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Instructional Design: Objectives, Curriculum and Lesson Plans for Reading Sylvia Linan-Thompson, The University of Texas at Austin Haitham Taha,


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Instructional Design: Objectives, Curriculum and Lesson Plans for Reading

Sylvia Linan-Thompson, The University of Texas at Austin Haitham Taha, Sakhnin College



The importance of reading

Reading in Arabic

A systems approach

The importance of vertical alignment

– Objectives

– Curriculum


The importance of early grade reading

• Children enter school with discrepant language and literacy experiences.

• Research shows that if students do not develop

reading skills early, they are likely to continue to lag behind their peers.

• Therefore, it is necessary to provide reading instruction

early and strategically with a focus on skills that are critical at each grade level.


Research: Reading in Arabic

Diglossia and phonological representations

(Saiegh-Haddad, 2003, 2004)

Orthographic complexity and visual recognition

(Ibrahim et al., 2002 Taha et al., 2013, Taha & Khateb, 2013).

Morphological awareness and the contribution to

reading and spelling in Arabic

(Taha & Saiegh-Haddad, submitted)

Preschool intervention program for enhancing



Key Concepts

Linguistic systems that impact learning to read:

Phonological System

– Representation of sounds used in the oral and writing system of a language.

Orthographic system

– Representation of the visual symbols used in the writing system of a language and the mapping of these symbols onto speech and meaning

Morphological system

– Representation of meaningful units in the oral and written system of a language.



289 children in three age-group and an equal

number of normal and dyslexic readers

2nd grade (N= 96)

4th grade (N=98)

6th grade (N=95)

Three experimental conditions:

– phonological intervention

– morphological intervention

– control




twice a week

six months.

small groups of 4-5 participants

A total of 48-50 sessions


Morphological Intervention

• Focused on:

• morphological awareness: root versus patterns

• the non-concatenated root-pattern morphological structure of Arabic words

• The concatenated structure of morphologically dense words (including stem and clitics) يتيبب

• The morpho-syntactic information encoded in the concatenated and non-concatenated morphological structure of words.

• Explicit learning about Morpho-orthographic connections, e.g., ت

مدق ,لبقتسا

• Pseudowords spelling training for establishing morpho-orthographic knowledge and representations >ج رْبَ تسإ >ل فاقَ ت< >اوت ب ح< >



Linguistic awareness tasks:

Phonological awareness (phoneme

segmentation: words and pseudo words; initial

phoneme isolation, : words and pseudo words)

Morphological awareness (word relatedness

according to root and pattern; morphological

decomposition of concatenated complex words;

morphological production fluency; morphological

structure recognition)



- Both linguistic interventions contribute to

word reading among NR and DR

- Explicit morpho-orthographic training is

important to the development of lexical

knowledge especially for older readers

- Intensive and repeated phoneme-grapheme

training among beginning readers

(including syllables and pseudowords decoding & spelling)


Systems Approach

To improve student reading you have to

change students’ learning experience.

Three changes you can make that impact

teaching and learning are:

– the focus of instruction;

– the quality of instruction; or


Systems Approach


• Framework which outlines specific knowledge and skills students must acquire


• A specific learning program that operationalizes the objectives

Lesson Plans

• The daily routines that support the acquisition of the knowledge and skills identified in the curriculum


Systems Approach 1





Language and Concept Knowledge Academic Vocabulary Phonemic Awareness

Letter-Sound Recognition

Automatic Word Recognition

Sentence Reading Connected Text Reading Listening Comprehension

Word Reading and Spelling



Framework which outlines specific knowledge

and skills students must acquire in each grade

level and across grade levels




– are clearly defined at each grade level.

– are anchored to research.

– are prioritized and dedicated to the main components of reading.

– guide instructional and curricular decisions.

– are commonly understood by all stakeholders and consistently used by teachers and administrations to communicate student learning and improve





1st Grade: Decode two-syllable

words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.

2nd Grade: Identify and write the

diacritic mark shaddah with fathah.

3rd Grade: Decode multisyllabic





1st grade: Distinguish between

information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information

provided by the words in a text. 2nd grade: Ask and answer such

questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

3rd grade: Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author



1. An effective curriculum has a strong focus

on the components of reading instruction.

2. Each of the objective is mapped from

easiest to more difficult.

3. The skills and knowledge are distributed

within and across the grade levels.

4. It has as a foundation a systematic

instructional design

5. Ensures that an adequate amount of time is

allocated to reading instruction.


An effective curriculum

• is comprehensive;

• explicitly and systematically builds Arabic language skills during reading instruction;

• explicitly teaches Arabic letter/sound correspondences and spelling rules;

• introduces skills in isolation and practice in context;

• builds vocabulary and emphasizes the relationships between and among words to build oral language skills; and

• includes reading and discussion of text that targets comprehension and language development


Systematic Instruction

• Systematic instruction is defined as instruction that is carefully sequenced and provides sufficient practice to master content, and judicious review to retain learning over time (Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui & Tarver, 2010).

Introduce a manageable amount of information and

objectives within a lesson.

• Structure adequate practice and review for mastery of the new skill or strategy.

Why? Well-delivered and supported instruction helps to create a safe environment in which students can


Component Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5

Letter alif alif be be

Phonemic Awareness

Recognition Identification Recognition Identification Blending Segmenting Letter Knowledge Name/soun d/ write Name/sound /write Name/sound /write Name/sound /write Name/sound /write

Syllable Read/write Read/write Read/write Word Read/write Read/write



Components of Reading

Code Emphasis Meaning Emphasis Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Phonemic awareness Alphabetic principle Decoding



• Phonemic awareness is an early and essential skill.

Letter sound knowledge is necessary to develop

alphabetic principle.

• The alphabetic principle is necessary for reading words and spelling.

• The ability to read words automatically is needed for fluent reading.

• Adequate reading comprehension depends on a person

already knowing 90-95% of the words in a text (Nagy & Scott, 2000).

• Reading fluency and vocabulary impact



• Identify scope and sequence for each component

• What will be taught and when?

• Determine lesson cycle

• Model, guided practice, independent practice

• Determine evaluation component

• How often?

• What type of mastery check will be used?

• Materials


Lesson Plans

Support teaching and

learning in two ways:

– The content provides what is taught

– The format guides delivery of the content


Teaching Routines

Teaching routines systematically introduce

skills, using a model, guided practice, and

independent practice instructional sequence.

They also provide multiple opportunities to

practice and apply new skills, and

use mastery checks to determine whether or

not children are learning.


Lesson Plan

Advance Organizer

T: We are going to learn to read a letter with the diacritic. The letter with the fath’a has the same

sound regardless of the position in the word. We will use the sound of the syllable to read and spell words.


Point to the letter as it appears at the beginning of the word with the fath’a and say,

T: This letter with the fath’a is ____.

T : I read the syllable ______.


Lesson Plans

• Students answer in unison to maximize practice time.

• Teacher monitors

responses and corrects or scaffolds as needed with all students participating. • Practice until students


Lesson Plans

Task Share of Responsibility

Explicit description of strategy Teacher modeling

Guided practice

Independent practice

Independent use by student (application)


Lesson Plans

• Practice greatly increases the likelihood that

students will permanently remember new

information that they encounter by transferring it into their knowledge base.

• Practice increases student facility. Automaticity is usually only achieved through extensive

rehearsal and repetition.

• Cognitive gains from

practice often bring about motivation for more

learning (Kalchman, Moss, & Case, 2001).


Teaching Routines

The characteristics found in teaching routines

– Clear , precise, consistent language,

– pacing, and

– practice

ensure that students are developing and


Effective lesson plans

Provide sufficient modeled examples prior to

learner practice

Include sufficient opportunities for student


Provide specific guidance for corrective


Provide specific recommendations or

guidance for re-teaching


For Discussion

Do you have appropriate reading objectives?

– Do they focus on the most critical skills at each grade level?

– Are they aligned across the grade levels?

– How are they communicated to teachers and parents?

Is the curriculum aligned with the objectives?

– Is it comprehensive and systematic?

Are there standard lesson plans for teachers?



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