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ECC PSY 100 Chapter 8 Motivation and Emotion 2018.pptx


Academic year: 2020

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Chapter 8



The biological, emotional, cognitive,


Activating Behavior

Internal Factors

Instinct theories

Instincts: Unlearned, characteristic patterns of


Activating Behavior

Drive Theories

• Behavior is motivated by the desire to

reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs.

Drive: A psychological state that arises in

response to an internal physiological need


Activating Behavior

External Factors

• Incentive Motivation: External factors in the

environment that exert pulling effects on our actions.


Activating Behavior

Arousal Theories

• Sensation Seeking  Personality trait

The need for an individual to have varied,


Activating Behavior

Achievement Motivation

• Internal need for achievement

• Possessed by all individuals to varying


• Depends on your expectations of success

and on how much you value the task


Defining Emotion

Emotions are experiences that involve:

1. Some kind of subjective experience

2. An expressive reaction


Expressing and Experiencing


Are there basic emotions?

• Emotions expressed in the same way


• Difficult to agree on a complete list  Fear, surprise, anger, disgust, happiness,



Expressing and Experiencing


In more complex situations, people

experience mixed emotions.

• Different emotions experienced



Caused by violated expectations

Everyone experiences it in varying

degrees – is it healthy to express it?


Theories of Emotion

Common Sense

• The subjective experience drives the


Theories of Emotion

James-Lange Theory

• Body reactions precede and drive the


Theories of Emotion

Cannon-Bard Theory

• Body reactions and subjective experiences


Theories of Emotion

Two-Factor Theory

• The cognitive interpretation, or appraisal, of


Theories of Emotion

Cognitive Appraisal Theory

• The personal meaning of a cognitive



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