parachute . . . 6-3 6.4.5 Packaging and Deploying . . . 6-4

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6.5 Aerial Delivery Containers . . . 6-4

6.6 Aerial Delivery Equipment . . . 6-4 6.6.1 A-7A Cargo Sling . . . 6-5 6.6.2 A-21 Cargo Bag Assembly . . . 6-5 6.6.3 A-22 Cargo Bag Assembly . . . 6-5

6.7 Aerial Delivery Operational Restrictions . . . 6-5

6.8 Aerial Delivery Procedures . . . 6-8 6.8.1 General . . . 6-8 6.8.2 Airdrop Patterns . . . 6-9

6.9 Water Equipment Delivery . . . 6-9

6.10 Night Equipment Delivery . . . 6-9

6.11 Tree Let Down Sling . . . 6-9 6.11.1 Rope Length . . . 6-9 6.11.2 Knot Type . . . 6-9 6.11.3 Remaining Rope . . . 6-9 6.11.4 Running Ends . . . 6-9

6.12 Crew Coordination . . . 6-9

6.13 Surface-Directed Equipment Delivery . . . 6-10 6.13.1 Comm . . . 6-10 6.13.2 Reference Points . . . 6-10 6.13.3 Release Point . . . 6-10 6.13.4 Coordination . . . 6-10 6.13.5 Ground Marked Release System . . . 6-10 6.13.6 Verbal Initiated Release System . . . 6-10

6.14 Fuel . . . 6-10 6.14.1 One-Gallon Cans . . . 6-11 6.14.2 Small Cans . . . 6-11 6.14.3 Shipping Requirements . . . 6-11 6.14.4 Labelling . . . 6-11 6.14.5 Storage . . . 6-11

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CHAPTER 7—COMBAT MARKSMANSHIP AND MUNITIONS

7.1 Purpose . . . 7-1

7.2 General . . . 7-1

7.3 Safety . . . 7-1

7.4 Mindset . . . 7-1

7.5 Moving, Shooting, and Communicating . . . 7-2

7.6 Moving Targets . . . 7-2

7.7 Terminal Ballistics . . . 7-2 7.7.1 Slews and Cavities . . . 7-2 7.7.2 M-16 Information . . . 7-3 7.7.3 Better Performance . . . 7-3 7.7.4 Special Ball . . . 7-3 7.7.5 Handguns versus Rifles . . . 7-3

7.8 Training Concepts . . . 7-5 7.8.1 Marksmanship . . . 7-5 7.8.2 Rifleman . . . 7-5 7.8.3 Advanced Carbine Training . . . 7-5 7.8.4 Designated Marksman . . . 7-5 7.8.5 Marksmanship Definition . . . 7-5 7.8.6 Arms Configuration . . . 7-5 7.8.7 DM Training . . . 7-6 7.8.8 Target Types . . . 7-6 7.8.9 Long-Range Anti-Personnel . . . 7-6 7.8.10 Range Safety Officer Duties . . . 7-6 7.8.11 Night Shooting . . . 7-9 7.8.12 Sighting in IR Lasers . . . 7-10 7.8.13 Advanced Carbine Training . . . 7-10

CHAPTER 8—ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

8.1 Desert Combat Operations . . . 8-1 8.1.1 Environmental Considerations . . . 8-1

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8.1.2 Climate . . . 8-1 8.1.3 Life Forms . . . 8-1 8.1.4 Environmental Effects on Equipment and Personnel . . . 8-2 8.1.5 Tactical Vehicle in the Desert . . . 8-2 8.1.6 Vehicle Lessons Learned . . . 8-3 8.1.7 Driving Techniques . . . 8-4 8.1.8 Driving Environment . . . 8-4 8.1.9 Operations . . . 8-5

8.2 Maritime Combat Operations . . . 8-6 8.2.1 Environmental Considerations . . . 8-6 8.2.2 Environmental Effects on Equipment . . . 8-19

8.3 Jungle Combat Operations . . . 8-21 8.3.1 Purpose . . . 8-21

8.4 Urban Combat Operations . . . 8-35 8.4.1 Environmental Considerations . . . 8-36 8.4.2 Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain . . . 8-36 8.4.3 Operations . . . 8-44

8.5 Mountain Combat Operations . . . 8-45 8.5.1 Mountain Operations . . . 8-45 8.5.2 Alpine Operations . . . 8-45 8.5.3 Environmental Considerations . . . 8-45 8.5.4 Environmental Effects on Equipment and Personnel . . . 8-46 8.5.5 Operations . . . 8-47

8.6 Cold Weather Combat Operations . . . 8-48 8.6.1 Purpose . . . 8-48 8.6.2 Terrain and Weather . . . 8-48 8.6.3 Environmental Effects on Equipment and Personnel . . . 8-51

8.7 CBRNE Combat Operations . . . 8-61 8.7.1 NBC Warfare . . . 8-61 8.7.2 Environment . . . 8-61

8.8 Environmental Considerations . . . 8-61 8.8.1 Urban Areas . . . 8-61

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8.8.2 Desert Areas . . . 8-62 8.8.3 Low Terrain, Temperate Zone Areas . . . 8-62 8.8.4 Mountain Areas . . . 8-62 8.8.5 Jungle Areas . . . 8-63 8.8.6 Cold Weather Regions . . . 8-63 8.8.7 Special Precautions Checklist . . . 8-64 8.8.8 Maritime Environments and Riverine Areas . . . 8-65 8.8.9 Atmospheric Environments . . . 8-65 8.8.10 Deployment Decisions . . . 8-66 8.8.11 Potential Threats . . . 8-66

CHAPTER 9—MARITIME OPERATIONS

9.1 Purpose . . . 9-1

9.2 Surface Search, Rescue, and Recovery Operations . . . 9-1 9.2.1 Water Hoist Rescue Techniques . . . 9-1 9.2.2 In-Water Survivor Approaches, Carries, and Releases . . . 9-5 9.2.3 In-Water Rescue Breathing . . . 9-16 9.2.4 In-Water Cervical and Spinal Stabilization . . . 9-18 9.2.5 Uncooperative Survivor in Water . . . 9-19 9.2.6 Wet Rock Rescue . . . 9-20 9.2.7 Surf Rescue . . . 9-21

9.3 Small Boat Operations . . . 9-23 9.3.1 Load Planning . . . 9-23 9.3.2 Equipment Configuration . . . 9-26 9.3.3 Outboard Motor Familiarization . . . 9-28 9.3.4 Boat-Based Search Operations . . . 9-34 9.3.5 Boat Rescue Operations . . . 9-42 9.3.6 CRRC Recovery by Large Vessels . . . 9-47

9.4 Underwater Search, Rescue, and Recovery Operations . . . 9-51 9.4.1 Equipment Considerations and Techniques for Adverse Conditions 9-51 9.4.2 Diving Personnel . . . 9-75

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9.4.3 Communication and Line Signals . . . 9-78 9.4.4 Search Operations . . . 9-80 9.4.5 Rescue Operations . . . 9-103 9.4.6 Recovery Operations . . . 9-107 9.4.7 Overhead Environments . . . 9-122 9.4.8 Contaminated Water . . . 9-122

CHAPTER 10—TECHNICAL RESCUE/RECOVERY OPERATIONS

10.1 Introduction . . . 10-1 10.2 Physics Principles . . . 10-1 10.2.1 Intended Scope . . . 10-1 10.2.2 Historical Background . . . 10-1 10.2.3 Technical Merit . . . 10-1 10.3 Safety . . . 10-1 10.3.1 Rescuer Safety . . . 10-1 10.3.2 Elements . . . 10-1 10.3.3 Checklist . . . 10-1 10.3.4 Technical Rope Rescue . . . 10-1 10.3.5 Rescue Necessities . . . 10-2 10.3.6 Safety Definitions . . . 10-2 10.3.7 New Descriptive Name . . . 10-6 10.3.8 Deprecated Unit . . . 10-6 10.3.9 Rope in Service . . . 10-6 10.3.10 Fall Factor . . . 10-6 10.3.11 Rope Stretch and Rope Strength . . . 10-6

10.4 Command . . . 10-7 10.4.1 Operational Risk Management . . . 10-7

10.5 Control . . . 10-8 10.5.1 Individual Responsibilities . . . 10-8

10.6 Communications . . . 10-11

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10.6.2 Raising Operations . . . 10-11 10.6.3 Communications Checklists . . . 10-11

10.7 The Science of Rope Rescue . . . 10-11

10.7.7 The Physics Behind the Techniques . . . 10-14 10.7.8 Definitions . . . 10-16 10.7.9 Dynamic Force Calculations . . . 10-16 10.7.10 Pulley Systems and Mechanical Advantage . . . 10-17 10.7.11 Summary of Simple Pulley Systems Principles . . . 10-23 10.7.12 Compound Pulley Systems . . . 10-24 10.7.13 Summary of Compound Pulley System Principles . . . 10-24 10.7.14 Complex Pulley Systems . . . 10-24 10.7.15 Vector Angles . . . 10-26 10.7.16 The Tension-Method for Pulley Systems . . . 10-27 10.7.17 Litter Raises and Lowers on Slopes . . . 10-33 10.7.18 Ropes for Rescue Work . . . 10-39 10.7.19 Accessory Cord . . . 10-41 10.7.20 Care and Maintenance of Accessory Cords . . . 10-41 10.7.21 Types of Webbing . . . 10-41 10.7.22 Pulleys . . . 10-42 10.7.23 Carabiners . . . 10-42 10.7.24 Descenders . . . 10-43 10.7.25 Belaying Devices . . . 10-46 10.7.26 Rigging Plates . . . 10-47 10.7.27 Knots and Hitches . . . 10-48 10.7.28 Basic and End-of-Rope Knot . . . 10-50 10.7.29 Anchor Choices . . . 10-67 10.7.30 Components of a Rescue System . . . 10-81 10.7.31 Equipment Lists . . . 10-118

10.8 Snow, Ice, and Glacier Operations . . . 10-121

10.8.1 Crevasse Travel and Rescue . . . 10-121 10.8.2 Introduction . . . 10-121 10.8.3 Definitions . . . 10-121

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10.8.4 Glacier Terms: . . . 10-121 10.8.5 Avalanche Terms . . . 10-129 10.8.6 Runout Angle . . . 10-129 10.8.7 Settling, Settlement . . . 10-129 10.8.8 Slope Cut . . . 10-129 10.8.9 Sympathetic Trigger . . . 10-129 10.8.10 Terrain Trap . . . 10-129 10.8.11 Trigger . . . 10-129 10.8.12 Weak Layer . . . 10-130 10.8.13 Whoompf . . . 10-130 10.8.14 Wind Loading . . . 10-130 10.8.15 Windward . . . 10-131 10.8.16 Gearing Up For Travel . . . 10-134 10.8.17 Rope Techniques . . . 10-136 10.8.18 Tying into the System . . . 10-137 10.8.19 Tying in the Sled . . . 10-138 10.8.20 Tying in the Back-Pack . . . 10-139 10.8.21 Tying in Snow-Shoes and Skis . . . 10-140 10.8.22 Traveling Techniques . . . 10-140 10.8.23 Rope Management . . . 10-140 10.8.24 Route Selection . . . 10-140 10.8.25 Crossing Crevasses . . . 10-142

10.9 Confined Space and Collapsed Structure . . . 10-155

10.9.1 Introduction to Confined Space and Structural Collapse . . . 10-155 10.9.2 General Tactical Considerations . . . 10-156 10.9.3 Confined Space Rescue . . . 10-156 10.9.4 Structural Collapse Rescue . . . 10-167 10.9.5 Final Recommendations . . . 10-190

10.10 Extrication Techniques and Equipment . . . 10-190

10.10.1 General . . . 10-190 10.10.2 General Tactical Considerations . . . 10-190 10.10.3 Extrication Techniques and Equipment . . . 10-191

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10.10.4 Extrication Capability . . . 10-198

10.11 Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Explosives . . . 10-198

10.11.1 General . . . 10-198 10.11.2 Unknown and Reactionary Environments . . . 10-199 10.11.3 Known Environments . . . 10-199 10.11.4 Tactical Considerations . . . 10-199 10.11.5 Specific NBC and Explosive Considerations . . . 10-200 10.11.6 Decontamination Operations . . . 10-201 10.11.7 NBC Casualty Processing and Handling Techniques . . . 10-222 10.11.8 Casualty Decontamination Considerations . . . 10-223 10.11.9 Patient Decontamination at a Medical Facility . . . 10-223

10.12 Swift Water Rescue . . . 10-231 10.13 Tree Recovery Procedures . . . 10-231

10.13.1 General . . . 10-231 10.13.2 Tree Climbing . . . 10-231 10.13.3 Using Tree Climbing Equipment . . . 10-231 10.13.4 Recovery of Personnel Suspended in Trees . . . 10-232

10.14 Land Party Search . . . 10-234 CHAPTER 11—INDIVIDUAL COMBAT SKILLS AND EQUIPMENT

11.1 General . . . 11-1

11.2 Purpose . . . 11-1

11.3 Tactical Clothing and Individual Combat Equipment . . . 11-1

11.4 Tactical Clothing . . . 11-1

11.5 Individual Combat Equipment . . . 11-1 11.5.1 Durability and Functionality . . . 11-1 11.5.2 Fighting Load . . . 11-1 11.5.3 Load Bearing Equipment . . . 11-1 11.5.4 Rucksack . . . 11-2 11.5.5 Sleep Gear . . . 11-3 11.5.6 Food and Water . . . 11-3

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11.5.7 Communications Equipment . . . 11-3 11.5.8 Night Vision Devices . . . 11-4 11.5.9 Influencing Factors . . . 11-5 11.5.10 Individual Combat Equipment Levels . . . 11-5 11.5.11 Essential Elements . . . 11-6

11.6 Cover and Concealment . . . 11-6 11.6.1 Artificial and Natural Cover . . . 11-6 11.6.2 Natural Concealment . . . 11-6 11.6.3 Individual Concealment Techniques . . . 11-6

11.7 Environmental Camouflage, Cover and Concealment Considerations . . . 11-7 11.7.1 Desert Environment . . . 11-7 11.7.2 Urban Environment . . . 11-7 11.7.3 Mountain Environment . . . 11-8 11.7.4 Cold Weather Environment . . . 11-8 11.7.5 Jungle Environment . . . 11-9 11.8 Fundamentals of Movement . . . 11-9 11.8.1 General Rules . . . 11-10 11.8.2 The Rush . . . 11-10 11.9 Crawling Maneuvers . . . 11-11 11.9.1 High Crawl . . . 11-11 11.9.2 Low Crawl . . . 11-11 11.10 Stealth Walking . . . 11-12 11.10.1 Body Position . . . 11-12 11.10.2 Toe First Method . . . 11-12 11.10.3 Heel First Method . . . 11-12

11.11 Combat Tracking . . . 11-12

11.11.1 Qualities of a Tracker . . . 11-13 11.11.2 Tracking Terminology: . . . 11-13 11.11.3 Tracking Team Composition and Formation . . . 11-13 11.11.4 Concepts of Tracking . . . 11-14 11.11.5 Analyzing Footprints . . . 11-15 11.11.6 Weathering . . . 11-16

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11.12 Tactical River and Stream Crossing . . . 11-18 11.12.1 Fording . . . 11-18 11.12.2 Swimming . . . 11-18 11.12.3 Rope Bridges . . . 11-18 11.12.4 Inflatable Raft . . . 11-18 11.12.5 Improvised Rafts . . . 11-18 11.12.6 Vegetation Raft . . . 11-19 11.12.7 Boats . . . 11-19 11.13 Navigation . . . 11-19 11.13.1 Purpose . . . 11-19 11.13.2 Maps . . . 11-19 11.13.3 Watches . . . 11-19 11.13.4 Lensatic Compass . . . 11-19 11.13.5 Silva Compass . . . 11-20 11.13.6 Wrist Compass . . . 11-20 11.13.7 Altimeter Used as a Compass Aid . . . 11-20 11.13.8 Pace Count . . . 11-21 11.13.9 Six-Point Navigation Checklist . . . 11-21 11.13.10 Checklist . . . 11-21 11.13.11 Global Positions System . . . 11-21 11.13.12 Waypoints . . . 11-21 11.13.13 GPS Properties . . . 11-22 11.13.14 Transmitting Coordinates . . . 11-22

11.14 Navigation . . . 11-22

11.14.1 Desert Environment Considerations . . . 11-22 11.14.2 Jungle Environment Navigation . . . 11-22 11.14.3 Cold Weather Environment Navigation . . . 11-23 11.14.4 Urban Environment . . . 11-24 11.14.5 Mountain Environment . . . 11-25

11.15 Combatives . . . 11-26

11.15.1 Purpose . . . 11-26 11.15.2 General . . . 11-26

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CHAPTER 12—REINTEGRATION OPERATIONS

12.1 General . . . 12-1 12.1.1 Reintegration Preparation . . . 12-1 12.1.2 Planning Considerations . . . 12-1 12.1.3 General Debriefing Guidance . . . 12-6 12.1.4 Combat Rescue Officer/SERE Specialist Responsibilities . . . 12-7 12.1.5 Reintegration Phases . . . 12-10 12.1.6 After-Action . . . 12-13

ATTACHMENT 1—GLOSSARY OF REFERENCES AND SUPPORTING INFORMATION

A1.1 References . . . A1-1 A1.2 Abbreviations and Acronyms . . . A1-2 A1.3 Terms . . . A1-19 ATTACHMENT 2—REINTEGRATION CHECKLISTS AND DEBRIEFING GUIDE

A2.1 Introduction. . . A2-1 ATTACHMENT 3—DEBRIEFING GUIDE FOR PR OPERATIONS

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LIST OF FIGURES

Page

Figure 2.1 Space Environmental Global Situational Awareness . . . 2-41 Figure 2.2 Ionospheric Impacts UHF SATCOM . . . 2-42 Figure 2.3 Ionospheric Impacts High Frequency . . . 2-43 Figure 2.4 Global Positioning System Error . . . 2-44 Figure 3.1 FARP Refueling Site Layouts . . . 3-20 Figure 4.1 Fast Rope Eyesplice . . . 4-8 Figure 4.2 Fast Rope Metal Sleeve . . . 4-9 Figure 4.3 Double Rescue Hook Assembly . . . 4-13 Figure 4.4 Forest Penetrator . . . 4-14 Figure 4.5 Rescue Seat . . . 4-15 Figure 4.6 Stokes Litter with Floatation . . . 4-16 Figure 4.7 Rescue Basket . . . 4-18 Figure 4.8 Rescue Strop . . . 4-18 Figure 4.9 Quick Strop . . . 4-19 Figure 4.10 Daisy Chain to Hoist Cable Attachment . . . 4-23 Figure 4.11 Rope Strap with Jumar Ascender . . . 4-24 Figure 4.12 Prusik Strap . . . 4-25 Figure 4.13 Foot Placement . . . 4-28 Figure 4.14 SPIE Rope . . . 4-32 Figure 4.15 Commercial SPIE Harness . . . 4-33 Figure 4.16 Cargo Suspension Sling with Type IV Connector . . . 4-33 Figure 4.17 Harness System for Double-Door K-Duck . . . 4-45 Figure 4.18 Optional CRRC Floor Extension for Double-Door K-Duck . . . 4-45 Figure 4.19 Soft Duck Platform Configured for H-46 with Internal Roller Rails . . 4-47 Figure 5.1 Descent Versus Weight and Altitude . . . 5-14 Figure 5.2 Negative Pressure . . . 5-18 Figure 5.3 Static Line Belly Band . . . 5-20 Figure 5.4 Reserve Pin . . . 5-21 Figure 5.5 M-4 Jump Configuration . . . 5-22 Figure 5.6 Weapons Bag Configuration . . . 5-23 Figure 5.7 Free-Fall M-4/EBR Configuration . . . 5-24 Figure 5.8 Weapons Bag Free Fall . . . 5-25 Figure 5.9 Leg Strap Tension . . . 5-27 Figure 5.10 Free Fall Leg Straps . . . 5-28 Figure 5.11 Lowering Line Attachments . . . 5-28 Figure 5.12 Free Fall Lowering Line Attachment . . . 5-29 Figure 5.13 Eagle Jump Bag . . . 5-30 Figure 5.14 Multiple Container Configuration . . . 5-31 Figure 5.15 Static Line Oxygen Donning . . . 5-32 Figure 5.16 Free-Fall Tied Oxygen and Oxygen Hose Routing . . . 5-33 Figure 5.17 UDT Vest, the Para-Swimmer Vest, LSP Pararescue Flotation . . . 5-33 Figure 5.18 ML-4 Kit . . . 5-34

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Figure 5.19 ML-4 Configuration . . . 5-35 Figure 5.20 Configuration Left . . . 5-35 Figure 5.21 Configuration Right . . . 5-36 Figure 5.22 Free-Fall Configuration Left . . . 5-37 Figure 5.23 Free-Fall Configuration Rear . . . 5-37 Figure 5.24 Static SPUDS Right . . . 5-38 Figure 5.25 Static SPUDS Rear . . . 5-38 Figure 5.26 Free-Fall SPUDS Right . . . 5-39 Figure 5.27 Free Fall SPUDS Front . . . 5-40 Figure 5.28 Fin Taping . . . 5-41 Figure 5.29 Tree Suit . . . 5-41 Figure 5.30 SOV 3 Lighting Rear . . . 5-42 Figure 5.31 MC4/T10 Lighting . . . 5-42 Figure 5.32 Parachute Manipulation . . . 5-44 Figure 5.33 Relative Wind . . . 5-50 Figure 7.1 Diagram Combat Triad . . . 7-2 Figure 7.2 Picture of Wound Ballistics . . . 7-3 Figure 7.3 M855 Terminal Performance at Muzzle . . . 7-4 Figure 7.4 Excellent Terminal Performance at the Muzzle . . . 7-4 Figure 7.5 Picture Marine Corps DM Targets . . . 7-9 Figure 7.6 Picture Curb Prone . . . 7-12 Figure 7.7 Picture SBU Prone . . . 7-13 Figure 7.8 Picture Kneeling . . . 7-13 Figure 7.9 Picture Double Kneeling . . . 7-14 Figure 7.10 Picture Shooting Around Obstacles . . . 7-14 Figure 7.11 Picture Rapid Kneeling . . . 7-15 Figure 7.12 Picture 180-Degree Pivot Step 1 . . . 7-15 Figure 7.13 Picture Indoor Ready . . . 7-16 Figure 7.14 Picture Locking the Bolt to the Rear . . . 7-16 Figure 7.15 Picture Operating the Charging Handle . . . 7-17 Figure 7.16 Picture Ready Position . . . 7-17 Figure 7.17 Picture Transition . . . 7-18 Figure 7.18 Box Drill . . . 7-18 Figure 7.19 Cooper Olympic Shooting Drill . . . 7-19 Figure 7.20 FBI 360-Degree Movement Drill . . . 7-21 Figure 7.21 100-Yard EBR Target . . . 7-23 Figure 7.22 Picture .50-Caliber Rifle . . . 7-26 Figure 7.23 ATV . . . 7-28 Figure 8.1 Wave Characteristics . . . 8-7 Figure 8.2 Types of Breaking Waves . . . 8-9 Figure 8.3 Figure High and Low Tides . . . 8-13 Figure 8.4 Neap and Spring Tides . . . 8-14 Figure 8.5 Tropical Rain Forest . . . 8-22 Figure 8.6 Deciduous Forests . . . 8-22 Figure 8.7 Secondary Jungles . . . 8-23

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Figure 8.8 Mangrove Swamps . . . 8-24 Figure 8.9 Palm Swamps . . . 8-25 Figure 8.10 Savanna . . . 8-25 Figure 8.11 Bamboo Forest . . . 8-26 Figure 8.12 Rice Paddies . . . 8-27 Figure 8.13 Plantations . . . 8-27 Figure 8.14 Small Farms . . . 8-28 Figure 8.15 Leech Straps . . . 8-31 Figure 8.16 Typical Urban Area . . . 8-37 Figure 8.17 City Core . . . 8-38 Figure 8.18 Core Periphery . . . 8-38 Figure 8.19 Outlying Industrial Areas . . . 8-40 Figure 8.20 Urban Battlespace . . . 8-40 Figure 9.1 Tri-SAR Harness . . . 9-3 Figure 9.2 Rescue Stroke . . . 9-6 Figure 9.3 Underwater Approach . . . 9-7 Figure 9.4 Front Surface Approach . . . 9-8 Figure 9.5 Cross-Chest Carry . . . 9-10 Figure 9.6 Equipment and Collar Tow . . . 9-11 Figure 9.7 Front Head Hold Release . . . 9-12 Figure 9.8 Front Head Hold Escape . . . 9-14 Figure 9.9 Rear Head Hold Release . . . 9-15 Figure 9.10 Rear Head Hold Escape . . . 9-16 Figure 9.11 Navigation Board with Knot Meter . . . 9-27 Figure 9.12 Johnson 30-Horsepower Military Two-Stroke OBM . . . 9-29 Figure 9.13 Search Planning Work Slate (1 of 2) . . . 9-35 Figure 9.14 Search Planning Work Slate (2 of 2) . . . 9-36 Figure 9.15 Search Object Drift . . . 9-37 Figure 9.16 Expanding Square Search Pattern . . . 9-38 Figure 9.17 Sector Search Pattern . . . 9-39 Figure 9.18 Creeping Line Search Pattern . . . 9-40 Figure 9.19 PIW Recovery . . . 9-44 Figure 9.20 Hoisting from CRRC Underway . . . 9-48 Figure 9.21 CRRC Bow Line Attachment Points . . . 9-49 Figure 9.22 CRRC CRS . . . 9-49 Figure 9.23 Protective Helmet with Divator FFM and Underwater Communications 9-52 Figure 9.24 EXO BRMS FFM . . . 9-54 Figure 9.25 EGS Bottle . . . 9-57 Figure 9.26 Dive Block . . . 9-58 Figure 9.27 Contingency Cylinder . . . 9-59 Figure 9.28 Hardwired Underwater Communications . . . 9-60 Figure 9.29 Wireless Underwater Communications . . . 9-61 Figure 9.30 Diving Harness with Cutting Tools . . . 9-69 Figure 9.31 Line Markings . . . 9-72 Figure 9.32 Contingency Strap . . . 9-73

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Figure 9.33 Farallon MK-VIII DPV . . . 9-74 Figure 9.34 Farallon MK-VIIIS DPV . . . 9-74 Figure 9.35 Current Effects . . . 9-82 Figure 9.36 Body Sinking in Water . . . 9-83 Figure 9.37 Arc Search . . . 9-88 Figure 9.38 Walking Shoreline Search . . . 9-88 Figure 9.39 Hurricane Anchoring System . . . 9-90 Figure 9.40 Running Line Search . . . 9-92 Figure 9.41 Direct Overhead Search . . . 9-92 Figure 9.42 Jack-Stand Search . . . 9-94 Figure 9.43 Jack-Stand Search Kit . . . 9-95 Figure 9.44 Circle Search . . . 9-96 Figure 9.45 Large Area Search #1 . . . 9-98 Figure 9.46 Large Area Search #2 . . . 9-98 Figure 9.47 Static-Line Platform Search . . . 9-101 Figure 9.48 Diver Configured for Helicopter Operations . . . 9-107 Figure 9.49 Body Recovery System with Lift Bag . . . 9-110 Figure 9.50 Mesh Body Bag . . . 9-111 Figure 9.51 Open Bottom Lift Bags . . . 9-113 Figure 9.52 Enclosed Flotation Lift Bags . . . 9-114 Figure 9.53 Boulder Lift Bag . . . 9-115 Figure 9.54 Roundslings . . . 9-116 Figure 9.55 Staged Lift . . . 9-118 Figure 9.56 Contaminated Water Dive Site . . . 9-124 Figure 10.1 Typical System Load Factors . . . 10-4 Figure 10.2 Gibbs Ascender on 11mm Rope After Sustaining 2kN Load . . . 10-15 Figure 10.3 Spectra Daisy Chains After Sustaining an 80 kg Load Falling 1 Meter 10-18 Figure 10.4 Simple 1:1 . . . 10-19 Figure 10.5 Simple 2:1 . . . 10-19 Figure 10.6 Simple 2:1 With a Change in Direction . . . 10-20 Figure 10.7 Pulley System . . . 10-21 Figure 10.8 Ratchet Prusik . . . 10-22 Figure 10.9 Simple Pulley System . . . 10-22 Figure 10.10 Simple Pulley System Examples . . . 10-23 Figure 10.11 Compound Pulley Systems . . . 10-25 Figure 10.12 Vector Angle and Resultant Loads I (1 of 2) . . . 10-26 Figure 10.13 Vector Angle and Resultant Loads II (2 of 2) . . . 10-27 Figure 10.14 Tension Distribution . . . 10-29 Figure 10.15 Simple 3:1 . . . 10-29 Figure 10.16 Compound 9:1 . . . 10-30 Figure 10.17 Complex 3:1 . . . 10-30 Figure 10.18 Theoretical Mechanical Advantage . . . 10-32 Figure 10.19 Points of Friction . . . 10-32 Figure 10.20 Force Diagram . . . 10-34 Figure 10.21 Force Vectors . . . 10-35

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Figure 10.22 Leg Tensions . . . 10-38 Figure 10.23 Ropes . . . 10-39 Figure 10.24 Accessory Cord . . . 10-40 Figure 10.25 Types of Webbing . . . 10-42 Figure 10.26 Pulleys . . . 10-43 Figure 10.27 Carabiners . . . 10-44 Figure 10.28 Descenders . . . 10-45 Figure 10.29 Test Data . . . 10-45 Figure 10.30 540 Belay Device . . . 10-46 Figure 10.31 Rigging Plates . . . 10-47 Figure 10.32 Knot Cartoon . . . 10-49 Figure 10.33 Definition Diagram . . . 10-50 Figure 10.34 Double Fisherman’s Knot . . . 10-52 Figure 10.35 Figure Eight Knot . . . 10-53 Figure 10.36 Water Knot . . . 10-54 Figure 10.37 Bowline . . . 10-55 Figure 10.38 Round Turn Two Half Hitches . . . 10-56 Figure 10.39 Figure Eight Retraced . . . 10-57 Figure 10.40 Butterfly Knot . . . 10-58 Figure 10.41 Directional Figure Eight . . . 10-59 Figure 10.42 Bowline-On-a-Bite . . . 10-60 Figure 10.43 Two-Loop Figure Eight . . . 10-61 Figure 10.44 Figure Eight On a Bight . . . 10-62 Figure 10.45 Middle-of-the-Rope-Prisik . . . 10-63 Figure 10.46 End of Rope Prusik . . . 10-64 Figure 10.47 Bowline-on-a-Coil . . . 10-65 Figure 10.48 Frost Knot . . . 10-66 Figure 10.49 Munter Hitch . . . 10-67 Figure 10.50 Wrap Three Pull Two . . . 10-69 Figure 10.51 Two-Point Distributive . . . 10-70 Figure 10.52 High Strength Tie Off . . . 10-71 Figure 10.53 Focal Point Utilizing Snow Anchors . . . 10-72 Figure 10.54 Focal Point Utilizing Three Rock Anchors . . . 10-73 Figure 10.55 Standard Anchor Focal Point for a Mainline Lowering Package . . . 10-73 Figure 10.56 Pretensioned Back-Tie . . . 10-74 Figure 10.57 Pretensioned Front-Tie . . . 10-75 Figure 10.58 Edge Protection . . . 10-75 Figure 10.59 Improvised Soft Edge Protection . . . 10-76 Figure 10.60 System Overview . . . 10-77 Figure 10.61 Purcell Prusik System . . . 10-79 Figure 10.62 Knot Bypass Lower . . . 10-80 Figure 10.63 Knot Bypass Raise . . . 10-80 Figure 10.64 Components of a Rescue System . . . 10-81 Figure 10.65 Tying of Brake Rack . . . 10-82 Figure 10.66 Edge Lines . . . 10-83

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Figure 10.67 Edge Attendant Tie-In . . . 10-83 Figure 10.68 Cliff Rescue Example . . . 10-84 Figure 10.69 Effective Rope Management by Edge Personnel . . . 10-85 Figure 10.70 Prusik Minding Pulley in Belay Sequence . . . 10-87 Figure 10.71 Prusik Minding Pulley and Hand Placement . . . 10-88 Figure 10.72 Belay Package Lower . . . 10-89 Figure 10.73 Belay Package Raise . . . 10-89 Figure 10.74 Radium Release Hitch Tying . . . 10-90 Figure 10.75 Completed Load Releasing Hitch . . . 10-91 Figure 10.76 Litter Evacs Litter Evacuation Techniques . . . 10-91 Figure 10.77 Litter Rigging . . . 10-93 Figure 10.78 Interlocking Long-Tail Bowlines and Bowlines with Carabiners

for Harness . . . 10-94 Figure 10.79 Checking Interlocking Long-Tail Bowlines and Attachment Points . . 10-95 Figure 10.80 Attendant’s Sit/Chest Harness Configuration. . . 10-96 Figure 10.81 Mainline Package, Lower . . . 10-97 Figure 10.82 Brake Rack SetUp . . . 10-97 Figure 10.83 Jigger Set-Up . . . 10-98 Figure 10.84 Prusik Sling Holding the Load on a Jigger Pulley . . . 10-98 Figure 10.85 Harness Configuration for Vertical Litter . . . 10-100 Figure 10.86 Vertical Litter, Single Attendant . . . 10-101 Figure 10.87 Attendant Prepares to Transition Edge with Vertical Litter . . . 10-102 Figure 10.88 Patient is Secured to Litter Prior to Attendant Moving Into Position . . 10-103 Figure 10.89 Lowering Sequence . . . 10-104 Figure 10.90 Lowering Sequence Part II . . . 10-105 Figure 10.91 Horizontal Litter . . . 10-105 Figure 10.92 Haul Team Prepares to Raise the Load While Control Communicates

with the Attendant . . . 10-106 Figure 10.93 Pickoff . . . 10-107 Figure 10.94 Aztek Set-Up . . . 10-109 Figure 10.95 Buddy Rappel . . . 10-111 Figure 10.96 Drooping Highline Utilizing a Kootenay Carriage System . . . 10-112 Figure 10.97 Track Line Rigging . . . 10-113 Figure 10.98 English Reeve . . . 10-115 Figure 10.99 Norwegian Reeve . . . 10-116 Figure 10.100 Accessory Kit—Individual . . . 10-119 Figure 10.101 Tubular Nylon Color Codes . . . 10-119 Figure 10.102 Glacier Terminology . . . 10-123 Figure 10.103 Glacier . . . 10-124 Figure 10.104 Abalation Zone . . . 10-124 Figure 10.105 Accumulation Zone . . . 10-125 Figure 10.106 Bergschrund . . . 10-125 Figure 10.107 Cornice . . . 10-126 Figure 10.108 Couloir . . . 10-126 Figure 10.109 Crevasse . . . 10-127

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Figure 10.110 Moraines . . . 10-127 Figure 10.111 Hanging Glacier . . . 10-128 Figure 10.112 Snow Covered Crevasse Field . . . 10-128 Figure 10.113 Collapsed Snowbridge . . . 10-129 Figure 10.114 Avalanche Sequence Part (1 of 3) . . . 10-131 Figure 10.115 Avalanche Sequence Part (2 of 3) . . . 10-132 Figure 10.116 Avalanche Sequence Part (3 of 3) . . . 10-133 Figure 10.117 Sit Harness Fit . . . 10-134 Figure 10.118 Traveling with a Sled . . . 10-139 Figure 10.119 Back Pack Set-Up . . . 10-141 Figure 10.120 Crossing the Crevasse . . . 10-143 Figure 10.121 Step 1 . . . 10-145 Figure 10.122 Step 2 . . . 10-146 Figure 10.123 Step 3 . . . 10-147 Figure 10.124 Step 4 . . . 10-148 Figure 10.125 Step 5 . . . 10-149 Figure 10.126 Step 6 . . . 10-150 Figure 10.127 Step 7 . . . 10-151 Figure 10.128 Step 8 . . . 10-152 Figure 10.129 Step 9 . . . 10-153 Figure 10.130 Step 10 . . . 10-154 Figure 10.131 Vertical Confined Space Entry . . . 10-157 Figure 10.132 Vertical Confined Space Post-Entry . . . 10-157 Figure 10.133 Hand-Held Gas Monitor . . . 10-158 Figure 10.134 Anchor Tripod . . . 10-161 Figure 10.135 Circular Masonry Saw . . . 10-164 Figure 10.136 Gas Powered Saws . . . 10-164 Figure 10.137 Crash-Axe Extended . . . 10-165 Figure 10.138 Miscellaneous Entry Tools . . . 10-166 Figure 10.139 Remote Microphone-Communications System . . . 10-169 Figure 10.140 Flex-Scope Camera System . . . 10-169 Figure 10.141 Flex-Scope LCD Camera . . . 10-170 Figure 10.142 T-Shore . . . 10-171 Figure 10.143 Vertical Shore Diagonal Brace Joints . . . 10-172 Figure 10.144 Window Frame Brace . . . 10-173 Figure 10.145 Mechanical Jack . . . 10-175 Figure 10.146 Trench for Jack 4 x 4 Placement . . . 10-176 Figure 10.147 Jack Supporting Cross Beam Members . . . 10-177 Figure 10.148 Move Concrete Slab On Poles . . . 10-178 Figure 10.149 Move Concrete Slab Over Object (1 of 3) . . . 10-179 Figure 10.150 Move Concrete Slab Over Object (2 of 3) . . . 10-180 Figure 10.151 Move Concrete Slab Over Object (3 of 3) . . . 10-181 Figure 10.152 Concrete Entry 1 (1 of 3) . . . 10-182 Figure 10.153 Concrete Entry 1 (2 of 3) . . . 10-183 Figure 10.154 Concrete Entry 1 (3 of 3) . . . 10-184

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Figure 10.155 Concrete Entry 2 (1 of 2) . . . 10-184 Figure 10.156 Concrete Entry 2 (2 of 2) . . . 10-185 Figure 10.157 Clamp Meters . . . 10-186 Figure 10.158 Clamp Meter . . . 10-186 Figure 10.159 Collapsed Structure Kit in Two Bags . . . 10-187 Figure 10.160 Collapsed Structure Kit Bag 1 Contents . . . 10-188 Figure 10.161 Wheeled Equipment Sled with Pull Harness . . . 10-189 Figure 10.162 Contents of Wheeled Equipment Sled . . . 10-189 Figure 10.163 24-Volt Straight Blade Saw with Bag and Spare Batteries . . . 10-192 Figure 10.164 Hand-Pump Jaws . . . 10-193 Figure 10.165 Powered Jaws . . . 10-194 Figure 10.166 Lift Pads with Foot Pump . . . 10-194 Figure 10.167 Small ALICE Rigged with 24 Volt Saw . . . 10-196 Figure 10.168 Small ALICE Rigged with Jaws . . . 10-196 Figure 10.169 Planning Decontamination Operations . . . 10-202 Figure 10.170 Unsupported One-Lane Washdown . . . 10-205 Figure 10.171 Thorough Decontamination—Equipment . . . 10-208 Figure 10.172 Thorough Decontamination—Troop . . . 10-208 Figure 10.173 Expedient Personnel Decontamination System (EPDS) . . . 10-212 Figure 10.174 Cut Out Diagram (1 of 2) . . . 10-218 Figure 10.175 Cut Out Diagram (2 of 2) . . . 10-219

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LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 2.1 Deployed Support Requirements Checklist (1 of 4) . . . 2-3 Table 2.2 Deployed Support Requirements Checklist (2 of 4) . . . 2-4 Table 2.3 Deployed Support Requirements Checklist (3 of 4) . . . 2-5 Table 2.4 Deployed Support Requirements Checklist (4 of 4) . . . 2-6 Table 2.5 Area of Operations Essential Elements of Information (1 of 3) . . . 2-10 Table 2.6 Area of Operations Essential Elements of Information (2 of 3) . . . 2-11 Table 2.7 Area of Operations Essential Elements of Information (3 of 3) . . . 2-12 Table 2.8 Mission Planning Checklist . . . 2-17 Table 2.9 Request for Information Request Worksheet . . . 2-21 Table 2.10 Warning Order . . . 2-23 Table 2.11 Warning Order Briefing Format (1 of 2) . . . 2-24 Table 2.12 Warning Order Briefing Format (2 of 2) . . . 2-25 Table 2.13 Course of Action Briefing Format . . . 2-27 Table 2.14 Phase Diagram (1 of 2) . . . 2-30 Table 2.15 Phase Diagram (2 of 2) . . . 2-31 Table 2.16 Terrain Essential Elements of Information (1 of 4) . . . 2-32 Table 2.17 Terrain Essential Elements of Information (2 of 4) . . . 2-33 Table 2.18 Terrain Essential Elements of Information (3 of 4) . . . 2-34 Table 2.19 Terrain Essential Elements of Information (4 of 4) . . . 2-35 Table 2.20 Weather Essential Elements of Information (1 of 2) . . . 2-36 Table 2.21 Weather Essential Elements of Information (2 of 2) . . . 2-37 Table 2.22 Solar/Lunar Events . . . 2-38 Table 2.23 Space Environmental Situation One . . . 2-39 Table 2.24 Space Environmental Situation Two . . . 2-40 Table 2.25 Enemy Force Essential Elements of Information (1 of 4) . . . 2-45 Table 2.26 Enemy Force Essential Elements of Information (2 of 4) . . . 2-46 Table 2.27 Enemy Force Essential Elements of Information (3 of 4) . . . 2-47 Table 2.28 Enemy Force Essential Elements of Information (4 of 4) . . . 2-48 Table 2.29 Friendly Force Information Requirements . . . 2-50 Table 2.30 Evasion and Recovery Essential Elements of Information (1 of 2) . . . 2-53 Table 2.31 Evasion and Recovery Essential Elements of Information (2 of 2) . . . 2-54 Table 2.32 Operational Risk Management . . . 2-56 Table 2.33 Concept of Operations/Briefback Format (1 of 4) . . . 2-58 Table 2.34 Concept of Operations/Briefback Format (2 of 4) . . . 2-59 Table 2.35 Concept of Operations/Briefback Format (3 of 4) . . . 2-60 Table 2.36 Concept of Operations/Briefback Format (4 of 4) . . . 2-61 Table 2.37 Team Leader Brief Format (1 of 6) . . . 2-62 Table 2.38 Team Leader Brief Format (2 of 6) . . . 2-63 Table 2.39 Team Leader Brief Format (3 of 6) . . . 2-64 Table 2.40 Team Leader Brief Format (4 of 6) . . . 2-65 Table 2.41 Team Leader Brief Format (5 of 6) . . . 2-66 Table 2.42 Team Leader Brief Format (6 of 6) . . . 2-67

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Table 2.43 Intelligence Debriefing Checklist (1 of 3) . . . 2-69 Table 2.44 Intelligence Debriefing Checklist (2 of 3) . . . 2-70 Table 2.45 Intelligence Debriefing Checklist (3 of 3) . . . 2-71 Table 2.46 Combat Search and Rescue Planning Guide (1 of 9) . . . 2-75 Table 2.47 Combat Search and Rescue Planning Guide (2 of 9) . . . 2-76 Table 2.48 Combat Search and Rescue Planning Guide (3 of 9) . . . 2-77 Table 2.49 Combat Search and Rescue Planning Guide (4 of 9) . . . 2-78 Table 2.50 Combat Search and Rescue Planning Guide (5 of 9) . . . 2-79 Table 2.51 Combat Search and Rescue Planning Guide (6 of 9) . . . 2-80 Table 2.52 Combat Search and Rescue Planning Guide (7 of 9) . . . 2-81 Table 2.53 Combat Search and Rescue Planning Guide (8 of 9) . . . 2-82 Table 2.54 Combat Search and Rescue Planning Guide (9 of 9) . . . 2-83 Table 2.55 JPRC/PRCC Planning Guide (1 of 3) . . . 2-84 Table 2.56 JPRC/PRCC Planning Guide (2 of 3) . . . 2-85 Table 2.57 JPRC/PRCC Planning Guide (3 of 3) . . . 2-86 Table 2.58 Personnel Recovery Reference Material . . . 2-87 Table 2.59 Team Leader Checklist (Example) . . . 2-90 Table 2.60 TL Time Schedule (Reverse Planning) . . . 2-93 Table 2.61 PJTL Time Schedule (Chronological Planning) . . . 2-94 Table 2.62 Types of Support . . . 2-101 Table 2.63 Instructions for Filling Out EPAs (1 of 3) . . . 2-111 Table 2.64 Instructions for Filling Out EPAs (2 of 3) . . . 2-112 Table 2.65 Instructions for Filling Out EPAs (3 of 3) . . . 2-113 Table 2.66 Sample Aircrew Evasion Plan of Action (1 of 5) . . . 2-114 Table 2.67 Sample Aircrew Evasion Plan of Action (2 of 5) . . . 2-115 Table 2.68 Sample Aircrew Evasion Plan of Action (3 of 5) . . . 2-116 Table 2.69 Sample Aircrew Evasion Plan of Action (4 of 5) . . . 2-117 Table 2.70 Sample Ground Team Evasion Plan of Action (1 of 4) . . . 2-118 Table 2.71 Sample Ground Team Evasion Plan of Action (2 of 4) . . . 2-119 Table 2.72 Sample Ground Evasion Plan of Action (3 of 4) . . . 2-120 Table 2.73 Sample Ground Evasion Plan of Action (4 of 4) . . . 2-121 Table 3.1 Mission Crew Member Responsibilities . . . 3-2 Table 3.2 Common Terminology (1 of 2) . . . 3-4 Table 3.3 Common Terminology (2 of 2) . . . 3-5 Table 3.4 Aircraft Egress, Familiarization, and Destruction Briefing Guide . . . 3-7 Table 3.5 Pararescue Individual Equipment Requirements (1 of 2) . . . 3-10 Table 3.6 Pararescue Individual Equipment Requirements (2 of 2) . . . 3-11 Table 3.7 Pararescue Team Equipment Requirements . . . 3-12 Table 3.8 Team Equipment Requirements—Logistics Requests . . . 3-13 Table 3.9 Individual Equipment Requirements—Weapons, Munitions, and

Pyrotechnics . . . 3-14 Table 3.10 Individual Equipment Requirements—Vertical Lift Configuration . . . 3-15 Table 4.1 Chemlight Configuration . . . 4-3 Table 4.2 Standard and Recommended Equipment . . . 4-29 Table 4.3 Standard Equipment . . . 4-31

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Table 4.4 Heavy REDS Kit Contents . . . 4-38 Table 4.5 Light REDS Kit Contents . . . 4-39 Table 5.1 Exit Altitudes . . . 5-2 Table 5.2 Drop Zone Elevation . . . 5-2 Table 5.3 Surface Wind . . . 5-3 Table 5.4 Drop Zone Conditions . . . 5-3 Table 5.5 Briefing Items . . . 5-7 Table 5.6 Briefing Items for Target Procedures . . . 5-10 Table 5.7 Briefings for Operations Above 10,000 Feet . . . 5-11 Table 5.8 Coordination Duties for Airdrop Operations . . . 5-12 Table 5.9 Parachute Information . . . 5-13 Table 5.10 Sea Level Fall Rate . . . 5-14 Table 5.11 C-130 Personnel Airdrop Data . . . 5-15 Table 5.12 C-141/C-5/C-17 Airdrop Speeds . . . 5-16 Table 5.13 Opening Delays . . . 5-17 Table 5.14 Guide to Safely Jump Containers . . . 5-26 Table 5.15 Rear Load Guide . . . 5-30 Table 5.16 DZ Wind Determination . . . 5-43 Table 5.17 Determine Direction and Rate of Travel . . . 5-45 Table 5.18 Wind Cone . . . 5-46 Table 5.19 Tree Entry Procedures . . . 5-47 Table 5.20 Suggested Water Equipment . . . 5-48 Table 5.21 Post Water Entry Procedures . . . 5-49 Table 5.22 Free-Fall Drift Determination . . . 5-51 Table 5.23 Free-Fall Water Entry Procedures . . . 5-52 Table 5.24 Free-Fall Tree Let Down . . . 5-53 Table 5.25 Prebreathing Requirements and Exposure Limits for High-Altitude

Operations . . . 5-54 Table 6.1 Cargo Parachute Data . . . 6-3 Table 6.2 Aerial Delivery Systems . . . 6-4 Table 6.3 Operational Mission Altitudes (1 of 2) . . . 6-6 Table 6.4 Operational Mission Altitudes (2 of 2) . . . 6-7 Table 6.5 Operational Airspeeds . . . 6-8 Table 6.6 Equipment Surface Wind Limitations . . . 6-8 Table 7.1 Designated Marksman Qualification Course . . . 7-7 Table 7.2 Designated Marksman Sustainment Course . . . 7-8 Table 7.3 Advanced Carbine Course of Fire (1 of 2) . . . 7-11 Table 7.4 Advanced Carbine Course of Fire (2 of 2) . . . 7-12 Table 7.5 EBR Course of Fire.(1 of 2) . . . 7-24 Table 7.6 EBR Course of Fire (2 of 2) . . . 7-25 Table 8.1 Beaufort Wind Scale . . . 8-19 Table 8.2 Example of Basic Language Translation Card . . . 8-42 Table 9.1 OBM and CRRC Repair Kit Contents . . . 9-28 Table 9.2 Track Spacing . . . 9-41 Table 9.3 Diver-To-Tender Voice Communications . . . 9-78

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Table 9.4 Tender-To-Diver Line Pull Signals . . . 9-79 Table 9.5 Diver-To-Tender Line Pull Signals . . . 9-79 Table 9.6 Tether Length Table . . . 9-84 Table 9.7 Staged Lift Equipment Requirements . . . 9-117 Table 9.8 Basic Underwater Salvage Physics . . . 9-117 Table 10.1 Units of Measurement . . . 10-5 Table 10.2 Conversion Factors . . . 10-5 Table 10.3 Operational Risk Management Planning Worksheet . . . 10-10 Table 10.4 Command and Communication for Lowering . . . 10-12 Table 10.5 Command and Communication for Raising Checklist . . . 10-13 Table 10.6 Team Leader Briefing . . . 10-14 Table 10.7 SI System . . . 10-16 Table 10.8 Resultant Force (kN) for a Given Slope Angle and Mass . . . 10-36 Table 10.9 Summary of Leg Tension Forces . . . 10-37 Table 10.10 Hardware Characteristics . . . 10-47 Table 10.11 Rope Characteristics . . . 10-48 Table 10.12 Rope Strength Decrease Due to Knot . . . 10-51 Table 10.13 Angle Calculations . . . 10-68 Table 10.14 Types of Belays . . . 10-85 Table 10.15 kN Calculations for Number of Haulers . . . 10-92 Table 10.16 Harness Testing . . . 10-120 Table 10.17 Snow and Ice Environment Terms . . . 10-122 Table 10.18 Avalance Terms . . . 10-130 Table 10.19 Equipment . . . 10-163 Table 10.20 Heavy REDS Kit Contents . . . 10-197 Table 10.21 Light REDS Kit Contents . . . 10-198 Table 12.1 Reintegration Kit (1 of 2) . . . 12-2 Table 12.2 Reintegration Kit (2 of 2) . . . 12-3 Table 12.3 Phase 1 Reintegration Team Contacts (1 of 2) . . . 12-4 Table 12.4 Phase 1 Reintegration Team Contacts (2 of 2) . . . 12-5 Table 12.5 Reintegration Team Task Organization and Responsibilities (1 of 2) . . . . 12-8 Table 12.6 Reintegration Team Task Organization and REsponsibilities (2 of 2) . . . . 12-9 Table 12.7 Nondisclosure Agreement . . . 12-11 Table A2.1 JPRC/PRCC Reintegration Checklist (1 of 2) . . . A2-1 Table A2.2 JPRC/PRCC Reintegration Checklist (2 of 2) . . . A2-2 Table A2.3 Reintegration Team Chief Checklist (1 of 4) . . . A2-3 Table A2.4 Reintegration Team Chief Checklist (2 of 4) . . . A2-4 Table A2.5 Reintegration Team Chief Checklist (3 of 4) . . . A2-5 Table A2.6 Reintegration Team Chief Checklist (4 of 4) . . . A2-6 Table A2.7 Debriefing Checklist for Reintegration Team Chiefs (1 of 2) . . . A2-7 Table A2.8 Debriefing Checklist For Reintegration Team Chiefs (2 of 2) . . . A2-8 Table A2.9 DD Form 2810—Promise of Confidentiality . . . A2-9 Table A2.10 JPRC CRO C2 Checklist (1 of 3) . . . A2-10 Table A2.11 JPRC CRO C2 Checklist (2 of 3) . . . A2-11 Table A2.12 JPRC CRO C2 Checklist (3 of 3) . . . A2-12

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Table A2.13 JPRC INTEL Checklist (1 of 2) . . . A2-13 Table A2.14 JPRC INTEL Checklist (2 of 2) . . . A2-14 Table A2.15 JPRC Legal Counsel Checklist (1 of 2) . . . A2-15 Table A2.16 JPRC Legal Counsel Checklist (2 of 2) . . . A2-16 Table A2.17 JPRC PAO Checklist (1 of 2) . . . A2-17 Table A2.18 JPRC PAO Checklist (2 of 2) . . . A2-18 Table A3.1 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (1 of 62) . . . A3-2 Table A3.2 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (2 of 62) . . . A3-3 Table A3.3 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (3 of 62) . . . A3-4 Table A3.4 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (4 of 62) . . . A3-5 Table A3.5 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (5 of 62) . . . A3-6 Table A3.6 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (6 of 62) . . . A3-7 Table A3.7 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (7 of 62) . . . A3-8 Table A3.8 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (8 of 62) . . . A3-9 Table A3.9 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (9 of 62) . . . A3-10 Table A3.10 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (10 of 62) . . . A3-11 Table A3.11 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (11 of 62) . . . A3-12 Table A3.12 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (12of 62) . . . A3-13 Table A3.13 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (13 of 62) . . . A3-14 Table A3.14 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (14 of 62) . . . A3-15 Table A3.15 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (15 of 62) . . . A3-16 Table A3.16 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (16 of 62) . . . A3-17 Table A3.17 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (17 of 62) . . . A3-18 Table A3.18 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (18 of 62) . . . A3-19 Table A3.19 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (19 of 62) . . . A3-20 Table A3.20 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (20 of 62) . . . A3-21 Table A3.21 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (21 of 62) . . . A3-22 Table A3.22 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (22 of 62) . . . A3-23 Table A3.23 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (23 of 62) . . . A3-24 Table A3.24 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (24 of 62) . . . A3-25 Table A3.25 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (25 of 62) . . . A3-26 Table A3.26 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (26 of 62) . . . A3-27 Table A3.27 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (27 of 62) . . . A3-28 Table A3.28 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (28 of 62) . . . A3-29 Table A3.29 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (29 of 62) . . . A3-30 Table A3.30 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (30 of 62) . . . A3-31 Table A3.31 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (31 of 62) . . . A3-32 Table A3.32 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (32 of 62) . . . A3-33 Table A3.33 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (33 of 62) . . . A3-34 Table A3.34 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (34 of 62) . . . A3-35 Table A3.35 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (35 of 62) . . . A3-36 Table A3.36 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (36 of 62) . . . A3-37 Table A3.37 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (37 of 62) . . . A3-38 Table A3.38 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (38 of 62) . . . A3-39 Table A3.39 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (39 of 62) . . . A3-40

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Table A3.40 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (40 of 62) . . . A3-41 Table A3.41 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (41 of 62) . . . A3-42 Table A3.42 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (42 of 62) . . . A3-43 Table A3.43 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (43 of 62) . . . A3-44 Table A3.44 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (44 of 62) . . . A3-45 Table A3.45 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (45 of 62) . . . A3-46 Table A3.46 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (46 of 62) . . . A3-47 Table A3.47 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (47 of 62) . . . A3-48 Table A3.48 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (48 of 62) . . . A3-49 Table A3.49 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (49 of 62) . . . A3-50 Table A3.50 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (50 of 62) . . . A3-51 Table A3.51 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (51 of 62) . . . A3-52 Table A3.52 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (52 of 62) . . . A3-53 Table A3.53 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (53 of 62) . . . A3-54 Table A3.54 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (54 of 62) . . . A3-55 Table A3.55 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (55 of 62) . . . A3-56 Table A3.56 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (56 of 62) . . . A3-57 Table A3.57 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (57 of 62) . . . A3-58 Table A3.58 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (58 of 62) . . . A3-59 Table A3.59 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (59 of 62) . . . A3-60 Table A3.60 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (60 of 62) . . . A3-61 Table A3.61 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (61 of 62) . . . A3-62 Table A3.62 Outline For Isolated Personnel Interviews/Debrief (62 of 62) . . . A3-63

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview. The mission of GUARDIAN ANGEL is the recovery of personnel and sensitive

material. GUARDIAN ANGEL is a human/equipment weapon system that provides airborne and ground based capability to prosecute each of the five tasks assigned to personnel recovery operations. The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) 3270.01A, dated July 2004, defines personnel recovery (PR) as “the sum of all military, diplomatic, and civil efforts to effect recovery and return of US military, DoD civilians, and DoD contractor personnel who are isolated or missing while participating a United States government-sanctioned military activity, or missions in an uncertain, or hostile environment. AFDD 2-1.6, Personnel Recovery Operations (PRO), describes the specific tasks performed by Air Force units to recover isolated personnel (IP) throughout the entire spectrum of conflict. Emerging threats in an asymmetrical battlespace have identified the requirement to execute five specific tasks of PR: (1) report, (2) locate, (3) support, (4) recover, and (5) reintegrate. The lead command for USAF PRO, Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), has expanded the PR mission area to include recovery operations (RO) as the return of sensitive material.

1.1.1 General. This document is designed to provide the fundamental tactics, techniques and

procedures which form the foundation for combat employment of the GUARDIAN ANGEL weapon system. GUARDIAN ANGEL is composed of personnel from three specific Air Force specialties with the core skills and equipment required to provide the warfighting commander with a full spectrum capability to accomplish PR/RO. The combat rescue officer (CRO), pararescue (PJ) personnel, and survival, evasion, resistance, escape (SERE) specialists represents three distinct elements of a weapon system capability. The TTP addressed in this volume are a baseline for these operators to utilize and improve upon when employed to conduct personnel recovery and recovery operations.

1.1.1.1 Combat Rescue Officer. These officers lead and command GUARDIAN ANGEL as direct combatant ground force commanders during tactical mission scenarios as required during surface operations, high value target recovery, and bilateral operations with other weapon systems and tactical forces. CROs provide subject matter expertise to the command and battle staff; performing duties as mission planners and advocates for pararescue and SERE operations.

1.1.1.2 Pararescue. PJs are the only DoD specialty specifically trained, equipped, organized, and employed to conduct conventional or unconventional PR operations (AFPD 16-12, Pararescue) They are the USAF force of choice for assisted evasion and recovery of isolated personnel.

1.1.1.3 SERE Specialist. SERE Specialists are the only DOD specialty specifically trained, equipped, organized, and employed to conduct SERE operations for the duration of their career (AFPD 16-13, Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape). They are the USAF force of choice to train and support isolated personnel.

1.1.2 Specifics. This volume does not address classified tactics, techniques, or procedures.

Figure

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