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Development And Restructuring Of Higher Education And Research In IndiaAmit Phillora


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IJM, Vol. 1, Issue 1 (2014) e-ISSN: 1694-2299 | p-ISSN: 1694-240X

Development And Restructuring Of Higher Education And

Research In India

Amit Phillora

Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Madhya Pradesh, India


Glorious History of Indian Education System

i. Early Age Education In India

India is a holy country. India is a country which was always seen as symbol of religion, culture and education. Here we not only use to educate the people but also use to pray and treat it as goddess. In India the goddess of education is known as Saraswati. India has a glorious past in field of education. In India Gurus played a vital and very important role. Their place was above god and was believed that:

“Guruh A Brahma, Guruh A Vishnu, Guruh Deva Maheshwara. Guruh Sakshat Purbramha Tasmayee Shree Guruvaih Namah.”

India had glorious past in field of education. Earlier education system was based on teaching of traditional and cultural values, religious and rituals, Vedic Mathematics, Indian Logics at Hindu and Buddhist centre of educational institutes like Taxila ( in modern-day Pakistan) and Nalanda (In India) before Common Era.

Islamic Education came in India when India was invaded by Islamic empires in Middle Ages followed by Europeans who brought Western Education in India.

In Ancient India education was provided according to the Varna System (cast-system).These Varna’s were made according to the role and work which people use to play in society. Ancient India consisted of following Varnas:

a) Brahmans: They learnt about scriptures and religion.

b) Kshatriyas: They were taught and were trained into various skills of war fare.

c) Vaishya: They learned Trade and Commerce. They were also got educated into various vocational courses.

d) Shudras: Being lowest in Varna System they were denied with education. They were cleaners and were often treated very badly in society.

Ancient education system was very close to tradition and religion. Jain and Buddhist schools were termed as Heterodox. Cities like Varanasi were hub for education during Gupta Period. Nalanda was one of the most famous educational institutes where people from china and other part of world use to come for studying. Taxila and Nalanda where the institutes where grammar, medicine, philosophy, logics, metaphysics, arts and craft was taught.

Nalanda and Taxila was the centre of education for regions of China and Central Asia. Kings and Princes were educated in following subjects :

a) Danda-Niti (Politics). b) Economics (Vartta). c) Anvıksiki (Philosophy).

d) Itihasa (Historical Traditions).

There were 4 Veda’s in ancient Indian education system:

 Rig-Veda containing hymns’ to be recited by the hotar, or residing priests.

 Yajur-Veda containing formulas to be recited by the adhavaryu or officiating priest.

 The Sama-Veda, containing formulas to be sung by the udgatar or priest that chants.


In comparison to males females were less educated but still in Rig-Veda famous women poets brahmavadinis, specifically Lopamudra and Ghosha. Gargi and Maityeri were mentioned as scholars in religious Upanishads.

Buddha’s mother Maya was an educated queen where as other queens were literate in Pali.

Sangam literature (Classical Tamil Literature) consisted of 2381 poems composed by 473 poets out of which 154 were Women poetess and 102 remained annonymus.

Still Indian society consisted of more number of educated males in comparison to women.

ii. Early Common Era-High Middle Age

During this era Chinese scholar like Xuanzang and Yi Jing visited Indian institutes of education for learning Buddhist texts. Buddhism was coming up as a very strong religion in comparison to Brahmanism.

People from India also travelled to china for translating Buddhist text. One of the famous Indian Scholar travelled to China and translated number of texts.

Vikarmshila maintained a close relation with Tibet. Buddhist teacher Atisa was head monk in Vikarmshila before his visit to Tibet.

Rastrakuta Dynasty (945 CE), Chola Dynasty (1024 CE), provided state support to some selected students in educational establishment.

Temple Schools of 12-13 centuries included schools at Nataraja Temple situated at Chidambaram employed 20 librarians out of which 8 were copiers of Manuscripts and 2 were employed for verification of manuscripts, whereas the remaining staffs was engaged in reserving and pressuring of manuscripts, maintenance of school and other works.

During Pola Dynasty another school called Uddandapura was established in 8th century. The institute did tie up with Tibet and became centre of Tantric Buddhism.

During 10th-11th centuries the strength of monks reached to thousands at scared Mahabodhi Complex. Al Burani an Islamic scholar had established centre for Science and Technology at that place.

12th century had seen many invasions from northern Indian borders, such invasions resulted in disruption of educational systems and institutions as foreign armies invaded these educational establishments as well.

iii. Late Middle Ages—Early Modern Era

With the entrance of Islamic dynasties Islam was introduced to India. With introduction of Islam the traditional education system was greatly influenced.

Qutb-ud-din-Aybak and other Muslim rulers initiated which impaired religious knowledge.

Nizamuddin Auliya & Moinuddin Chisti became prominent educators and established Islamic monasteries. Students from Bukhara and Afghanistan used to visit India for studying humanity and science.

Islamic institutions consisted on Madrassas and Maktabs which taught grammar, philosophy, mathematics & laws influenced by Greek traditions inherited by Persia and the Middle East before Islam was spread from these regions to India.

During 18th century Delhi became an important centre of education in India.

One of the Madarsa of Delhi in 18th century which was under supervision of Shah Waliullah called Rahimiya came into limelight. Shah Waliullah believed following the approach of balancing Islamic Scriptures and Science. The course consisted of prescribed books on:

a) 2 Books on Grammars. b) 1 Book on Philosophy.

c) 2 Books on Astronomy and Mathematics. d) 2 Books on Logics.

e) 5 Books on Mysticism.

Another Madarsa at Lucknow under the influence of Mulla Nizamuddin Sahlawi, who educated at the Firangi Mahal and prescribed a course called the Dars-i-Nizami which combined traditional studies with modern and laid emphasis on logic.

The education system under the rule of Akbar adopted an inclusive approach with the monarch favouring additional courses:


b) Agriculture. c) Geography.

d) And even from texts from other languages and religions, such as Patanjali's work in Sanskrit.

The traditional science in this period was influenced by the ideas of :

 Aristotle.

 Bhāskara II.

 Charaka.

 Ibn Sina.

This inclusive approach was not uncommon in Mughal India. The more conservative monarch Aurangzeb also favoured teaching of subjects which could be applied to administration.

The Mughals, in fact, adopted a liberal approach to sciences and as contact with Persia increased the more intolerant Ottoman school of manqul education came to be gradually substituted by the more relaxed maqul school.

The middle Ages also saw the rise of private tuition in India. A tutor, or Riyazi, was an educated professional who could earn a suitable living by performing tasks such as creating calendars or generating revenue estimates for nobility. Another trend in this era is the mobility among professions, exemplified by Qaim Khan, a prince famous for his mastery in crafting leather shoes and forging cannons.

A. Colonial Era

The colonial era saw huge differences of opinion among the colonialists themselves about education for Indians.

This was divided into two schools -

1) The Orientalists, (who believed that education should happen in Indian languages of which they favoured classical or court languages like Sanskrit or Persian or utilitarian)

2) Thomas Babington Macaulay, who strongly believed that India had nothing to teach its own subjects and the best education for them, should happen in English.

 Thomas Babington Macaulay introduced English education in India, especially through his famous minute of February 1835.

 He called an educational system that would create a class of anglicised Indians who would serve as cultural intermediaries between the British and the Indians.

 Macaulay succeeded in implementing ideas previously put forward by Lord William Bentinck, the governor general since 1829.

 Bentinck favoured the replacement of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers. He was inspired by utilitarian ideas and called for "useful learning."

 However, Bentinck's ideas were rejected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company and he retired as governor general.

 Frykenberg examines the 1784 to 1854 period to argue that education helped integrate the diverse elements Indian society, thereby creating a new common bond from among conflicting loyalties.

 The native elite demanded modern education.

 The University of Madras, founded in 1857, became the single most important recruiting ground for generations of ever more highly trained officials. This exclusive and select leadership was almost entirely "clean-caste" and mainly Brahman. It held sway in both the imperial administration and within princely governments to the south. The position of this mandarin class was never seriously challenged until well into the twentieth century.

3) Ellis argues that historians of Indian education have generally confined their arguments to very narrow themes linked to colonial dominance and education as a means of control, resistance, and dialogue.

 Ellis emphasizes the need to evaluate the education actually experienced by most Indian children, which was outside the classroom.


o The reason involved historical differences in land taxes. However the rates of attendance and literacy were not nearly as skewed.

B. Villages

 Jha argues that local schools for pre-adolescent children were in a flourishing state in thousands of villages of Bihar and Bengal until the early decades of the 19th century.

o They were village institutions,

 Maintained by village elders with local funds, where their children (from all caste clusters and communities) could, if the father wished, receive useful skills.

o British policies in respect of education and land control adversely affected both the village structure and the village institutions of secular education.

 The British legal system and the rise of caste consciousness since the second half of the nineteenth century made it worse.

o Gradually, village as the base of secular identity and solidarity became too weak to create and maintain its own institution by the end of the 19th century and the traditional system decayed.

 British Education became solidified into India as missionary schools were established during the 1820s.

o New policies in 1835 gave rise to the use of English as the language of instruction for advanced topics.


India established a dense educational network (very largely for males) with a Western curriculum based on instruction in English.

To further advance their careers many ambitious upper class men with money, including Gandhi, Nehru and Muhammad Ali Jinnah went to England, especially to obtain a legal education at the Inns of Court. By 1890 some 60,000 Indians had matriculated, chiefly in the liberal arts or law.

About a third entered public administration, and another third became lawyers. The result was a very well educated professional state bureaucracy.

By 1887 of 21,000 mid-level civil service appointments, 45% were held by Hindus, 7% by Muslims, 19% by Eurasians (European father and Indian mother), and 29% by Europeans. Of the 1000 top -level positions, almost all were held by Britons, typically with an Oxbridge degree.

Victoria gate, named after the Empress in 1914, at Aligarh Muslim University. The Raj, often working with local philanthropists, opened :

186 colleges and universities. Starting with 600 students scattered across 4 universities and 67 colleges in 1882, the system expanded rapidly.

More exactly, there never was a "system" under the Raj, as each state acted independently and funded schools for Indians from mostly private sources.

By 1901 there were 5 universities and 145 colleges, with 18,000 students (almost all male). The curriculum was Western.

By 1922 most schools were under the control of elected provincial authorities, with little role for the national government.

In 1922 there were 14 universities and 167 colleges, with 46,000 students. In 1947, 21 universities and 496 colleges were in operation.

Universities at first did no teaching or research; they only conducted examinations and gave out degrees. The Madras Medical College opened in 1835, and admitted women so that they could treat the female population who traditionally shied away from medical treatments under qualified male professionals. The concept of educated women among medical professionals gained popularity during the late 19th century and by 1894, the Women's Christian Medical College, an exclusive medical school for women, was established in Ludhiana in Punjab.

The British established the Government College University in Lahore, of present day Pakistan in 1864. The institution was initially affiliated with the University of Calcutta for examination.

The prestigious University of the Punjab, also in Lahore, was the fourth university established by the colonials in South Asia, in the year 1882.


By 1920 it became The Aligarh Muslim University and was the leading intellectual centre of Muslim political activity.

The original goals were to train Muslims for British service and prepare elite that would attend universities in Britain.

After 1920 it became a centre of political activism.

Before 1939, the faculty and students supported an all-India nationalist movement.

However when the Second World War began political sentiment shifted toward demands for a Muslim separatist movement.

The intellectual support it provided proved significant in the success of Jinnah and the Muslim League. Engineering

The East India Company in 1806 set up Haileybury College in England to train administrators. In India, there were four colleges of civil engineering;

The first was Thomason College (Now IIT Roorkee), founded in 1847.

The second was Bengal Engineering College (now Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur). Their role was to provide civil engineers for the Indian Public Works Department.

Both in Britain and in India, the administration and management of science, technical and engineering education was undertaken by officers from the Royal Engineers and the Indian Army equivalent, (commonly referred to as sapper officers).

This trend in civil/military relationships continued with the establishment of the Royal Indian

Engineering College (also known as Cooper's Hill College) in 1870, specifically to train civil engineers in England for duties with the Indian Public Works Department.

The Indian Public Works Department, although technically a civilian organisation, relied on military engineers until 1947 and after.

Growing awareness for the need of technical education in India gave rise to establishment of institutions such as the Indian Institute of Science, established by philanthropist Jamshetji Tata in 1909.

By the 1930s India had 10 institutions offering engineering courses.

However, with the advent of the Second World War in 1939 the "War Technicians Training Scheme" under :

Ernest Bevin was initiated, thereby laying the foundation of modern technical education in India. Later, planned development of scientific education under Ardeshir Dalal was initiated in 1944. Science

University of Bombay was a famous university during 1870s.

During the 19th and 20th centuries most of the Indian princely states fell under the British Raj. The British rule during the 19th century did not take adequate measures to help develop science and technology in India and instead focused more on arts and humanities. Till 1899 only the University of Bombay offered a separate degree in sciences.

By 1899 B.Sc. and M.Sc. courses were also supported by the University of Calcutta.

By the late 19th century India had lagged behind in science and technology and related education. However, the nobility and aristocracy in India largely continued to encourage the development of sciences and technical education, both traditional and western.

While some science related subjects were not allowed in the government curriculum in the 1850s the private institutions could also not follow science courses due to lack of funds required to establish laboratories etc.

The fees for scientific education under the British rule were also high.

The salary that one would get in the colonial administration was meagre and made the prospect of attaining higher education bleak since the native population was not employed for high positions in the colonial setup.

Even the natives who did manage to attain higher education faced issues of discrimination in terms of wages and privileges.


However, Deepak Kumar notes the British turn to professional education during the 1860s and the French initiatives at raising awareness on science and technology in French colonies.

Present Situation of Educational System.

In 21st century educationalists started playing multiple roles like Creating new knowledge.

Acquiring new capabilities and producing intelligent human resource pool.

Through challenging teaching, research and extension activities so as to balance need and demand. The educationalist of 21st century not only design an education system which not only makes them better human but also helps them in standing on their feats to compete and become efficient enough earn their livelihood by doing the kinds of jobs they want to do or become an entrepreneur.

The main challenge of educationalists is make India a developed nation and this can only be achieved when there is 100% education and strong education system in India.

Present Education System in India.

Before we go into details of Madhya Pradesh Educational Scenario we need to know the history of education system.

India has been a major seat of learning for thousands of years. The present format of higher education in India was started in 1857 with the inception of universities in three residency towns. At present, India possess a highly developed higher education system which offers facility of education system which offers facility of education and training in almost all aspects of human creative and intellectual

endeavours such as arts and humanities ,natural, mathematical and social sciences , engineering , medical and dentistry, law and commerce, management , music and arts, foreign languages ,culture ,

communication etc.

At present the main constituents of university /university level institutions are Central university

State University.

Deemed To be University. University level institutions.

Central University: A University established under Central Act. State University: A University established under State Act.

Private University: A University established under state/central Act by a sponsoring body viz. A Society registered under the societies registration act 1860, or any other corresponding law for the time being in force in a state or a public trust or a company registered under section 25 of Companies Act 1956.

Deemed to be University : An Institution deemed to be university , commonly known as Deemed University , refers to a high performing institution , which has been so declared by central government under section 3 of the University Grant Commission (UGC) Act, 1956.

Institution of national importance: An institution established by the act of parliament and declared as Institution of National Importance.

Institution of state legislature act: An institution established by state legislature act.

There has been a tremendous development in Higher Education System ever since we got independence. From 27 Universities in 1957 the numbers increased to 522 universities in 2011 across the country. NAAC (National Assessment and Accreditation Council) was established in 1994 by UGC and its Head Office is in Bangalore. It is an organization that assess and accredits institutions of higher education in India.

Higher education –An Overview As per the data on December 2011:

Sno Kind Number

1 Central Universities 43

2 State Universities 297

3 Deemed to be Universities 129

4 Private Universities 53

Total 522


What Is The Need For Restricting Educational System In India Present Education System in facing following challenges: How make Higher Effective to generate job oriented courses. Dichotomy in Societal Demand and Supply.

India ranks as low as 43rd in industrial competitiveness, and 127 in Human Development Index.

Government of India has envisioned India to be a Developed Nation by the year 2020. To accomplish this vision, young professionals urgently need to depart from their conventional approach and focus their attention on innovation and entrepreneurship

Lack of Innovative Strategies.

Existing Education system are based on old stereotype principles which are needed to be modified and reframed as per the required scenario.

Requirement of breaking up of Major Specialisation subjects so that students can have more options and can choose according to their interests for their career and professional enhancement.

Lack of technology, equipment’s and professionals for training practical knowledge to the students and professionals.


Higher Educational in India requires some changes. Few of the changes are listed below: Addition of Modern Techniques in Teaching and Learning in higher educational system. Improving the point of view of teachers and students regarding change in educational system. Believing in the fact that quality of education is important not the quantity of education. Solution for Finance and Monitory problems for building and effective educational system. Making education available at rural and backward areas of India.

Solving Issues and Problems related Educating Women in India.

Understanding the importance of Role of Education modernizing India.

Making awareness about vocational and physical education and make people understand that with these streams also one can have a secure career.

Education plays an Importance in making of personality of person so making people aware of role played by education in Personality development.

Role of Educationalist in educating a society for making it developed, mature, intellectual and skilled enough for earning their bread and butters.

There is no age for learning so making people aware about Adult education. Importance of Education in Professional growth.

Importance of Globalization and Global education.

Aim Of Education System

Designing Job Oriented and Skills based educational courses. Dichotomy in Societal Demand and Supply.

Brining improvements and innovative ideas for modifying the existing strategies for development of educational systems.

AICTE and UGC must work for improvement of education system of India should able to attract correct educationalists and researchers for bringing out change in policies and strategies of existing educational system.

Creating innovating leaders who are inspired to become educationalist and researchers who aim to see 100% literacy in India.

Technology Innovation.

Designing Industrial based Educational Courses for personal and professional growth. Commercialization of Research.


Null Hypothesis: There is a need for more development and restructuring of Indian education system. .Alternative Hypothesis: Present education system is better and needs no modification.

Research Methodology Sample Size: 60 Professionals.


Age Group: 35 to 50 years of age group. Type of data Analysis: Descriptive Analysis. Targeted Organizations:

Government, Private and Deemed Universities. Government and Private Schools.

Autonomous Institutes.


Type of Research Used: Comparative Analysis. Data Analysis

Table-2(a)- Collected Details

Sl No Name Gender Designation Highest Degree Organization

Belive in Change Don’t Belive in change

1 Versha Female School Teacher Phd KV Yes No

2 Rashmi Female House Wife


t House wife Yes No

3 Ms Ashima Female Asst Profesor MSc Mathematics Chd Univ Yes No Sno Educational


School College University Place

1 Government KV Delhi

Bikaner Sagar Jabalpur


2 Government Sai Sudhir PG College CDM Arora College RD PG Osmania RDVV University Secundrabad Mandala

3 Government Osmania University

Hyderabad University Urdu University RDVV University APS University IGNOU Nagpur University Secundrabad Hyderabad Secundrabad Jabalpur Rewa Jabalpur Nagpur

4 Deemed University Chandigarh



5 Autonomous ESCI



Sno MNC Name Type of Org.

6 Monster.com Google.com Microsoft.com Accenture Maxwell.

Serco Global Services


4 Ms Nancy Female Asst Profesor Psychologist Chd Univ Yes No


Ms Meena

Agnihotri Female School Teacher Post Graduate


School,Delhi yes No

6 Ms S Rajeshwari Female

Managemer Information

System Graduate ESCI,Hyd No Yes

7 Dr Arpita Alvi Female Asst Profesor Phd ESCI,Hyd Yes No


Ms Aprajita

Dasgupta Female Asst Profesor Phd ESCI,Hyd Yes No

9 Ms M Subha Female Asst Profesor Phd ESCI,Hyd No Yes

10 Ms K Saritha Female


Analyst Comerce Graduate ESCI,Hyd No Yes

11 Ms Renuka Female School Teacher MSc Physics AFGJI,Delhi Yes No

12 Ms Phillora Female Principal BA English


alpur yes No

13 Ms Preeti Female House Wife MSc Biotech House wife No Yes

14 Ms Radhika Female House Wife Graduate House wife No Yes

15 Ms Sunita Joshi Female School Teacher BA,MA KV Yes No

16 MS Abha Sudan Female School Teacher Graduate

Retired School

teacher Yes No

17 Ms Seema Sharma Female


Profesor Research Scholor RDPG Mandal No Yes 18 MS Rekha Sharma Female Lecturer Phd Canada Yes No


Ms Sushma

Sharma Female School Teacher Post Graduate

Private School,Jabalp

ur Yes No

20 Ms Chand Bhogal Female School Teacher Graduate

Personal Private

School No Yes

21 Anil Male Admin Staff MA Psychology


Hyderabad Yes No

22 Bhupendra Male HOD MPhil ESCI,Hyd Yes No


24 Mr A Raju Male Asst Professor MBA ESCI,Hyd No Yes

25 Mr Satish Gupta Male Asst Professor Research Scholar HU Yes No

26 Mr M Papa Rao Male Asst Professor Post Graduate ESCI,Hyd yes No

27 Dr Ashish Sharma Male Sr.Lecturer PhD.


University Yes No

28 Mr Amit Male Sr. Analyst Research Scholar


University Yes No

29 Mr Ganesh Male


Engineer MCA CA ,Hyd Yes No

30 Mr Sharat Male Lab Asst MSC NIMS Yes No

31 Dr Azim Male


Professor PhD

Urdu University

,Hyderabad Yes No

32 Anil Rana Male


Manager MBA Chd. Univ. Yes No

33 Aparna Sharma Female Team Leader BTech Accenture Yes No

34 Darshee Shah Female Entrepreneur MBA


Consultancy Yes No

35 Preeti Agarwal Female


Manager MBA Monster.com yes No

36 Preeti Phardiyal Female HR Executive MBA,XLRI Microsoft Yes No

37 Gaeta Borikar Female HR Executive MBA

Thomas and

Crook Yes No

38 Roshni Female CSE MBA HSBC Yes No

39 Santosh Male Sales Manager MBA Monster.com No Yes

40 Veera Babu Male Sales Manager MSC Monster.com No Yes

41 Tarun Kapoor Male Sr.Manager MBA KPMG Yes No

42 Shruti Venugobal Female AdWords Graduate Google.com Yes No


44 Pavan Male Team Leader MBA

Finance Company,Hy

d No Yes

45 Titir Das Female


Manager MBA Axis,Kolkota Yes No

46 Preet Pankaj Male


Head MBA


University Yes No

47 S.Saritha Female HR Executive MBA Consultancy No Yes

48 Raghu Kulheri Female


Manager MBA Capgemni No Yes

49 Dr Rajiv Khosla Male Dean Phd


University yes No

50 Gulnaz Female Sr.

Counsellor MBA


University Yes No

51 Ruch Walia Female Asst Professor Mass Com Career Point Yes No

52 Lavanya Female


Manager Btech

Maxwell Education

Centre Yes No

53 Arif Male GTL Process Graduate Google.com Yes No 54 Archit Male IAF Pilot Graduate IAF Yes No

55 Dr.Joshi Female Retd Professor PhD

HomeScience College,Jabal

pur Yes No

56 Dr.Kailash Kadu Male Sr.Lecturer PhD


University Yes No

57 Abhishekh Patra Male

Supply Chain

Manager MBA Mumbai Yes No


Group Capt.Udai

Singh Male IAF Officer MBA



d Yes No

60 Brigadir.Alok Raj Male Army officer Phd Delhi Yes No


Gender Percentage of Participation: Table-2(b)


Male 38.33333333

Female 61.66666667


Table-2 (C)

Categories No Of People Percentage

Academicians 30 50

Corporates 23 38.33333333

Entrepreneurs 1 1.666666667

Defence Services 3 5




Individual Categories

Categories No Of Academician Said Yes

Said No Percentage of Yes Percentage of No

Academicia ns

26 4 86.66666667 13.33333333

Category Yes No % of Yes % of No

Corporate 16 7 69.56521739 30.43478261

Category Yes No % yes %No

Entreprene ur

1 0 100 0

Category Yes No % yes %No

House Wives

1 2 33.33333333 66.66666667

Category Yes No % yes %No

Defence Officers

3 0 100 None




Graphs of Individual Categories



Result and Conclusion

86% of Educationalist from Educational Sector believe that change and restructuring of existing educational system is essential and it must be job and skill oriented.

Nearly 70% of Employees, Owners or Entrepreneur believes that improvement and modification of education system is required. 33% of house wives believe that change must be brought in educational system.

Whereas 100% from defence and entrepreneur field believes that education system must change now.

Bibliography Reference Books

Personnel Management by Ashwath Thappa.

Management by Dr.Karminder Singh Ghuman and K.Ashwathappa. Marketing Research by Kothari.

Marketing Research By GC Berry. Web Site Referrals :



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