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Table of Contents

PREFACE ...III TABLE OF CASES ... XVII THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ... XXVII Chapter I

.

Creating the Modern Federal Judiciary: Incorporation and Interpretation of the Bill of

Rights ... 1

Timeline: Incorporation and Interpretation of the Bill of Rights ... 1

Introduction ... 3

The English Background of the U.S. Legal System ... 3

The Declaration of Independence ... 4

The Articles of Confederation ... 4

A New Constitution ... 5

The Organization and Operation of the Federal Judicial System ... 5

The Appointment, Confirmation, and Tenure of Judges and Justices ... 8

The Federalist Explains the Judicial Branch ... 9

The Jurisdiction and Power of Federal Courts ... 10

Between Judicial Activism and Judicial Restraint: Methods of Constitutional Interpretation ... 10

The Development of Judicial Review of National Legislation ... 12

Incorporation and the Bill of Rights ... 13

States and the Bill of Rights ... 15

Barron v. Baltimore ... 17

The Bill of Rights and Fourteenth Amendment ... 18

What Has Been Incorporated? ... 21

First Amendment ... 22 Second Amendment ... 22 Fourth Amendment ... 22 Fifth Amendment... 22 Sixth Amendment ... 22 Eighth Amendment ... 22 Ninth Amendment ... 23 Slaughterhouse Cases ... 23

Hurtado v. People of State of California ... 26

Chicago, B. & Q. R. Co. v. City of Chicago ... 29

Gitlow v. New York ... 31

Palko v. State of Connecticut ... 34

Cantwell v. Connecticut ... 36

Adamson v. People of State of California ... 38

Powell v. Alabama ... 40

Gideon v. Wainwright ... 43

Wolf v. Colorado ... 44

Mapp v. Ohio ... 46

Griswold v. Connecticut ... 48

Otis McDonald v. City of Chicago, Illinois... 51

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Constitutional Analysis Framework ... 55

Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority ... 55

United States v. Carolene Products Co. ... 56

Korematsu v. United States ... 57

Skinner v. Oklahoma ... 60

Glossary ... 62

Selected Bibliography ... 66

Chapter II

.

The First Amendment and Religion ... 67

Timeline: The First Amendment and Religion ... 67

Introduction ... 69

The Religion Clauses of the First Amendment ... 70

The Establishment Clause ... 70

Beginnings ... 70

The Establishment Clause and Religious Exercises in the Public Schools ... 71

The Development and Application of the Lemon Test and Other Approaches ... 72

Symbolic Displays on Public Properties ... 73

One Candidate’s View ... 73

Thomas Jefferson, The Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom ... 73

Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution ... 75

Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township ... 77

Engel v. Vitale ... 81

Lemon v. Kurtzman ... 84

Marsh v. Chambers... 89

Wallace v. Jaffree ... 93

Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe ... 100

Zelman v. Simmons Harris ... 105

Van Orden v. Perry ... 116

McCreary v. American Civil Liberties Union ... 121

Address of Senator John F. Kennedy to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association ... 127

The Free Exercise Clause ... 129

The Belief-Action Dichotomy ... 129

The Compelling State Interest Test Applied ... 130

The Compelling State Interest Test Reconsidered ... 130

West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette ... 131

Sherbert v. Verner ... 135

Wisconsin v. Yoder ... 140

Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith ... 146

Cutter v. Wilkinson ... 157

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Abercrombie & Fitch Stores ... 161

Glossary ... 164

Selected Bibliography ... 164

Chapter III

.

Freedom of Speech ... 167

Timeline: Freedom of Speech ... 167

Introduction ... 169

Theories of Free Speech ... 170

Speech That Criticizes the Government or Seems to Threaten Public Order: An Early Controversy ... 170

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Sedition Act ... 171

Virginia Resolution ... 172

World War I and Beyond ... 173

Schenck v. United States ... 174

Gitlow v. New York ... 175

Dennis v. United States ... 179

Brandenburg v. Ohio ... 183

Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Ass’n ... 185

McCullen v. Coakley ... 191

Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions ... 197

Careless Words Versus True Threats... 197

Kovacs v. Cooper ... 198

Ward v. Rock Against Racism ... 200

Rankin v. McPherson ... 205

The Government as Speaker ... 209

Rust v. Sullivan ... 210

National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley ... 214

Board of Regents of University of Wisconsin v. Southworth ... 219

Student Speech ... 224

Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District ... 225

Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser ... 228

Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier ... 232

Morse v. Frederick ... 236

Fighting Words, Hate Speech, and Hostile Audiences ... 242

Chaplinsky v. State of New Hampshire ... 243

Terminiello v. City of Chicago ... 245

Feiner v. New York ... 247

Beauharnais v. Illinois ... 248

Collin v. Smith ... 251

R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul ... 255

Wisconsin v. Mitchell ... 258

Snyder v. Phelps ... 261

Speech Plus... 266

United States v. O’Brien ... 266

Cohen v. California ... 269

Texas v. Johnson... 273

Virginia v. Black ... 279

Glossary ... 284

Selected Bibliography ... 285

Chapter IV

.

Free Press, Assembly, Petition, and Other Types of Speech ... 287

Timeline: Free Press Assembly, and Petition ... 287

Introduction ... 290

Obscenity, Pornography, and Censorship ... 291

Burstyn v. Wilson ... 294

Roth v. United States ... 297

Kingsley International Pictures Corporation v. Regents... 299

Miller v. California ... 300

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City of Renton v. Playtime Theatres, Inc. ... 306

Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. ... 308

American Booksellers Association, Inc., v. Hudnut ... 311

Regina v. Butler ... 314

Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union ... 317

Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Ass’n ... 322

Commercial Speech ... 322

Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council, Inc. ... 325

Central Hudson Gas & Elec. Corp. v. Public Service Commission of New York ... 330

Posadas de Puerto Rico Associates v. Tourism Co. of P. R... 334

44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island ... 337

Freedom of the Press ... 340

Bridges v. California, and Times-Mirror Co. v. Superior Court of California... 344

Near v. Minnesota ... 346

Grosjean v. American Press Co. ... 349

New York Times Co. v. Sullivan ... 350

New York Times Company v. United States ... 354

United States v. The Progressive, Inc., ... 357

Branzburg v. Hayes ... 361

Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. F.C.C. ... 366

Federal Communications Commission v. Pacifica Foundation ... 370

Gannett Co., Inc. v. DePasquale ... 374

Richmond Newspapers, Inc. v. Virginia ... 377

Hazelwood School Dist. v. Kuhlmeier ... 381

Freedom of Assembly and Petition ... 381

Dennis v. United States ... 385

Yates v. United States ... 386

American Communications Ass’n v. Douds ... 388

Adler v. Board of Education ... 392

Keyishian v. Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York ... 394

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People v. State of Alabama ... 396

Roberts v. United States Jaycees ... 399

Boy Scouts of America v. James Dale ... 403

Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Group of Boston, Inc. ... 406

Hutchins v. District of Columbia... 409

United Mine Workers of America, Dist. 12 v. Illinois State Bar Ass’n ... 411

Edwards v. South Carolina... 413

Glossary ... 415

Selected Bibliography ... 416

Chapter V

.

The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms ... 419

Timeline: The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms ... 419

United States v. Cruikshank ... 423

Presser v. Illinois ... 426

United States v. Miller ... 428

District of Columbia v. Heller ... 431

Otis McDonald v. City of Chicago, Illinois ... 441

Glossary ... 466

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Chapter VI

.

The Eighth Amendment and Cruel and Unusual Punishment ... 467

Timeline: The Eighth Amendment and Cruel and Unusual Punishment ... 467

Introduction: Constitutional Foundations ... 468

The Death Penalty and Proportionality ... 469

Special Circumstances ... 471 Furman v. Georgia ... 472 Gregg v. Georgia ... 489 Coker v. Georgia ... 495 McCleskey v. Kemp ... 498 Herrera v. Collins ... 505 Atkins v. Virginia ... 510 Roper v. Simmons ... 516

Issues Not Involving the Death Penalty ... 521

Rummel v. Estelle ... 521

Harmelin v. Michigan ... 526

Glossary ... 533

Selected Bibliography ... 534

Chapter VII

.

Criminal Due Process ... 535

Timeline: Criminal Due Process... 535

Introduction ... 537

The Fourth Amendment ... 538

The Fifth Amendment ... 538

Sixth Amendment ... 538

Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure ... 539

The Exclusionary Rule ... 539

Evidentiary Requirements and Exceptions ... 540

Electronic Surveillance ... 541

Stop and Frisk ... 542

Searches Incident to Arrest ... 542

The Vehicular Exception to the Warrant Requirement... 542

Consent Searches ... 543

Ascertaining Probable Cause ... 544

Exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule ... 545

Racial Profiling ... 546

Wolf v. Colorado ... 547

Mapp v. Ohio ... 548

Warden, Maryland Penitentiary v. Hayden ... 549

Safford Unified School District #1 v. Redding ... 554

Katz v. United States ... 560

Danny Lee Kyllo v. United States ... 564

United States v. Jones ... 568

Terry v. Ohio ... 577

Chimel v. California ... 582

Pennsylvania v. Mimms ... 587

Whren v. United States ... 590

United States v. Mendenhall ... 594

Georgia v. Randolph ... 599

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United States v. Leon ... 610

New York v. Harris ... 616

Florida v. Bostick ... 620

Arizona v. United States ... 625

Brown v. City of Oneonta, New York ... 632

Fifth Amendment: Self-Incrimination ... 638

Informing Individuals of Their Rights ... 638

Exceptions to Miranda ... 639

Links Between the Fifth and Sixth Amendments ... 639

The Shock the Conscience Test ... 639

Miranda v. Arizona ... 640

New York v. Quarles ... 644

Schmerber v. California ... 647

Sixth Amendment: Fair Trial Provisions ... 650

The Right to Counsel ... 650

A Jury of One’s Peers ... 651

Gideon v. Wainwright ... 651

Escobedo v. Illinois ... 652

Batson v. Kentucky ... 655

Glossary ... 660

Selected Bibliography ... 661

Chapter VIII

.

Equal Protection of the Laws ... 663

Timeline: Equal Protection of the Laws ... 663

Introduction ... 666

Race ... 669

The Declaration of Independence ... 674

Frederick Douglass, “The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro”... 674

Plessy v. Ferguson ... 676

Sweatt v. Painter ... 679

Brown v. Board of Education ... 682

Bolling v. Sharpe ... 684

Brown v. Board of Education II ... 685

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education ... 687

Washington v. Davis ... 693

United States v. Fordice; Ayers v. Fordice ... 696

Gender ... 699

Evolving Judicial Standards ... 701

Proposed Equal Rights Amendment ... 702

Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions ... 703

Bradwell v. Illinois ... 705 Hoyt v. Florida ... 707 Reed v. Reed ... 710 Frontiero v. Richardson ... 711 Craig. v. Boren ... 715 Rostker v. Goldberg ... 718

Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County ... 722

Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan ... 725

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Affirmative Action... 735

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke ... 739

City of Richmond v. J. A. Croson Company ... 749

Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. Federal Communications Commission ... 758

Adarand Constructors v. Pena ... 762

Grutter v. Bollinger ... 770

Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 et al. ... 780

Additional Classifications ... 789

Alienage... 790

Cognitively and Physically Impaired Persons ... 792

Sexual Orientation and Same Sex Marriage ... 792

Transgendered People and Gender Identity ... 796

Poverty/Right to an Equal Education ... 797

Ambach v. Norwick ... 797

Plyler v. Doe ... 801

City of Cleburne, Texas v. Cleburne Living Center, Inc. ... 807

Bowers v. Hardwick ... 812

Romer v. Evans ... 818

Lawrence v. Texas ... 823

United States v. Windsor ... 829

Obergefell v. Hodges, Director, Ohio Department of Health ... 842

San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez ... 857

Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby ... 864

Glossary ... 866

Selected Bibliography ... 867

Chapter IX

.

Privacy and Reproductive Rights ... 871

Timeline: Privacy and Reproductive Rights ... 871

Introduction ... 873

The Right to Privacy ... 873

Samuel Warren and Louis D. Brandeis, “The Right to Privacy” ... 876

Pierce v. Society of Sisters ... 878

Olmstead v. United States ... 880

Griswold v. Connecticut ... 885

The Right to Abortion ... 886

Roe v. Wade ... 889

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services ... 895

Hodgson v. Minnesota... 903

Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey ... 910

Women of Minnesota v. Gomez ... 921

The Right to Assisted Suicide ... 926

Washington v. Glucksberg ... 928

Vacco v. Quill ... 935

Glossary ... 938

Selected Bibliography ... 938

Chapter X

.

The Constitution and Personhood ... 941

Timeline: Constitutional Personhood ... 941

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Who Is a Person? Slaves, Women, Children, and Fetuses ... 944

Dred Scott v. Sanford ... 946

Minor v. Happersett ... 953

Roe v. Wade ... 960

Corporate Personhood ... 960

Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward ... 962

County of Santa Clara v. Southern Pac. R. Co. ... 964

Pembina Consolidated Silver Min. & Milling Co. v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... 974

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission ... 977

Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. ... 990

Animals as Persons ... 997

Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah ... 998

State v. Nix ... 1003

The People of The State of New York ex rel. The Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc., on Behalf of Tommy v. Patrick C. Lavery, Individually and as an Officer of Circle L Trailer Sales, Inc., et al.1006 Clones, Robots, and Space Aliens as Persons ... 1008

Glossary ... 1010

Selected Bibliography ... 1010

Chapter XI

.

State Action ... 1011

Timeline: State Action ... 1011

Introduction ... 1012

Historical Developments ... 1013

Civil Rights Cases ... 1016

Screws v. United States ... 1018

Shelley v. Kraemer ... 1020

Marsh v. State of Alabama ... 1022

Fashion Valley Mall, LLC v. N.L.R.B. ... 1024

Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvis ... 1028

Jackson v. Metropolitan Edison Company ... 1032

DeShaney v. Winnebago County Dept. of Social Services ... 1034

Town of Castle Rock, Colorado v. Gonzales ... 1038

Excessive Use of Force... 1043

Tennessee v. Garner ... 1047 Graham v. Connor ... 1052 Hudson v. McMillian... 1055 Scott v. Harris ... 1059 Glossary ... 1064 Selected Bibliography ... 1064 Appendix A ... 1067

Virginia Declaration of Rights ... 1067

Alexander Hamilton, The Federalist No. 84 Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered ... 1068

James Madison, Letter to Thomas Jefferson on the Necessity of a Bill of Rights ... 1074

Thomas Jefferson, Letter to James Madison ... 1076

James Madison Proposes the Bill of Rights to the House of Representatives ... 1077

Thurgood Marshall, Reflections on the Bicentennial of the United States ... 1085

References

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