Coping ways to post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic stress symptoms

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هرود 4 هرﺎﻤﺷ ، 1 ، رﺎﻬﺑ 1389

Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring 2010

تﺎﺤﻔﺻ : 34 -29

Pages: 29-34

هﻮﻴﺷ

يﺎﻫ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ

يا

ﺎﺑ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ لﻼﺘﺧا

ﺲﭘ

ﻲﺒﻴﺳآ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ و

يﺎﻫ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ

ﻦﻣﺰﻣ

Coping ways to post-traumatic stress disorder

and chronic stress symptoms

ﺖﻓﺎﻳرد ﺦﻳرﺎﺗ :

27 / 5 / 87 شﺮﻳﺬﭘ ﺦﻳرﺎﺗ

: 7 / 7 / 88

ﺎﺿﺮﻴﻠﻋ ﻲﻔﺳﻮﻳﺎﻗﺁ

Agha Yousefi A. R.PhD

ﻩﺪﻴﮑﭼ

ﻪﻣﺪﻘﻣ : ﻦﻳﺍ ﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻌ ﻪ ﯽﺳﺭﺮﺑ ﻑﺪﻫ ﺎﺑ ﻄﺑﺍﺭ

ﻪ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺲﭘ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ ﻭ

ﻩﻮﻴﺷ ﻱﺎﻫ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺍ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺴﺟ ﻱﺎﻫ ﻭ

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻡﺎﺠﻧﺍ

ﺪﺷ . ﺵﻭﺭ : ۴۵۲ ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﺕﺪﺷ ﺎﺑ ﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ۲۵

ﺎﺗ ۷۰ % ) ﺩﺎﻴﻨﺑ ﻥﺎﻣﺯﺎﺳ ﺩﺭﺍﺪﻧﺎﺘﺳﺍ ﻖﺑﺎﻄﻣ

ﻥﺍﺮﮔﺭﺎﺜﻳﺍ ﺭﻮﻣﺍ ﻭ ﺪﻴﻬﺷ ﺩﻮﺑ ﻩﺪﺷ ﺖﺒﺛ ﺩﺍﺮﻓﺍ ﻩﺪﻧﻭﺮﭘ ﺭﺩ ﻪﮐ

( ﻪﺑ ﻧ ﺵﻭﺭ ﻪﻧﻮﻤ ﻱﺮﻴﮔ

ﻪﻘﺒﻃ ﻲﻓﺩﺎﺼﺗ ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﻱﺍ

ﺭﺍﺩ ) ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﺕﺪﺷ ﺱﺎﺳﺍﺮﺑ (

ﺮﻬﺷ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻥﺎﻴﻣ ﺯﺍ

ﻢﻗ ﺪﻧﺪﺷ ﺏﺎﺨﺘﻧﺍ .

ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﺭﺍﺰﺑﺍ ﺶﺳﺮﭘ

ﻣﺎﻧ ﻪ ﻩﻮﻴﺷ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ ﻱﺍ ﺮﻴﻴﺷ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺭﺎﻛ

) ﻩﺎﺗﻮﻛ ﻞﻜﺷ ( ، ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ ﺲﭘ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻭ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ ﮏﭼ ﺖﺴﻴﻟ ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ .

ﻪﺘﻓﺎﻳ ﺎﻫ : ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺳﺁ ﻩﻮﻴﺷ ،ﻲﺒﻴ ﺎﺳﺭﺎﻧ ﻱﺎﻫ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺠﻴﻫ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺭﺍﺪﻣ ﻭ

ﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ ﻪ

۱ ﻢﻗ ﺮﻬﺷ ، ﺎﺑ ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ ﺍﺩ ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ

ﺘﺷ ﻥﺁ ﻭ ﺪﻨ

ﺶﻴﭘ ﺍﺭ ﻲﻨﻴﺑ ﺩﺮﮐ ﺪﻧ .

ﻪﺠﻴﺘﻧ ﯼﺮﻴﮔ : ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻭ ﻱﺮﮕﻧﺎﻣﺭﺩ ﻲﻳﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﻥﺎﻣﺭﺩ

ﻤﻫ ﻲﻣ ﻥﺎﻣﺰ ﺍﻮﺗ ﻧ ﺪﻨ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﻪﺑ

ﺖﺳﺩ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻨﻛ ﻚﻤﻛ ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺴﺟ ﻭ ﻲﻧﺍﻭﺭ ﺖﻣﻼﺳ ﻪﺑ ﻲﺑﺎﻳ ﻨ

ﺪ .

ﮐ ﺪﻴﻠ ﻩﮊﺍﻭ ﺎﻫ : ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ،ﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ،ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ،ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ ﯽﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), coping ways and chronic stress psycho-physiological symptoms.

Method: 452 disabled veterans with severity of disability from 25 to 70% (according to martyr foundation and Isargaran affairs organization standards that have been recorded in disabled veterans' files) were selected by systematic categorical randomized sampling method (based on severity of disability) from the society of Qom city veterans. The studies instruments were Scheier &

Carver brief cope questionnaire, post traumatic

symptoms scale (PTSS-10) and chronic stress symptoms checklist (CSSC).

Results: PTSD, dysfunctional and emotion oriented coping ways and residence in area 1 of Qom city related to and could predict the chronic stress symptoms. Conclusion: Coping-therapy and simultaneous medication can help disabled veterans to have psychological and physical health.

Keywords: Disabled Veteran, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Coping, Stress Symptoms

ناﺮﻳا ،ﻢﻗ ،رﻮﻧ مﺎﻴﭘ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد

Corresponding Author:Payam-e-Noor

University, Qom, Iran

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ﻪﻣﺪﻘﻣ

ﻩﻭﻼﻋ ،ﮓﻨﺟ

ﻪﺒﻨﺟ ﺮﺑ

ﺖﻠﻣ ﻲﮔﺩﺎﻣﺁ ﺮﻈﻧ ﺯﺍ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﺎﻫ

ﻪﺒﻨﺟ ،ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﺍ ﮓﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﻭ ﻥﺪﻤﺗ ﻆﻔﺣ ﻭ ﻲﻋﺎﻓﺩ ﻪﻴﻨﺑ ﺖﻳﻮﻘﺗ

ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﺰﻴﻧ ﻲﻧﺍﻭﺍﺮﻓ ﻲﻔﻨﻣ

.

ﻪﻬﺒﺟ ﻪﺑ ﻪﻛ ﻲﻧﺍﺯﺎﺑﺮﺳ ﺯﺍ ﻱﺭﺎﻴﺴﺑ

ﮓﻨﺟ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻲﻣ ﻡﺍﺰﻋﺍ

ﺪﻧﻮﺷ

ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﺎﺑ

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺯﺎﺑ ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺴﺟ ﻭ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﻲﻣ

ﺪﻧﺩﺮﮔ

.

ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﺪﻨﭼ ﺮﻫ

ﻩﺪﺷ ﻪﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﻡﺩﺮﻣ ﺯﺍ ﻱﺭﺎﻴﺴﺑ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺴﺟ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺧﺮﺑ ﻲﻟﻭ ،ﺖﺳﺍ

ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺴﺟ ﻱﺎﻫ

)

ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﺪﻨﻧﺎﻣ

ﻱﻮﻳﺭ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻪﺑ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ

ﻲﻳﺎﻴﻤﻴﺷ ﻲﻌﻤﺟﺭﺎﺘﺸﻛ ﺕﺎﺤﻴﻠﺴﺗ ﻱﺮﻴﮔﺭﺎﻛ

(

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ

ﻪﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﻥﺍﺪﻨﭼ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﺪﻨﺘﺴﻴﻧ ﻩﺪﺷ

.

ﺯﺍ ،ﮓﻨﺟ ﻱﺎﻫﺪﻣﺎﻴﭘ

ﮓﻨﺟ ﻥﺎﻳﺮﺟ ﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻢﻫﺩﺯﻮﻧ ﻥﺮﻗ ﻂﺳﺍﻭﺍ

ﺎﮑﻳﺮﻣﺁ ﻲﻠﺧﺍﺩ ﻱﺎﻫ

)

٦٥

-١٨٦١

(

ﻦﻴﻟﻭﺍ ﺯﺍ ﺪﻌﺑ ﻦﻴﻨﭽﻤﻫ ﻭ

)

١٨

-١٩١٤

(

ﻦﻴﻣﻭﺩ ﻭ

)

٤٥

-١٩٣٩

(

ﮓﻨﺟ

ﻪﺑ ،ﻲﻧﺎﻬﺟ

ﻪﺑ ،ﺕﺎﻌﻳﺎﺿ ﻲﮔﺩﺮﺘﺴﮔ ﻞﻴﻟﺩ

ﻱﺪﺟ ﺭﻮﻃ

ﺩﺭﻮﻣ ﻱﺮﺗ

ﺖﻓﺮﮔ ﺭﺍﺮﻗ ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ

.

ﺐﻳﺮﺨﺗ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻣ

ﻪﺑ ﻭ ﺪﻣﺁﺭﺩ ﺩﻮﺒﻤﻛ ،ﮓﻨﺟ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻥﺁ ﻝﺎﺒﻧﺩ

ﺕﺎﻧﺎﻜﻣﺍ ﺖﻳﺩﻭﺪﺤﻣ

ﻥﺍﺮﺤﺑ ،

ﮓﻨﺟ ﻱﺎﻫﺭﻮﺸﻛ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻲﻳﺎﻫ

ﻩﺩﺯ

ﻲﻣ ﺏﻮﺴﺤﻣ

ﺪﻧﻮﺷ

.

ﻦﻴﻟﻮﻠﻌﻣ ﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ ،ﻲﻧﺎﻬﺟ ﮓﻨﺟ ﻦﻴﺘﺴﺨﻧ ﺯﺍ ﺲﭘ

ﻪﺑ ﻥﺎﻧﺁ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻲﮔﺪﻧﺯ ﻪﻣﺍﺩﺍ ﻭ ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ ﺩﻭﺮﻄﻣ ﻭ ﻩﺩﺎﺘﻓﺍﺭﺎﻛﺯﺍ ،ﺪﻴﻣﺍﺎﻧ

ﻩﺎﮕﺸﻳﺎﺳﺁ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻣﺎﻗﺍ ﻱﺎﻨﻌﻣ

ﻩﮋﻳﻭ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺎﻳ ﻡﺩﺮﻣ ﻚﻤﻛ ﻪﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺩﻮﺑ ﻱﺍ

ﻉﻮﺒﺘﻣ ﺖﻟﻭﺩ

ﻲﻣ ﻩﺭﺍﺩﺍ ﻥﺎﺷ

ﺪﺷ

.

ﻲﻠﺻﺍ ﺩﺮﺒﻫﺍﺭ ،ﺍﺪﺘﺑﺍ ﺭﺩ

ﺖﻣﻮﻜﺣ

،ﺎﻫ

ﻪﮕﻧ ﻩﺪﻧﺯ

ﺩﻮﺑ ﺎﻬﻧﺁ ﻦﻴﺘﺴﺨﻧ ﻱﺎﻫﺯﺎﻴﻧ ﻪﺑ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﺳﺭ ﻭ ﻦﺘﺷﺍﺩ

.

ﻪﺑ

،ﺞﻳﺭﺪﺗ

ﻱﺭﺎﻴﺴﺑ ﻲﻧﺍﻮﺗﺎﻧ ﺖﺴﻧﺍﻮﺗ ﻱﺭﻭﺎ ﻨﻓ ﺖﻓﺮﺸﻴﭘ ﻭ ﺩﺮﮐ ﺮﻴﻴﻐﺗ ﺩﺮﺒﻫﺍﺭ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺪﻫﺩ ﺶﻫﺎﻛ ﻱﺩﺎﻳﺯ ﺪﺣ ﺎﺗ ﺍﺭ ﻥﺁ ﺕﺪﺷ ﺎﻳ ﻞﺣ ﺍﺭ ﺎﻬﻧﺁ ﺯﺍ

.

،ﻱﺪﻌﺑ ﻡﺎﮔ

ﺐﻘﻋ ﺩﺍﺮﻓﺍ ﻲﺘﺣ ﻭ ﻥﻻﻮﻠﻌﻣ ﻥﺩﺮﮐﺩﺭﺍﻭ

ﻥﺎﻛﺩﻮﻛ ﻭ ﻲﻨﻫﺫ ﻩﺪﻧﺎﻣ

ﻪﺑ ﻲﻳﺎﻨﺜﺘﺳﺍ

ﺩﻮﺑ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻥﻭﺭﺩ

.

ﺎﺑ ﻲﻳﻭﺭﺎﻳﻭﺭ ﺩﺮﺒﻫﺍﺭ ،ﺐﻴﺗﺮﺗ ﻦﻳﺍ ﻪﺑ

ﻦﻳﺰﮕﻳﺎﺟ ﻱﻮﺳ ﻪﺑ ﺖﻛﺮﺣ ﻭ ﺖﻓﺎﻳ ﺮﻴﻴﻐﺗ ﺖﻴﻟﻮﻠﻌﻣ

ﻥﺩﺮﮐ

ﻱﺪﻨﻤﻧﺍﻮﺗ

ﻪﺑ ﺍﺭ ﺩﻮﺧ ﻱﺎﺟ ،ﻥﻻﻮﻠﻌﻣ ﻝﻼﻘﺘﺳﺍ ﺶﻳﺍﺰﻓﺍ ﻭ ﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺩﺍﺩ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﺍ ﺩﺮﻃ

.

ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﺭﺎﭼﺩ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺑﺮﺳ ﺖﺸﮔﺯﺎﺑ ،ﻝﺎﺣ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺎﺑ

ﻲﻠﻜﺸﻣ ،ﻲﮕﻨﺟ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻲﻣ ﺏﻮﺴﺤﻣ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ ﻭ ﺩﺮﻓ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻒﻋﺎﻀﻣ

ﺩﻮﺷ

.

ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﺭﺩ

ﻱﻭﺭ ﻱﺍ

٥٢

ﻱﺮﺘﺴﺑ ﮓﻨﺟ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﻡﻭﺪﺼﻣ

ﺮﻬﺷ ﻥﺎﺘﺳﺭﺎﻤﻴﺑ ﻭﺩ ﺭﺩ ﻩﺪﺷ

،ﻥﺍﺮﻬﺗ

٦

/

٣٥

%

ﻭ ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺴﺟ ﺖﻴﻌﺿﻭ ﺯﺍ ﻥﺎﺸﻳﺍ

٢

/

٤٤

%

ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺯﺍ ﺰﻴﻧ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ

ﺪﻨﺘﺷﺍﺩ ﺖﻳﺎﮑﺷ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

.

ﺏﺍﺮﻄﺿﺍ ﺎﺑ ﻪﺘﺨﻴﻣﺁ ﻲﮔﺩﺮﺴﻓﺍ

ﺭﺩ

٥

/

١٣

%

ﺭﺩ ﻲﺸﻨﻛﺍﻭ ﻲﮔﺩﺮﺴﻓﺍ ،

٥

/

١١

%

ﺰﻴﻧ ﻲﻔﻃﺎﻋ ﺕﻻﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻭ

ﺭﺩ

٦

/

٩

%

ﺪﺷ ﻩﺪﻫﺎﺸﻣ ﺎﻬﻧﺁ

.

ﻪﺴﻳﺎﻘﻣ ﺭﺩ

ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﻭ ﺎﻫﺪﻣﺎﻴﭘ ﻦﻴﺑ ﻱﺍ

ﻱﺎﻫ

ﮓﻨﺟ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ

ﻥﻮﮔﺎﻧﻮﮔ ﻱﺎﻫ

)

ﮓﻨﺟ

ﻲﻠﺧﺍﺩ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﮓﻨﺟ ،ﺎﻜﻳﺮﻣ

ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺞﻴﻠﺧ ﮓﻨﺟ ﻭ ﻡﺎﻨﺘﻳﻭ ﮓﻨﺟ ،ﻡﻭﺩ ﻭ ﻝﻭﺍ ﻲﻧﺎﻬﺟ

ﻕﺍﺮﻋ ﮓﻨﺟ ﻭ ﺱﺭﺎﻓ

ﻥﺍﺮﻳﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ

(

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ،

ﺯﺍ ﺶﻴﺑ ﻲﻧﺍﺮﻳﺍ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﺭﺩ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﺐﻴﺳ

ﺪﺷ ﻩﺪﻫﺎﺸﻣ ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺴﺟ ﻱﺎﻫ

)

ﺐﻴﺳﺁ

ﻪﺑ ﻲﻳﺎﻴﻤﻴﺷ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻞﻴﻟﺩ

ﻪﺴﻳﺎﻘﻣ ﻞﺑﺎﻗ ﻥﺁ ﺪﻳﺪﺟ ﻱﺭﻭﺎ ﻨﻓ

ﺪﻨﺘﺴﻴﻧ

] (

١

.[

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ ﺕﻻﻼﺘﺧﺍ

ﻪﺑ ،ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻩﮋﻳﻭ

ﻭ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻩﺪﺷ ﻩﺪﻫﺎﺸﻣ ﻱﺩﺎﻋ ﻡﺩﺮﻣ ﺯﺍ ﺶﻴﺑ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﺭﺩ ﻲﮔﺩﺮﺴﻓﺍ

]

٢

،

٣

.[

ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﺭﺩ ﻲﮔﺩﺮﺴﻓﺍ ﻉﻮﻴﺷ

٧١

%

ﺩ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻦﻴﻤﻫ ﻉﻮﻴﺷ ﻭ

ﻱﺩﺎﻋ ﺩﺍﺮﻓﺍ

٣٦

%

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻩﺪﺷ ﺵﺭﺍﺰﮔ

]

٣

.[

ﺶﻴﺑ ﻡﺪﻘﻣ ﻂﺧ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺑﺮﺳ

ﻲﻣ ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﺭﺎﭼﺩ ﻥﺍﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﺯﺍ

ﺪﻧﻮﺷ

]

٤

،

٥

.[

ﻦﻳﻭﺪﻟﺁ

ﻲﻔﻨﻣ ﺕﺍﺮﺛﺍ

ﻲﻣ ﻥﺍﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﺯﺍ ﺶﻴﺑ ﺍﺭ ﻱﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ

ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳﺍ ﺪﻘﺘﻌﻣ ﻭ ﺪﻧﺍﺩ

ﻪﻨﻬﻛ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ،ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺑﺮﺳ

ﻲﻣ ﻪﺑﺮﺠﺗ ﺍﺭ ﻱﺮﺗﺪﻳﺪﺷ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺎﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻨﻨﻛ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ

ﻲﻔﻨﻣ ﻱﺎﻫﺪﻣﺎﻴﭘ ﻭ ﺖﺳﺍ ﺕﻭﺎﻔﺘﻣ ﻱﺩﺎﻋ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻭ

ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻲﻣ ﺩﺎﺠﻳﺍ ﻱﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ

ﺪﻨﻛ

.

ﻢﻬﻣ

ﻱﺎﻀﻋﺍ ﺯﺍ ﻲﻜﻳ ﻱﻼﺘﺑﺍ ،ﻩﺩﺍﻮﻧﺎﺧ ﻲﺘﺴﻳﺰﻬﺑ ﺭﺩ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﻦﻳﺮﺗ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻪﺑ ﻩﺩﺍﻮﻧﺎﺧ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

]

٧

.[

ﻼﺘﺑﺍ ﺕﺪﺷ ﻪﭼﺮﻫ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻪﺑ

ﻢﻫ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻪﺑ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺑﺍﻭ ،ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ

]

٨

.[

ﺯﺍ

٦٩٧

ﻨﺟ ﺭﺩ ﻪﻛ ﻩﺪﺤﺘﻣ ﺕﻻﺎﻳﺍ ﺯﺎﺑﺮﺳ ﺭﺍﺰﻫ

ﺞﻴﻠﺧ

ﺩﻭﺪﺣ ،ﺪﻨﺘﺷﺍﺩ ﺖﻛﺮﺷ ﺱﺭﺎﻓ

٢٦٣

ﺕﺎﻣﺪﺧ ﻥﺎﻨﭽﻤﻫ ﺮﻔﻧ ﺭﺍﺰﻫ

ﺖﻓﺎﻳﺭﺩ ﻲﻧﺎﻣﺭﺩ

ﻲﻣ

ﺪﻨﻨﻛ

]

٥

[

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻉﻮﻴﺷ ﺯﺍ ﻲﻛﺎﺣ ﻪﻛ

ﺲﭘ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﮓﻨﺟ ﺯﺍ ﻪﺘﺸﮔﺯﺎﺑ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺑﺮﺳ ﺭﺩ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

.

ﮒﺮﻣ

ﻭ ﻻﺎﺑ ﺮﻴﻣﻭ

ﺱﺭﺩﻭﺯ ﮒﺮﻣ

]

٩

[

ﻪﺑ ،ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻴﺑ ﻪﺑ ﺺﺘﺨﻣ ﺭﺎﺘﻓﺭ ،

ﻢﻫ

ﻢﻈﻧ ﻲﮕﺘﺨﻳﺭ

ﻥﻭﺭﺩ ﺕﺎﺤﺷﺮﺗ

ﻧ ﻭ ﻲﻨﻤﻳﺍ ﻩﺎﮕﺘﺳﺩ ﻭ ﺰﻳﺭ

ﺐﻴﺳﺁ ﺰﻴ

ﻱﺮﻳﺬﭘ

ﻲﺛﺭﺍﻮﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺪﻧﺭﺍﺩ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺎﺑ

.

ﺯﺍ ﺲﭘ

٦

ﻲﻧﺎﻣﺭﺩ ﻩﺭﻭﺩ ﺯﺍ ﻝﺎﺳ

ﻕﺍﺮﻋ ﻭ ﻥﺎﺘﺴﻧﺎﻐﻓﺍ ﮓﻨﺟ ﺯﺍ ﻪﺘﺸﮔﺯﺎﺑ ﻩﺪﺤﺘﻣ ﺕﻻﺎﻳﺍ ﻝﻮﻠﻌﻣ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺑﺮﺳ

ﮒﺮﻣ ﺺﺧﺎﺷ ﻪﭼﺮﮔﺍ ،ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ ﻥﺎﻣﺭﺩ ﺐﻠﻃﻭﺍﺩ ﻪﻛ

ﻻﺎﺑ ﺎﻬﻧﺁ ﻦﻴﺑ ﺮﻴﻣ

ﺩﻮﺑ

)

١٧

(%

ﺕﺎﺠﻧ ﻦﻴﺑ ﺭﺩ ﻲﻟﻭ ،

ﺍﻮﻣ ﺯﺍ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ﻭ ﺖﻧﻮﺸﺧ ،ﻥﺎﮕﺘﻓﺎﻳ

،ﺩ

ﺖﺷﺍﺩ ﻱﺮﻴﮕﻤﺸﭼ ﺶﻫﺎﻛ

.

ﻲﮕﺘﺨﻴﮕﻧﺍﺮﺑ ﻩﻭﺮﮔ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺭﺩ ،ﻝﺎﺣ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺎﺑ

ﻪﺷﻮﮔ ﻭ

ﺖﺷﺍﺩ ﺶﻳﺍﺰﻓﺍ ﻥﺎﻨﭽﻤﻫ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﺍ ﻱﺮﻴﮔ

]

١٠

.[

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ

ﻲﻣ ﺮﺠﻨﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻧﺯ ﺖﻴﻔﻴﻛ ﺶﻫﺎﻛ ﻪﺑ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﺩﻮﺷ

]

١١

.[

ﺩﻮﺟﻭ ﻪﺑ ﻥﺎﻬﺟ ﺭﺩ ﻲﮔﺭﺰﺑ ﻲﺘﺷﺍﺪﻬﺑ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻣ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻩﺩﺭﻭﺁ

]

١٢

.[

ﻪﻤﻫ ﺕﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ

ﺩ ﺮﻴﺧﺍ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷﺮﻴﮔ

ﻭ ﺎﻴﻟﺍﺮﺘﺳﺍ ﺭ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻉﻮﻴﺷ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﺭﺩ ﻩﺪﺤﺘﻣ ﺕﻻﺎﻳﺍ

ﻭ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻱﺪﻨﻧﺎﻤﻫ

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ ﺕﻻﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺮﻳﺎﺳ ﺎﺑ ﺵﺍ

ﻲﻠﻛ ﺖﻴﻌﻤﺟ ﺭﺩ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﯽﻣ ﻥﺎﺸﻧ

ﻪﺑ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻫﺩ

ﻥﺍﺰﻴﻣ

٣

/

١

ﺎﺗ

٨

/

٧

%

ﺖﺳﺍ ﺶﻳﺍﺰﻓﺍ ﻝﺎﺣﺭﺩ

]

١٣

،

١٤

.[

ﺭﺯﻮﻣ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺮﺛﺍ ﻦﻴﻴﺒﺗ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻲﻟﺪﻣ ،ﻥﺍﺭﺎﻜﻤﻫ ﻭ

ﺲﭘ

ﺍﻭﺭ ﺖﺷﺍﺪﻬﺑ ﺮﺑ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﺕﻻﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺮﻳﺎﺳ ﺎﺑ ﻥﺁ ﻱﺪﻨﻧﺎﻤﻫ ﻭ ﻲﻧ

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ

ﻲﻣ ﻪﻳﺍﺭﺍ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﺪﻨﻫﺩ

.

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ،ﻝﺪﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ ﻪﻳﺎﭘ ﺮﺑ

ﺲﭘ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻪﺷﻮﺧ ﻪﺳ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﻪﻛ ﻢﻴﻘﺘﺴﻣ ﻩﺍﺭ ﻭﺩ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻥﺁ

)

ﻥﻭﺰﻓ ﻭ ﺏﺎﻨﺘﺟﺍ ،ﺩﺪﺠﻣ ﻪﺑﺮﺠﺗ

ﻲﮕﺘﺨﻴﮕﻧﺍﺮﺑ

(

ﻢﻴﻘﺘﺴﻣﺮﻴﻏ ﻭ

ﻨﭼ ﺖﺳﺍ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻴﺑ ﻢﻳﻼﻋ ﻲﻃﺎﺒﺗﺭﺍ ﻪﺘﺴﻜﺷ ﻁﻮﻄﺧ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﻪﻛ

ﻦﻴ

ﻲﻣ ﺎﻔﻳﺍ ﺍﺭ ﻲﺸﻘﻧ

ﺪﻨﻛ

]

١٥

.[

ﻪﺑﺮﺠﺗ ﻪﻌﺟﺎﻓ ﻉﻮﻧ ﺎﺑ ﮒﺮﻣ ﺏﺍﺮﻄﺿﺍ

ﻞﻣﺎﻋ ﻭ ﻩﺪﺷ

"

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ

ﻲﮔﺩﺭﺯﺁ

ﻲﻳﺍﺮﮔ

"

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻪﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ،ﺖﻴﺼﺨﺷ

.

ﻲﺘﻴﺼﺨﺷ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻋ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫﺩﺮﺒﻫﺍﺭ ﺮﺑ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻭ ﻪﺘﺷﺍﺬﮔ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ ﻱﺍ

ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻲﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻣ ﻭ

ﻦﺗ

ﯽﻣ ﻪﮕﻧ ﺎﻳ ﻩﺩﺮﮐ ﺩﺎﺠﻳﺍ ﺍﺭ ﻲﺘﺳﺭﺩ

ﺪﻧﺭﺍﺩ

)

ﻲﺠﻧﺎﻴﻣ ﻱﻮﮕﻟﺍ

] (

١٦

.[

ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ

ﻲﻔﺳﻮﻳﺎﻗﺁ

ﻲﺠﻧﺎﻴﻣ ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ،

ﻪﻧﺍﺮﮔ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫﺩﺮﺒﻫﺍﺭ ﻭ ﻲﺘﻴﺼﺨﺷ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻋ

ﯽﻣ ﻥﺎﺸﻧ ﺍﺭ ﻱﺍ

ﺪﻫﺩ

]

١٧

[

ﯽﻟﺎﺣﺭﺩ

ﻝﺪﻣ ﻪﮐ

"

ﻲﻧﻭﺰﻓ

"

ﯽﻣ ﻥﺎﺸﻧ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻭ ﺖﻴﺼﺨﺷ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻫﺩ

،

ﻪﺑ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺮﺑ ﻪﻧﺎﮔﺍﺪﺟ ﺭﻮﻃ

ﻲﻣ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

(3)

ـــــــ ـــــــــــــــــــ ــــــ

ـــ ــــــ ـــــــ ـــ ـــ ــ ـــ هﻮﻴﺷ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ يﺎﻫ ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ لﻼﺘﺧا ﺎﺑ يا ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ و ﻲﺒﻴﺳآ

ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ و يﺎﻫ 31

ﯼﻮﮕﻟﺍ

"

ﻲﻠﻣﺎﻌﺗ

"

ﺭﺩ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻭ ﺖﻴﺼﺨﺷ ﻲﻠﻣﺎﻌﺗ ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﺯﺍ ،

ﻞﻜﺷ

ﻱﺮﻴﮔ

ﻲﻣ ﺖﻳﺎﻤﺣ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺪﻨﻛ

]

١٦

.[

ﺵﻭﺭ

ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ

ﻪﻴﻠﻛ ﺯﺍ ﺩﻮﺑ ﺕﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ

ﺭﺩ ﻪﻛ ﻢﻗ ﻦﻛﺎﺳ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ

ﻝﺎﺳ

١٣٨٦

،

ﺭﺍﺩﺍ ﺭﺩ

ﻢﻗ ﻥﺎﺘﺳﺍ ﻥﺍﺮﮔﺭﺎﺜﻳﺍ ﺭﻮﻣﺍ ﻭ ﺪﻴﻬﺷ ﺩﺎﻴﻨﺑ ﻞﻛ

ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ ﻩﺪﻧﻭﺮﭘ ﻱﺍﺭﺍﺩ

.

ﺕﺎﺼﺨﺸﻣ ﺖﺳﺮﻬﻓ ﺖﺴﺨﻧ

ﻪﻴﻠﻛ

ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ

ﺯﺍ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ﺎﺑ ﺲﭙﺳ ،ﺪﺷ ﺖﻓﺎﻳﺭﺩ

ﺍﺩﺮﺑ ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﺵﻭﺭ

ﻲﻓﺩﺎﺼﺗ ﻱﺭ

ﻪﻘﺒﻃ

ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﻱﺍ

ﻩﻭﺮﮔ ﺮﻳﺯ ﺯﺍ ﻚﻳ ﺮﻫ ﺯﺍ ﺭﺍﺩ

ﻣﺎﺟ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻪﻌ

)

ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ

٢٥

ﺎﺗ

٧٠

%

ﻪﺑ

ﺎﺒﻔﻟﺍ ﻑﻭﺮﺣ ﺱﺎﺳﺍ ﺮﺑ ﻭ ﻪﻧﺎﻳﺍﺭ ﻚﻤﻛ

ﻘﺒﻃ ﺮﻫ ﺯﺍ

ﻪﺑ

ﻡﺎﻈﻧ ﺕﺭﻮﺻ

ﺺﺨﺸﻣ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ ﻪﺑ ﺭﺍﺩ

ﺱﺭﺩﺁ

ﺏﺎﺨﺘﻧﺍ

ﺪﺷ

.

ﻣ ﺭﺩ

ﻉﻮﻤﺠ

٣٢٤٥

ﻪﺑ ﺱﺭﺩﺁ

ﺎﻬﻧﺁ ﻦﻴﺑ ﺯﺍ ،ﺪﻣﺁ ﺖﺳﺩ

ﺱﺭﺩﺁ

ﻭ ﻢﻗ ﺯﺍ ﺝﺭﺎﺧ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻲﻣﺎﺳﺍ

ﻭ ﺱﺭﺩﺁ ﺪﻗﺎﻓ

ﻦﻔﻠﺗ ﻩﺭﺎﻤﺷ

ﻑﺬﺣ

ﻪﮐ ﺪﻧﺪﺷ

٣١٤٣

ﺱﺭﺩﺁ

ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ

ﺪﻧﺎﻣ ﻲﻗﺎﺑ ﻱﺮﻴﮔ

.

ﻣ ﺲﭙﺳ

ﻢﻴﺴﻘﺗ ﻖﺑﺎﻄ

ﻱﺭﺍﺩﺮﻬﺷ ﻱﺪﻨﺑ

ﺵﺯﻮﻣﺁ

ﺵﺭﻭﺮﭘ

،

ﺎﻬﭼ ﻪﺑ ﺍﺭ ﻢﻗ ﺮﻬﺷ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ ﻞﺤﻣ

ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﺭ

ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﺭﺩ ﺎﺗ ﻢﻳﺩﻮﻤﻧ ﻢﻴﺴﻘﺗ

ﻩﺩﺍﺩ ﺵﺯﺍﺩﺮﭘ

ﺍﺭ ﻲﮔﺪﻧﺯ ﻞﺤﻣ ﻢﻴﻧﺍﻮﺘﺑ ﺎﻫ

ﻪﺑ ﺰﻴﻧ

ﻢﻴﻨﻛ ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ ﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﻚﻳ ﻥﺍﻮﻨﻋ

.

ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ

ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﻢﺠﺣ

ﺯﺍ

ﻡﻭﺩ ﺖﺳﺍﺮﻳﻭ

ﻡﺮﻧ

ﺭﺍﺰﻓﺍ

GPower

ﻪﻛ

ﻪﺑ

ﺭﻮﻈﻨﻣ

ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ

ﻩﺪﺷ ﻲﺣﺍﺮﻃ ﺮﺛﺍ ﻥﺍﺰﻴﻣ ﻭ ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ

،

ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ

ﺪﺷ

.

ﻦﻳﺍ

ﻡﺮﻧ

ﻩﺯﺍﺪﻧﺍ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ،ﺭﺍﺰﻓﺍ

ﻂﺳﻮﺘﻣ ﺮﺛﺍ

)

٢٥

/

٠

=

d

(

،

α

ﺮﺑﺍﺮﺑ

٠٥

/

٠

ﻥﺍﻮﺗ ﻭ

٩٥

/

٠

ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ،

ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻱﺍ

٢٢٠

،ﺮﻔﻧ

ﺎﺑ ﺲﻧﺎﻳﺭﺍﻭ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺗ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ

١٠

ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻭ ﺢﻄﺳ

ﻩﺯﺍﺪﻧﺍ

ﺳﻮﺘﻣ ﺮﺛﺍ

)

١٥

/

٠

=

d

(

ﻱﺎﻄﺧ

٠٥

/

٠

،

ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ

ﻢﻛ ﺖﺳﺩ

٢٤٢

ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﺍﺭ ﺮﻔﻧ

ﺎﺑ ﻥﻮﻴﺳﺮﮔﺭ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺗ

٢٥

ﺶﻴﭘ ﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ

ﻦﻴﺑ

ﺩﺮﻛ ﺩﺎﻬﻨﺸﻴﭘ

.

ﻪﺑ

ﻲﻧﺩﻮﻣﺯﺁ ﺖﻓﺍ ﺯﺍ ﻱﺮﻴﮕﺸﻴﭘ ﺭﻮﻈﻨﻣ

ﻩﻮﻴﺷ ﻭﺩ ﺯﺍ ﺎﻫ

ﻢﻴﺘﺴﺟ ﺩﻮﺳ

:

ﻒﻟﺍ

(

ﻲﻠﻗﺍﺪﺣ ﺢﻄﺳ ﺯﺍ ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﻱﺎﻀﻋﺍ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ ﺶﻳﺍﺰﻓﺍ

ﻩﺪﺷ ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ

،

ﻦﺌﻤﻄﻣ ﺢﻄﺳ ﻪﺑ

ﺮﺗ

)

ﻦﻴﺑ ﺯﺍ

٤٦٠

ﻲﻧﺩﻮﻣﺯﺁ

،

٤٥٢

ﺮﻔﻧ

ﺪﻧﺩﺍﺩ ﺦﺳﺎﭘ

.(

(

ﻲﻧﺩﻮﻣﺯﺁ ﺎﺑ ﺩﺪﺠﻣ ﺱﺎﻤﺗ

ﻝﻭﺍ ﺱﺎﻤﺗ ﺭﺩ ﻪﻛ ﻲﻳﺎﻫ

ﻩﺩﺮﻛ ﻱﺭﺍﺩﺩﻮﺧ ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻛﺮﺷ ﺯﺍ

ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ

.

ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺭﺩ

ﺭﺯﻮﻣ

ﺎﻬﻨﺗ ﻥﺍﺭﺎﻜﻤﻫ

٢٩

ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﻪﺑ ﺮﻔﻧ

ﻪﻣﺎﻧ

ﻩﺩﺍﺩ ﺦﺳﺎﭘ ﺎﻫ

ﻭ ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ

٣٤

%

ﺖﻓﺍ

ﻪﺘﺷﺍﺩ ﺦﺳﺎﭘ

ﺪﻧﺍ

]

١٥

.[

،ﻝﺎﺣ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺎﺑ

ﻲﻳﺍﺮﺳ

ﺩﺪﺠﻣ ﺱﺎﻤﺗ ﺖﺳﺍ ﺪﻘﺘﻌﻣ

ﻲﻣ ﻖﻳﻮﺸﺗ ﻭ

ﺪﻧﺍﻮﺗ

ﺦﺳﺎﭘ ﺖﻓﺍ

ﮔﺪﻨﻫﺩ

ﺪﻨﻛ ﻢﻛ ﺕﺪﺷ ﻪﺑ ﺍﺭ ﻥﺎ

]

١٨

[

.

ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺭﺩ ،ﻞﻴﻟﺩ ﻦﻴﻤﻫ ﻪﺑ

ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ

ﺎﺑ ﺍﺭ ﺎﻫ

ﺱﺎﻤﺗ

ﻨﻔﻠﺗ

،ﯽ

ﺍﺩﺪﺠﻣ

ﻢﻳﺩﺮﻛ ﻖﻳﻮﺸﺗ ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻛﺮﺷ ﻪﺑ

.

ﻦﻴﺑ ﺯﺍ ﺎﻨﻤﺿ

٤٥٢

ﺖﻛﺮﺷ

ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺭﺩ ﻩﺪﻨﻨﻛ

،

٣

ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ ﺩﺮﺠﻣ ﺮﻔﻧ

.

ﻦﻳﺍ ﻪﺑ ﻪﺟﻮﺗ ﺎﺑ

،ﻪﮐ

ﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﺩﺭﻭﺁﺮﺑ ﻝﺎﺒﻧﺩ ﻪﺑ ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ

ﻥﺎﻴﻣ

ﺯﺍ ﻱﺎﻫﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ

ﺩﻮﺟﻮﻣ ﺶﻴﭘ

ﻭ ﺩﻮﺑ

ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﻩﻭﺮﮔ

ﻱﺍﺮﺟﺍ ﺯﺍ ﺶﻴﭘ ،

ﻩﺪﺷ ﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ

ﻳﺎﻧﺍﻮﺗ ﺮﮕﺸﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﻭ ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ

ﻉﻮﻧ ﭻﻴﻫ ﻲ

ﺖﺳﺩ

ﻪﺘﺷﺍﺪﻧ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺯﺍ ﻱﺭﺎﻛ

ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ ،

ﻉﻮﻧ ﺯﺍ

"

ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ

"

ﺖﺳﺍ

.

ﻪﺑ ،ﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﯼﻮﺳ ﺯﺍ

ﻪﺴﻳﺎﻘﻣ ﻪﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺕﺎﻴﺿﺮﻓ ﻲﺧﺮﺑ ﻞﻴﻟﺩ

ﺍﺩﺮﭘ ﻢﻗ ﺮﻬﺷ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ ﻞﺤﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ ﺯﺍ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ

ﺘﺧ

ﺣﺮﻃ ،ﺪﻨ

"

ﺸﻳﺎﻣﺯﺁ

ﺎﻤﻧ

"

ﺍﺩ ﺩﻮﺟﻭ ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﻥﺎﻳﺮﺟ ﺭﺩ

ﺖﺷ

ﻥﺁ ﻞﻘﺘﺴﻣ ﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﻪﻛ

ﻪﺘﺴﺑﺍﻭ ،ﺎﻫﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﺮﻳﺎﺳ ﻭ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ ﻞﺤﻣ

ﺩﻮﺑ

ﺪﻧ

.

ﺰﻴﻧ ﺕﻼﻴﺼﺤﺗ ﻭ ﻦﺳ

ﻞﻳﺪﻌﺗ ﻱﺎﻫﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ

ﺏﻮﺴﺤﻣ ﻩﺪﻨﻨﻛ

ﺪﻧﺪﺷ

.

ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ ﻩﻭﺮﮔ ﻲﻓﺩﺎﺼﺗ ﺏﺎﺨﺘﻧﺍ ﺯﺍ ﺲﭘ

)

ﺕﺪﺷ ﺱﺎﺳﺍﺮﺑ

ﺐﻴﺳﺁ

ﻲﮔﺪﻳﺩ

ﺵﺯﻮﻣﺁ ﻥﺍﺮﮕﺸﺳﺮﭘ

ﻩﺪﻳﺩ

،

ﺎﺑ ﻲﻨﻔﻠﺗ ﺱﺎﻤﺗ ﺯﺍ ﺲﭘ

ﺖﻛﺮﺷ

ﻦﻴﻴﻌﺗ ﻭ ﻩﺪﻨﻨﻛ

ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻣ ﺖﺻﺮﻓ

ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ

ﺦﺳﺎﭘ ﻭ

ﻲﻳﻮﮔ

ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﻪﺑ

ﻥﻮﻣﺯﺁ ﻭ ﻪﻣﺎﻧ

ﻪﻌﺟﺍﺮﻣ ﻪﻃﻮﺑﺮﻣ ﻝﺰﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ ،ﺎﻫ

ﻦﻤﺿ ﻭ ﻩﺩﺮ

ﺕﻮﻋﺩ ﮒﺮﺑ ﻞﻳﻮﺤﺗ

ﻪﻣﺎﻧ

ﺍﺭﺍ ﺍﺭ ﻥﻮﻣﺯﺁ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ،ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﻱﺮﺠﻣ

ﺪﻧﺩﺍﺩ ﻪ

.

ﺖﻛﺮﺷ ﻪﻛ ﻲﺗﺭﻮﺻ ﺭﺩ

ﻲﺑ ﻥﺎﮔﺪﻨﻨﻛ

ﻢﻛ ﺎﻳ ﺩﺍﻮﺳ

،ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ ﺩﺍﻮﺳ

ﺶﺳﺮﭘ

ﻥﻮﻣﺯﺁ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﺩﻮﺧ ﻥﺍﺮﮔ

ﺘﻔﮔ ﺎﺑ ﺍﺭ ﺎﻫ

ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻲﺜﻨﺧ ﻲﮕﻨﻫ

ﻥﺎﻧﺁ

ﺦﺳﺎﭘ ﻭ ﺪﻧﺪﻧﺍﻮﺧ

ﺪﻧﺩﺮﻛ ﺖﺷﺍﺩﺩﺎﻳ ﺍﺭ ﻥﺎﻧﺁ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻩﺩﺍﺩ ﻱﺭﻭﺁﺩﺮﮔ

ﺎﺑ ﺎﻫ

ﺪﺷ ﻞﻣﺎﻛ ﻪﺒﺣﺎﺼﻣ

.

ﺕﻮﻓ

ﻥﺎﮔﺪﺷ

ﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﺮﻬﺷ ﻪﺑ ﻦﻳﺮﺟﺎﻬﻣ ﻭ

،

ﻩﻭﺮﮔ ﺯﺍ

ﻪﺑﺎﺟ ﻢﻗ ﺭﺩ ﻪﻛ ﻥﺎﻧﺁ ﻭ ﻩﺪﺷ ﻑﺬﺣ ﻪﻧﻮﻤﻧ

ﻩﺪﺷ ﺎﺟ

ﺱﺭﺩﺁ ﻪﺑ ﺪﻧﺩﻮﺑ

ﻪﻌﺟﺍﺮﻣ ﻥﺎﺷﺪﻳﺪﺟ

ﺪﺷ

.

ﻒﻟﺍ

(

ﺶﺳﺮﭘ

ﻣﺎﻧ

ﻩﻮﻴﺷ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻱﺍ

)

ﻩﺎﺗﻮﻛ ﻞﻜﺷ

(

:

٢٨

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﻩﺩﺎﻣ

ﺖﻴﻌﻗﻮﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺩﺮﻓ ﺦﺳﺎﭘ ﻭ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺭﺍﺮﻗ ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﺩﺭﻮﻣ ﺍﺭ ﺍﺯ

ﻲﻣ

ﺪﻫﺩ

.

ﺭﻭﺭﺎﻛ

ﺵﺭﺍﺰﮔ ﺐﺳﺎﻨﻣ ﺍﺭ ﻥﺁ ﻲﻳﺍﻭﺭ ﻭ ﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺍ ،ﻥﺍﺭﺎﻜﻤﻫ ﻭ

ﯽﻣ

ﺪﻨﻨﻛ

]

١٩

.[

ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﻪﻣﺎﻧ

١٤

ﺞﻴﮔﺩﻮﺧ ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ

ﻲﻧﺍﺩﺮﮔ

(SD)

،

ﻝﺎﻌﻓ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ

(AC)

ﺭﺎﻜﻧﺍ ،

(D)

ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺿﺮﻣ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ،

(SU)

،

ﺖﻳﺎﻤﺣ ﻲﻧﺎﺠﻴﻫ ﺩﺮﺑﺭﺎﻛ

(UES)

ﺖﻳﺎﻤﺣ ﻱﺭﺍﺰﺑﺍ ﺩﺮﺑﺭﺎﻛ ،

(UIS)

،

ﻱﺭﺎﺘﻓﺭ ﻱﺍﻭﺰﻧﺍ

(BD)

ﻥﻭﺮﺑ ،

ﻱﺰﻳﺭ

(V)

ﻥﺩﺍﺩ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﺏﻮﭼﺭﺎﭼ ،

(PR)

ﻪﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ ،

ﻱﺰﻳﺭ

(P)

ﺥﻮﺷ ،

ﻲﻌﺒﻃ

(H)

ﺵﺮﻳﺬﭘ ،

(A)

ﺐﻫﺬﻣ ،

(R)

ﺶﻧﺯﺮﺳﺩﻮﺧ

ﻱﺮﮔ

(SB)

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ

.

ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺧﺮﺑ

ﺎﻫ

ﺵﺯﺎﺳ

ﺵﻭﺭ ﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﻲﺧﺮﺑ ﻭ ﻪﺘﻓﺎﻳ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺮﺘﻤﻛ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻮﺷﺩ ﻱﺍ

ﺵﺯﺎﺳ

ﻪﺘﻓﺎﻳ

ﻲﻣ ﺏﻮﺴﺤﻣ

ﺪﻧﻮﺷ

]

٢٠

.[

ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺯﺍ ﻚﻳ ﺮﻫ

ﺎﻫ

،

ﯼﺍﺭﺍﺩ

٢

ﻩﺩﺎﻣ

ﻞﻣﺎﺷ ﻩﺩﺎﻣ ﺮﻫ ﻭ

٤

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻪﻨﻳﺰﮔ

.

ﺯﺍ ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﯽﻧﺩﻮﻣﺯﺁ

ﻲﻣ ﺎﻫ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻞﻣﺍﻮﻋ ﻪﺑ ﻻﻮﻤﻌﻣ ﻪﻛ ﺍﺭ ﻲﺨﺳﺎﭘ ﻪﮐ ﺪﻫﺍﻮﺧ

ﺍﺯ

ﻲﻣ

ﺪﻨﻨﻛ ﻥﺎﻴﺑ ﺪﻨﻫﺩ

.

ﻦﻤﻜﻟﻮﻓ

-ﺱﻭﺭﺍﺯﻻ

]

٢١

[

ﺭﻭﺭﺎﻛ

ﻥﺍﺭﺎﻜﻤﻫ ﻭ

]

١٩

ﻲﻣ ﺯﺎﺠﻣ ﺍﺭ ﺍﺮﺟﺍ ﻉﻮﻧ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺪﻨﻧﺍﺩ

.

ﻦﻳﻭﺪﻟ

،

ﺍﺭ ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺎﺑ ﻱﺭﺍﺰﺑﺍ

ﻲﻣ ﻒﻄﻌﻨﻣ ﻞﻤﻌﻟﺍﺭﻮﺘﺳﺩ

ﻪﻛ ﺪﻧﺍﺩ

ﺩﺮﺑﺭﺎﮐ

ﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ ﺍﺭ ﻥﺁ

ﻲﻣ

ﺪﻨﻛ

]

٦

.[

ﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺍ

ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺯﺍ ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ

٥٠

/

٠

ﺎﺗ

٩٠

/

٠

ﺵﺭﺍﺰﮔ

ﻩﺪﺷ

ﺖﺳﺍ

.

ﻪﻳﺮﻈﻧ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺸﺨﺑ ﻥﻮﻣﺯﺁ ﻦﻳﺍ ﻪﻳﺎﭘ

ﺱﻭﺭﺍﺯﻻ

-ﻦﻤﻜﻟﻮﻓ

]

٢٢

[

ﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﻲﺸﺨﺑ

ﻪﺑ ﻁﻮﺑﺮﻣ

ﻱﺭﺎﺘﻓﺭ ﻲﻤﻴﻈﻨﺗﺩﻮﺧ ﻝﺪﻣ

ﺭﻭﺭﺎﻛ

ﺮﻴﺷ

]

٢٣

،

٢٤

[

ﺖﺳﺍ

.

ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ

ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﺐﻳﺮﺿ ،ﻥﺎﻣﺰﻤﻫ ﻲﻳﺍﻭﺭ

ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ

ﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﻱﺎﻫﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﺎﺑ ﻥﺁ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻥﻮﻣﺯﺁ ﻥﻮﭽﻤﻫ ،

ﻱﺮﮔﺪﻧﺮﺳ

،

ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻭ ﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺿﺮﻣ

ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻨﻌﻣ ﻲﮕﻤﻫ ﻪﻛ ﺪﺷ ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ

ﻪﻨﻣﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺭﺍﺩ

ﺯﺍ ﻱﺍ

٢٠

/

٠

ﺎﺗ

٥٥

/

٠

ﺷﺍﺩ

ﺪﻨﺘ

.

ﺐﻳﺮﺿ ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ ﺵﻭﺭ ﻪﺑ ﺰﻴﻧ ﻥﺁ ﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺍ

α

ﺒﻧﻭﺮﻛ

ﺥﺎ

،

٨٣

/

٠

ﻪﺑ

ﺪﻣﺁ ﺖﺳﺩ

.

(

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺖﺳﺮﻬﻓ

ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

:

ﻞﻣﺎﺷ

٤٥

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﻭ ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺴﺟ

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻭﺩ ﻥﺩﻭﺰﻓﺍ ﻥﺎﻜﻣﺍ ﺎﺑ ﻩﺍﺮﻤﻫ ،

ﺮﮕﻳﺩ

ﺖﺳﺍ

ﺦﺳﺎﭘ ﻪﻛ

ﻲﻣ ﻩﺪﻨﻫﺩ

ﻪﻨﻳﺰﮔ ﺯﺍ ﻲﻜﻳ ﺪﻧﺍﻮﺗ

، ﻻﻮﻤﻌﻣ ،ﻲﻫﺎﮔ ،ﺰﮔﺮﻫ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺪﻨﻳﺰﮔﺮﺑ ﺍﺭ ﻪﺸﻴﻤﻫ ﻭ ﺐﻠﻏﺍ

.

(4)

ﯽﻨﻌﻣ

ﻱﺭﺍﺩ

،ﺎﻫﺩﺍﺪﻳﻭﺭ ﺎﺑ

ﻭ ﺭﺎﻛﺩﻮﺧ ﺭﺎﻜﻓﺍ ﻭ ﻲﮔﺪﻧﺯ ﺕﺍﺮﻴﻴﻐﺗ

ﻨﻌﻣ ﻲﻔﻨﻣ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ

ﺎﺑ ﻱﺭﺍﺩ

ﺭﺩ ﻪﻛ ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﻲﺼﺨﺷ ﻲﺘﺴﻳﺰﻬﺑ

ﻪﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ

ﻲﻔﺳﻮﻳﺎﻗﺁ

ﻩﺪﺷ ﺵﺭﺍﺰﮔ

ﺖﺳﺍ

]

٢٥

.[

ﻲﻳﺍﻭﺭ ﺹﻮﺼﺧ ﺭﺩ

ﻤﻫ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺎﺑ ﻥﺎﻣﺰ

ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﺐﻳﺮﺿ ،ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

٧٨

/

٠

ﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺍ

،ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻲﻧﻭﺭﺩ ﻲﮕﻨﻫﺎﻤﻫ ﺵﻭﺭ ﻪﺑ ﻥﺁ

٩٦

/

٠

ﻪﺑ

ﺪﻣﺁ ﺖﺳﺩ

.

(

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ

ﺲﭘ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

10)

-(PTSS

:

ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﻂﺳﻮﺗ ﺭﺎﺑ ﻦﻴﺘﺴﺨﻧ

ﻞﻳﺎﻓﺍﺭ

ﻥﺍﺭﺎﮑﻤﻫ

ﺍﺭﺍ

ﻱﺍﺭﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺪﺷ ﻪ

١٠

ﻩﺩﺎﻣ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳﺍ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻢﻬﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺩﺭﻮﻣ ﺍﺭ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻲﻣ ﺭﺍﺮﻗ ﺶﺳﺮﭘ

ﻫﺩ

.

ﺮﻫ

ﻞﻣﺎﺷ ﻩﺩﺎﻣ

٧

ﻪﻨﻳﺰﮔ ﺮﻫ ﻪﮐ ﺖﺳﺍ ﻪﻨﻳﺰﮔ

ﻩﺮﻤﻧ

ﺎﺗ ﺮﻔﺻ ﻦﻴﺑ ﯼﺍ

٦

ﺩﺭﺍﺩﺮﺑ ﺭﺩ ﺍﺭ

]

٢٦

[.

ﻞﻓﺎﺷ

ﻥﺍﺭﺎﮑﻤﻫ ﻭ

ﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺍ

٨٦

/

٠

ﯼﺍﺮﺑ

ﻭ ﻝﺮﺘﻨﻛ ﻩﻭﺮﮔ

٧٩

/

٠

ﯼﺍﺮﺑ

ﻩﻭﺮﮔ

ﺯﺍ ﻪﺘﺸﮔﺯﺎﺑ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻪﺑ ﻱﺮﻴﮕﻴﭘ ﻝﺎﺣ ﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺖﻳﺭﻮﻣﺄﻣ

ﺪﻧﺩﺭﻭﺁ ﺖﺳﺩ

؛

ﻲﻳﺍﻭﺭ

٧٦

/

٠

ﺎﺗ

٧٩

/

٠

ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺭﺩ

ﻭ ﻦﻴﺸﻴﭘ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺍ

٨٥

/

٠

ﻱﺎﻫﻭﺮﻴﻧ ﻱﻭﺭ ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺭﺩ

ﻩﺩﺮﻛ ﺵﺭﺍﺰﮔ ﻥﺁ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﺍﺭ ﻪﻴﺟﻮﺒﻤﻛ ﺭﺩ ﺮﻘﺘﺴﻣ ﻥﺎﻤﻟﺁ ﻲﻣﺎﻈﻧ

ﺪﻧﺍ

]

٢٧

.[

ﻥﺍﺮﮕﺸﻫﻭﮋﭘ

ﺘﻋﺍ

ﺭﺎﺒ

ﺍﺭ ﻲﻳﺎﻣﺯﺁﺯﺎﺑ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ

٦٦

/

٠

ﺵﺭﺍﺰﮔ

ﻩﺩﺮﻛ

ﺪﻧﺍ

.

ﻲﻧﺎﻤﻟﺁ ﻲﻣﺎﻈﻧ ﻱﺎﻫﻭﺮﻴﻧ ﺭﺩ ،ﻲﺸﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺵﺭﺍﺰﮔ ﻦﻳﺍ ﻖﺑﺎﻄﻣ

،

ﺞﻳﺎﺘﻧ

ﻭ ﺪﺷ ﻲﻠﻣﺎﻋ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺗ

٢

ﺖﻳﺎﻬﻧ ﺭﺩ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻳﺩﺮﮔ ﺭﻮﻠﺒﺘﻣ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ

ﺎﺑ ﻲﻳﻻﺎﺑ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ

"

ﺶﺳﺮﭘ

ﻪﻣﺎﻧ

ﺖﻳﺎﻜﺷ

ﻦﺴﻴﮔ

"

ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﻭ

ﻨﻌﻣ ﻲﻔﻨﻣ

ﻪﺑﺮﺠﺗ ﺩﺍﺪﻌﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻱﺭﺍﺩ

ﻪﺘﺷﺍﺩ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺖﺳﺍ

]

٢٧

.[

ﻤﻫ ﻲﻳﺍﻭﺭ

ﺰﻴﻧ ﻥﺎﻣﺰ

ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ ﻖﻳﺮﻃ ﺯﺍ ،

ﺕﺍﺮﻤﻧ ﺎﺑ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

٧٨

/

٠

ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ﻭ

ﺭﺩ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻭ ﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺿﺮﻣ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺮﺑﺍﺮﺑ

٥٣

/

٠

ﻪﺑ

ﺪﻣﺁ ﺖﺳﺩ

.

ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ ﺵﻭﺭ ﻪﺑ ﺱﺎﻴﻘﻣ ﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﺍ

ﻥﻮﻣﺯﺁ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻲﻧﻭﺭﺩ ﻲﮕﻨﻫﺎﻤﻫ

٨٨

/

٠

ﺪﺷ ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ

.

ﻪﺘﻓﺎﻳ

ﺎﻫ

ﻪﺑ

ﻩﺩﺎﺳ ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﻲﺳﺭﺮﺑ ﺭﻮﻈﻨﻣ

ﻩﻮﻴﺷ

ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻭ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ

ﺎﺸﻧ ﺎﺑ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻪﻧ

ﻪﺒﺳﺎﺤﻣ ﺵﻭﺭ ﺯﺍ ،ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﺐﻳﺮﺿ

ﻥﻮﺳﺮﻴﭘ

ﺞﻳﺎﺘﻧ ﻪﻛ ﺪﺷ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ

ﻝﻭﺪﺟ ﺭﺩ ﻥﺁ

١

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻩﺪﺷ ﻩﺩﺍﺩ ﻥﺎﺸﻧ

.

ﻝﻭﺪﺟ ١ (

ﻩﻮﻴﺷ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻭ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺲﭘ ﺎﺑ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﻡﺎﻧ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﺐﻳﺮﺿ

ﺞﻴﮔﺩﻮﺧ ﻲﻧﺍﺩﺮﮔ

١٩٥ / ٠

ﺭﺎﻜﻧﺍ

٠٣٥ / ٠

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺮﺑﺍﺮﺑ ﺭﺩ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺿﺮﻣ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ

٥٥٠ / ٠

ﻥﺍﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﻲﻧﺎﺠﻴﻫ ﺖﻳﺎﻤﺣ ﺯﺍ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ

٢٣٥ / ٠

ﻲﺿﺮﻣ ﻱﺍﻭﺰﻧﺍ

٣٠٧ / ٠

ﻥﻭﺮﺑ ﻱﺰﻳﺭ

٣٦٣ / ٠

ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﺏﻮﭼﺭﺎﭼ ﻥﺩﺍﺩ

ﻪﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﻱﺰﻳﺭ

١٨٥ / ٠

ﺶﻧﺯﺮﺳﺩﻮﺧ ﻱﺮﮔ

٣٣١ / ٠

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

٧٧٦ / ٠

ﻝﺩﺎﻌﻣ ﺎﻄﺧ ﻝﺎﻤﺘﺣﺍ ٠٠٠١

/ ٠

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺎﺑ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ،ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﺖﺷﺍﺩ ﻲﻳﻻﺎﺑ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ

.

،ﯽﻨﻌﻳ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺯﺍ ﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﻪﭼ ﺮﻫ

ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ

ﺖﻳﺎﻜﺷ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﺖﺷﺍﺩ ﯼﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺯﺍ ،

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻦﻣﺰﻣ

)

ﺯﺍ ﻢﻋﺍ

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ ﻭ ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺴﺟ

ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

(

ﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ

ﺖﻳﺎﮑﺷ ﺰﻴﻧ

ﺖﺷﺍﺩ

.

ﻪﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ

ﺵﻭﺭ ﺯﺍ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ﻭ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻱﺰﻳﺭ

ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻟﺄﺴﻣ ﻞﺣ

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﻲﻔﻨﻣ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

.

ﺞﻴﮔﺩﻮﺧ

ﺖﻳﺎﻤﺣ ﺯﺍ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ،ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻭ ﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﻪﺑ ﻥﺩﺮﺑ ﻩﺎﻨﭘ ،ﺭﺎﻜﻧﺍ ،ﻲﻧﺍﺩﺮﮔ

ﻥﻭﺮﺑ ،ﻱﺭﺎﺘﻓﺭ ﻱﺍﻭﺰﻧﺍ ،ﻥﺍﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﻲﻧﺎﺠﻴﻫ

ﺰﻳﺭ

ﺶﻧﺯﺮﺳﺩﻮﺧ ﻭ

ﻱﺮﮔ

ﯽﻨﻌﻣ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺎﺑ ﻱﺭﺍﺩ

ﺪﻧﺭﺍﺩ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

.

ﺭﺩ

ﺵﻭﺭ ﻦﻳﺍ ﻥﺎﻴﻣ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻭ ﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﻪﺑ ﻥﺩﺮﺑ ﻩﺎﻨﭘ ،ﻱﺍ

ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﻱﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ

.

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ

ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﻭ ﻱﺭﺍﺰﺑﺍ ﻚﻤﻛ ﺯﺍ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ،ﻝﺎﻌﻓ

ﺥﻮﺷ ،ﻥﺩﺍﺩ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ ﺏﻮﭼﺭﺎﭼ ،ﻥﺍﺮﮕﻳﺩ

ﻦﺘﺴﺟ ﻱﺭﺎﻳ ﻭ ﺵﺮﻳﺬﭘ ،ﻲﻌﺒﻃ

ﺎﻫﺭﻭﺎﺑ ﺯﺍ

ﻩﻮﻴﺷ ﺎﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﻛ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺭﺩ ﻲﺒﻫﺬﻣ ﻱ

ﻪﻟﺄﺴﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻲﻣ ﺏﻮﺴﺤﻣ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﺭﺍﺪﻣ

ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﺪﻧﻮﺷ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺎﺑ ﻱﺍ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻪﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﻭ ﻪﺘﺷﺍﺪﻧ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﻲﻔﻨﻣ ﻲﮕﺘﺴﺒﻤﻫ ﺰﻴﻧ ﻱﺰﻳﺭ

.

ﺩﻮﺟﻭ ،ﻝﺎﺣ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺎﺑ

ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﻲﻤﻧ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﺑ ﻲﻓﺎﻛ ،ﻩﺩﺎﺳ

ﺪﺳﺭ

.

ﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣﺪﻨﭼ ﻥﻮﻴﺳﺮﮔﺭ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺗ ﻚﻤﻛ ﻪﺑ ،ﻦﻳﺍﺮﺑﺎﻨﺑ

ﻲﻄﺧ ﻱ

)

ﺵﻭﺭ

ﻡﺎﮔ

ﻪﺑ

ﻡﺎﮔ

(

ﻩﻮﻴﺷ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺍﺮﻤﻧ ،ﻱﺍ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺕ

ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻭ

ﻪﺑ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ

ﺎﻫﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﻥﺍﻮﻨﻋ

ﺶﻴﭘ ﻱ

ﻭ ﻩﺪﺷ ﻪﻟﺩﺎﻌﻣ ﺩﺭﺍﻭ ﻦﻴﺑ

ﻞﻛ ﻩﺮﻤﻧ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

،

ﻥﺍﻮﻨﻋ ﻪﺑ

ﺮﻈﻧ ﺭﺩ ﻪﺘﺴﺑﺍﻭ ﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ

ﺪﺷ ﻪﺘﻓﺮﮔ

ﺪﻧ

.

ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻪﻛ ﺎﺟ ﻥﺁ ﺯﺍ

ﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﻚﻳ ﻢﻗ ﺮﻬﺷ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ

ﻲﻄﻳﺍﺮﺷ ﻦﻴﻨﭼ ﺭﺩ ﻥﻮﻴﺳﺮﮔﺭ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺗ ﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺖﺳﺍ ﻲﻤﺳﺍ ﻲﺷﺯﺭﺍ ﺭﺎﻬﭼ

ﺪﻨﺷﺎﺑ ﻲﺷﺯﺭﺍ ﻭﺩ ﺕﺭﻮﺻ ﻪﺑ ﺎﻫﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﻲﺘﺴﻳﺎﺑ

.

ﺎﻨﺑ

ﺮﺑ

ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ،ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺍﺪﺘﺑﺍ ﺯﺍ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ

ﺑﺪﻛ

ﻱﺪﻨ

ﺍﺮﻃ ﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﺭﺎﻬﭼ ﻭ

ﺪﺷ ﻲﺣ

.

ﺮﻫ

ﺖﻛﺮﺷ

ﻩﺮﻤﻧ ﻪﻃﻮﺑﺮﻣ ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﺭﺩ ﻦﮐﺎﺳ ﻩﺪﻨﻨﻛ

"

ﻚﻳ

"

ﺭﺩ ﻦﮐﺎﺳﺮﻴﻏ ﻭ

ﻩﺮﻤﻧ ،ﻥﺁ

"

ﺮﻔﺻ

"

ﺩﺮﻛ ﺖﻓﺎﻳﺭﺩ

.

ﻝﻭﺪﺟ ﺭﺩ ﺞﻳﺎﺘﻧ

٢

ﻩﺪﺷ ﻩﺩﺍﺩ ﻥﺎﺸﻧ

ﺖﺳﺍ

.

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ

ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﻦﻳﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ ﻥﺎﻨﭽﻤﻫ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﺍﺭ

ﺎﺑ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﻭ ﺖﺷﺍﺩ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

٢

/

٦٠

%

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺶﻨﻛﺍﺮﭘ

ﺎﻫ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻂﺳﻮﺗ

ﻦﻴﻴﺒﺗ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

.

ﻝﻭﺪﺟ ٢ (

ﻲﻄﺧ ﻱﺮﻴﻐﺘﻣ ﺪﻨﭼ ﻥﻮﻴﺳﺮﮔﺭ ﻞﻴﻠﺤﺗ ﺞﻳﺎﺘﻧ )

ﻡﺎﮔ ﻪﺑ ﻡﺎﮔ ( ﻱﺍﺮﺑ

ﺶﻴﭘ ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺕﺍﺮﻤﻧ ﻲﻨﻴﺑ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺶﻴﭘ ﻦﻴﺑ

R2

F

ﺎﻄﺧ

B

β

T

ﺎﻄﺧ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺲﭘ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

٦٠٢ / ٠

١٢٩ / ١٣٦ ٠٠٠١ / ٠ ٣٧٦ / ١ ٦٤٩ / ٠ ١٦١ / ١٩ ٠٠٠١ / ٠

ﻲﺿﺮﻣ ﺓﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻭ ﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﺯﺍ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺮﺑﺍﺮﺑ ﺭﺩ

٠٢٦ / ٠ ٥٩٤

/ ٢ ١٧٣ / ٠ ١٥٨ / ٥ ٠٠٠١ / ٠

ﺞﻴﮔﺩﻮﺧ ﻲﻧﺍﺩﺮﮔ

٠٠٨ / ٠ ٩٥٤

/ ١ ١٠٣ / ٠ ٣٣٢ / ٣ ٠٠١ / ٠

ﺵﺮﻳﺬﭘ

٠٠٥ / ٠ ٨٢٠

/ ١ ٠٨٢ / ٠ ٧٣١ / ٢ ٠٠٧ / ٠

ﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ

ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻣ ١ ﻢﻗ

٠٠٥ / ٠ ٥٨٤

/ ٤ ٠٦٣ / ٠ ٢١٠ / ٢ ٠٢٨ / ٠

ﻱﺭﺎﺘﻓﺭ ﻱﺍﻭﺰﻧﺍ

٠٠٤ / ٠ ١٤٠

/ ١ ٠٦٠ / ٠ ٩٧٣ / ١ ٠٤٩ / ٠

ﻉﻮﻤﺠﻣ

٦٤٩ / ٠

ﺃﺪﺒﻣ ﺯﺍ ﺽﺮﻋ

(5)

ـــــــ ـــــــــــــــــــ ــــــ

ـــ ــــــ ـــــــ ـــ ـــ ــ ـــ هﻮﻴﺷ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ يﺎﻫ ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ لﻼﺘﺧا ﺎﺑ يا

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ و ﻲﺒﻴﺳآ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ و يﺎﻫ

33

ﻥﺁ ﺯﺍ ﺲﭘ

،

ﺞﻴﮔﺩﻮﺧ ،ﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻪﺑ ﻥﺩﺮﺑ ﻩﺎﻨﭘ

ﺵﺮﻳﺬﭘ ،ﻲﻧﺍﺩﺮﮔ

)

ﺭﺩ

ﺵﺮﻳﺬﭘ ﻡﺪﻋ ﻊﻗﺍﻭ

(

ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ ،

١

ﺮﺛﺍ ﻱﺭﺎﺘﻓﺭ ﻱﺍﻭﺰﻧﺍ ﻭ ﻢﻗ

ﯽﻨﻌﻣ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺶﻨﻛﺍﺮﭘ ﻦﻴﻴﺒﺗ ﺭﺩ ﻱﺭﺍﺩ

ﺍﺩ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺘﺷ

ﺪﻨ

.

ﻪﻟﺩﺎﻌﻣ

ﻪﺑ ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺕﺭﻮﺻ

ﺮﻳﺯ

ﺪﻣﺁ ﺖﺳﺩ ﻪﺑ

:

ﺮﻤﻧ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﻞﻛ

ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

=

)

٦٤٩

/

٠

*

ﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔ

ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

(

+

)

١٧٣

/

٠

*

ﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ

ﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺿﺮﻣ

(

+

)

١٠٣

/

٠

*

ﺞﻴﮔﺩﻮﺧ

ﻲﻧﺍﺩﺮﮔ

(

)

٠٨٢

/

٠

*

ﺵﺮﻳﺬﭘ

(

+

)

٠٦٣

/

٠

*

ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﻮﻜﺳ

١

ﻢﻗ

(

+

)

٠٦٠

/

٠

*

ﻱﺭﺎﺘﻓﺭ ﻱﺍﻭﺰﻧﺍ

(

+

٦٠٧

/

٥

ﺚﺤﺑ

ﺚﺤﺑ

ﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﻲﺳﺭﺮﺑ ﻑﺪﻫ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﻩﻮﻴﺷ

ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻭ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺎﺑ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

،

ﻖﻃﺎﻨﻣ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﺭﺩ

ﻧﺎﮔﺭﺎﻬﭼ

ﺪﺷ ﻡﺎﺠﻧﺍ ﻢﻗ ﺮﻬﺷ

،

ﻪﻳﺮﻈﻧ ﺎﺑ ﻮﺴﻤﻫ ﻲﺠﻳﺎﺘﻧ

ﻭ ﺎﻫ

ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ

ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺖﺷﺍﺩ ﺩﻮﺧ ﺎﺑ ﻂﺒﺗﺮﻣ

.

ﺵﻭﺭ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻭ ﺎﺳﺭﺎﻧ ﻱﺍ

ﻥﺎﺠﻴﻫ

ﺩﻮﺧ ﻥﻮﭼ ﻱﺭﺍﺪﻣ

ﺞﻴﮔ

ﺭﺩ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻭ ﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﻪﺑ ﻥﺩﺮﺑ ﻩﺎﻨﭘ ،ﻲﻧﺍﺩﺮﮔ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺮﺑﺍﺮﺑ

ﺶﻳﺍﺰﻓﺍ ﺎﺑ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺵﺮﻳﺬﭘ ﻡﺪﻋ ﻭ ﻱﺭﺎﺘﻓﺭ ﻱﺍﻭﺰﻧﺍ ،ﺎﻫ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺪﻧﺭﺍﺩ ﻪﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ

.

ﺩﻮﺧ

ﺞﻴﮔ

ﻧﺍﺩﺮﮔ

ﺵﻭﺭ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺵﻭﺭ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳﺍ ﻱﺍ

ﻱﺭﻭﺩ ﻱﺍ

ﺶﺳﺮﭘ ﺭﺩ ﻲﻳﻮﺟ

ﻣﺎﻧ

ﻩﺍﺭ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻱﺍ

ﻦﻤﻜﻟﻮﻓ

-ﺱﻭﺭﺍﺯﻻ

ﺩﺮﻓ ﻥﺁ ﻲﻃ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﺖﻘﺑﺎﻄﻣ

ﻭﺭﺎﻳﻭﺭ ﻡﺎﮕﻨﻫ

ﻲﻳ

ﻲﻣ ،ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﺎﺑ

ﻭ ﻩﺩﺮﻛ ﺕﺮﭘ ﺍﺭ ﺩﻮﺧ ﺱﺍﻮﺣ ﺪﺷﻮﻛ

ﺪﺸﻳﺪﻨﻴﻧ ﻥﺁ ﻪﺑ

]

٢١

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻙﺮﺤﻣ ﻦﻴﻨﭼ ﻲﻳﻮﮔ

ﻥﻮﻣﺍﺮﻴﭘ ﺭﺩ ﻲﻳﺍﺯ

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ

ﺩﺭﺍﺪﻧ ﺩﻮﺟﻭ ﻭﺍ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

.

ﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ

ﻪﺑ ﺩﺍﻮﻣ ﻭ ﻭﺭﺍﺩ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺿﺮﻣ ﻩ

ﻥﺍﻮﻨﻋ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺵﻭﺭ

ﻱﺍ

ﺰﻳﺮﮔ ﺵﻭﺭ ﺎﺑ ﺰﻴﻧ ﻱﺭﺎﺘﻓﺭ ﻱﺍﻭﺰﻧﺍ ﻭ

/

ﻪﻛ ﺏﺎﻨﺘﺟﺍ

ﻦﻤﻜﻟﻮﻓ

ﺱﻭﺭﺍﺯﻻ

ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺘﺳﺮﻬﻓ

ﻄﺑﺍﺭ ﻪﺑ ﻁﻮﺑﺮﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ ﺕﻻﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﺎﺑ ﻥﺁ ﺖﺒﺜﻣ

ﺩﺮﻛ ﺖﺳﺮﻬﻓ ﺍﺭ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﻲﻧﺍﻮﺨﻤﻫ ،ﺪﻧﺍ

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ

]

٢١

.[

ﻳﺎﭘ ﺮﺑ

ﻪﻛ ﻥﺎﺠﻴﻫ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﻱﻮﮕﻟﺍ

ﻦﻤﻜﻟﻮﻓ ﻭ ﺱﻭﺭﺍﺯﻻ

]

٢١

[

ﺱﻭﺭﺍﺯﻻ ﻭ ﻦﻤﻜﻟﻮﻓ

]

٢٢

[

ﻩﺩﺍﺩ ﺢﻴﺿﻮﺗ ﺍﺭ ﻥﺁ

ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ،ﺪﻧﺍ

،

ﻲﻣ ﺶﻴﭘ ﻲﻧﺎﻣ

ﺪﺑﺎﻳﺭﺩ ﺩﺮﻓ ﻪﻛ ﺪﻳﺁ

ﻪﻧﻮﮔ ﻪﺑ ﻂﻳﺍﺮﺷ

ﻭﺍ ﺮﺑ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳﺍ ﻱﺍ

ﻲﻣ ﺩﺭﺍﻭ ﺪﺣ ﺯﺍ ﺶﻴﺑ ﺭﺎﺸﻓ

ﺭﺩ ﺍﺭ ﻱﻭ ﺖﻣﻼﺳ ﺖﺳﺍ ﻦﻜﻤﻣ ﻭ ﺪﻳﺁ

ﻗ ﺮﻄﺧ ﺽﺮﻌ

ﺪﻫﺩ ﺭﺍﺮ

.

ﺖﺷﺍﺩﺮﺑ ﻦﻳﺍ

,

ﻭﺩ ﻲﻃ

ﻲﺑﺎﻳﺯﺭﺍ ﻪﻠﺣﺮﻣ

ﻲﻣ ﺕﺭﻮﺻ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﺩﺮﻴﮔ

.

ﻪﻴﻟﻭﺍ ﻲﺑﺎﻳﺯﺭﺍ ﺭﺩ

,

ﻊﻤﺟ ﻦﻳﺍ ﻪﺑ ﺩﺮﻓ

ﻱﺪﻨﺑ

ﻲﻣ

ﺪﺳﺭ

ﻪﻛ

،

ﺑ ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻥﺍﻮﺗ ﺎﻳﺁ

ﻱﻭ ﻱﺮﻄﺧ ﺎﻳﺁ ؟ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﺭ ﺖﻴﻌﻗﻮﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺎ

ﻲﻣ ﺪﻳﺪﻬﺗ ﺍﺭ

؟ﺪﻨﻛ

ﻨﻴﻣﺯ

ﻭ ؟ﺮﻴﺧ ﺎﻳ ﺖﺳﺍ ﻢﻫﺍﺮﻓ ﺲﻔﻧ ﺕﺰﻋ ﺶﻫﺎﻛ

ﻪﻛ ﻦﻳﺍ

،

ﻜﻳ ﺖﻣﻼﺳ ﺎﻳ ﺩﺮﻓ ﺩﻮﺧ ﺖﻣﻼﺳ ﺎﻳﺁ

ﺭﺩ ﻱﻭ ﻥﺍﺰﻳﺰﻋ ﺯﺍ ﻲ

ﻳﻮﻧﺎﺛ ﻲﺑﺎﻳﺯﺭﺍ ﺭﺩ ؟ﺖﺳﺍ ﺮﻄﺧ

ﻊﻤﺟ ﻦﻳﺍ ﻪﺑ ﺩﺮﻓ ،ﻪ

ﻲﻣ ﻱﺪﻨﺑ

،ﻪﻛ ﺪﺳﺭ

ﻲﻣ ﺎﻳﺁ

ﺮﻄﺧ ﻦﻳﺍ ﺮﺑ ﻥﺪﻣﺁ ﻖﻳﺎﻓ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻥﺍﻮﺗ

,

ﺎﻳ ،ﻥﺁ ﺯﺍ ﻱﺮﻴﮔﻮﻠﺟ

،ﺮﮕﻳﺩ ﺕﺭﺎﺒﻋ ﻪﺑ ؟ﺮﻴﺧ ﺎﻳ ﺩﺮﻛ ﻡﺍﺪﻗﺍ ﺪﻴﻔﻣ ﺩﺭﻮﻣ ﻚﻳ ﻪﺑ ﻥﺁ ﻞﻳﺪﺒﺗ

ﺩﺮﻓ ﻱﺎﻫﻭﺮﻴﻧ ﻲﺑﺎﻴﺷﺯﺭﺍ ﻦﻤﻀﺘﻣ ﻪﻳﻮﻧﺎﺛ ﻲﺑﺎﻳﺯﺭﺍ

،

ﺭﺩ

ﺭﺎﻨﻛ

ﺎﺑ ﻥﺪﻣﺁ

ﻥﺎﻳﺯ

ﻩﻮﻘﻟﺎﺑ ﺪﻳﺍﻮﻓ ﺎﻳ ﺎﻫ

ﻠﺣﺮﻣ ﺭﺩ ﻪﻛ ﺖﺳﺍ ﻱﺍ

ﻩﺪﺷ ﻲﺑﺎﻳﺯﺭﺍ ﻪﻴﻟﻭﺍ

ﺖﺳﺍ

.

ﺮﺿﺎﺣ ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺞﻳﺎﺘﻧ

،

ﻲﻧﺍﻮﺨﻤﻫ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﻱﻮﮕﻟﺍ ﺎﺑ ﺎﻬﻨﺗ ﻪﻧ

ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﺎﺑ ﻪﻜﻠﺑ ،ﺩﺭﺍﺩ

ﻦﻳﺍ ﺭﺩ ﻩﺪﺷ ﻡﺎﺠﻧﺍ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺹﻮﺼﺧ

ﺪﻨﻧﺎﻣ

ﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ

ﻲﻣﺮﻛ ﻭ ﻲﻧﺎﻴﺘﺷﺁ ﻲﺤﺘﻓ

ﺎﻴﻧ

]

١

[

،

ﻚﻠﻣ ﻭ ﻻﺎﺑﺭﻮﻧ

ﻲﻠﻀﻓﺍ

]

٢

[

،

ﻱﺪﻴﺻ ﻭ ﻲﺋﺎﻓﻭ

]

٣

[

،

ﻦﻳﻭﺪﻟﺁ

]

٦

[

،

ﻥﻮﺴﻛﺎﺳ

ﻥﺍﺭﺎﻜﻤﻫ ﻭ

]

٨

[

،

ﻚﻣ

ﻙﻮﻛ ﻭ ﻝﺎﻓ

]

٩

[

،

ﻥﻮﺴﻧﺎﺟ

ﻥﺍﺭﺎﻜﻤﻫ ﻭ

]

١٠

[

ﺭﺯﻮﻣ

ﻥﺍﺭﺎﻜﻤﻫ ﻭ

]

١٥

[

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﻲﻳﺍﺮﮕﻤﻫ ﺰﻴﻧ

.

ﺮﺛﺍ ﻦﻴﻴﺒﺗ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻲﻟﺪﻣ ﺮﻴﺧﺍ ﻦﻴﻔﻟﺆﻣ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ

ﺮﻳﺎﺳ ﻱﺪﻨﻳﺎﻤﻫ ﻭ ﻲﻧﺍﻭﺭ ﺖﺷﺍﺪﻬﺑ ﺮﺑ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻥﺍﻭﺭ ﺕﻻﻼﺘﺧﺍ

ﻲﻣ ﻪﺋﺍﺭﺍ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

ﻫﺩ

]

١٥

.[

ﻳﺎﭘ ﺮﺑ

،ﻝﺪﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴ

ﻲﻣ ﺎﻔﻳﺍ ﺍﺭ ﻲﺸﻘﻧ ﻦﻴﻨﭼ ﻩﺍﺭ ﻭﺩ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﺪﻨﻛ

:

ﻢﻴﻘﺘﺴﻣ ﺮﺛﺍ ،ﺖﺴﺨﻧ

ﺷﻮﺧ ﻪﺳ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﻪﻛ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻥﺁ ﻲﺘﺧﺎﻨﺷ

)

ﺑﺮﺠﺗ

ﻥﻭﺰﻓ ﻭ ﺏﺎﻨﺘﺟﺍ ،ﺩﺪﺠﻣ

ﻲﮕﺘﺨﻴﮕﻧﺍﺮﺑ

(

ﻢﻴﻘﺘﺴﻣﺮﻴﻏ ﺮﺛﺍ ﻡﻭﺩ ﻭ

ﺘﺴﻜﺷ ﻁﻮﻄﺧ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﻪﻛ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻱﺭﺎﻤﻴﺑ ﻢﻳﻼﻋ ﺯﺍ ﻲﺷﺎﻧ ﻲﻃﺎﺒﺗﺭﺍ

.

ــﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﻮﻜــﺳ

ــﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﺭﺩ ﺖﻧﻮﻜــﺳ

١١

ﺵﺯﻮــﻣﺁ ﻭ ﻱﺭﺍﺩﺮﻬــﺷ

ﺵﺯﻮــﻣﺁ ﻭ ﻱﺭﺍﺩﺮﻬــﺷ

،ﻢــﻗ ﺵﺭﻭﺮــﭘ ﻭ

،ﻢــﻗ ﺵﺭﻭﺮــﭘ ﻭ

ﺭﺩ

ﺭﺩ

ﺶﻴﭘ

ﺶﻴﭘ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺕﺍﺮﻤﻧ ﻲﻨﻴﺑ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ ﺕﺍﺮﻤﻧ ﻲﻨﻴﺑ

ﻢﻬـﺳ ﻥﺁ ﺶﻨﻛﺍﺮـﭘ ﻭ ﻦﻣﺰـﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻢﻬـﺳ ﻥﺁ ﺶﻨﻛﺍﺮـﭘ ﻭ ﻦﻣﺰـﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻢﻛ

ﻢﻛ

،،

ﻨﻌﻣ ﺎﻣﺍ

ﻨﻌﻣ ﺎﻣﺍ

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﻱﺭﺍﺩ

ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﻱﺭﺍﺩ

. .

ﺮـﺑ ﺭﺩ ﹰﺎﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺮـﺑ ﺭﺩ ﺎﻣﻮﻤﻋ ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﺪـﻧﺮﻴﮔ

ﺪـﻧﺮﻴﮔ

ﻩﻩ

ﻥﺎﻨﻛﺎـﺳ

ﻥﺎﻨﻛﺎـﺳ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻢﻗ ﺮﻬﺷ ﻲﻣﻮﺑ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﻢﻗ ﺮﻬﺷ ﻲﻣﻮﺑ

. .

ﻦﻴﻳﺎـﭘ ﻦﻳﺮﺟﺎﻬﻣ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ

ﻦﻴﻳﺎـﭘ ﻦﻳﺮﺟﺎﻬﻣ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ

ﻲﻣﻮـﻤﻋ ﺪـﻣﺁﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺮـﺗ

ﻲﻣﻮـﻤﻋ ﺪـﻣﺁﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺮـﺗ

ﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﻢﻫ ﻥﺁ ﻥﺎﻨﻛﺎﺳ

ﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻪﺑ ﺖﺒﺴﻧ ﻢﻫ ﻥﺁ ﻥﺎﻨﻛﺎﺳ

ﻪﻪ

٤٤

ﻦﻴﻳﺎﭘ

ﻦﻴﻳﺎﭘ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﺮﺗ

ﺖﺳﺍ ﺮﺗ

. .

ﻲـﻤﻧ ﺮـﻘﻓ

ﻲـﻤﻧ ﺮـﻘﻓ

ﺪـﻧﺍﻮﺗ

ﺪـﻧﺍﻮﺗ

ﻦﻳﺍ ﻲﻟﺎﻤﺘﺣﺍ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ

ﻦﻳﺍ ﻲﻟﺎﻤﺘﺣﺍ ﻞﻣﺎﻋ

ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ

ﺪﺷﺎﺑ ﺮﻴﺛﺄﺗ

. .

ﻖﻃﺎﻨﻣ ﻥﺎﻨﻛﺎﺳ ،ﺍﺮﻳﺯ

ﻖﻃﺎﻨﻣ ﻥﺎﻨﻛﺎﺳ ،ﺍﺮﻳﺯ

٣٣

ﻩﮋﻳﻭ ﻪﺑ ﻭ

ﻩﮋﻳﻭ ﻪﺑ ﻭ

٢٢

ﻦﻴﻳﺎﭘ ﺪﻣﺁﺭﺩ

ﻦﻴﻳﺎﭘ ﺪﻣﺁﺭﺩ

ﺪﻧﺭﺍﺩ ﻱﺮﺗ

ﺪﻧﺭﺍﺩ ﻱﺮﺗ

. .

ﻦﻛﺎـﺳ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﻪﻛ ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﺩﻮﺟﻭ ﻝﺎﻤﺘﺣﺍ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﻦﻛﺎـﺳ ﻥﺍﺯﺎﺒﻧﺎﺟ ﻪﻛ ﺩﺭﺍﺩ ﺩﻮﺟﻭ ﻝﺎﻤﺘﺣﺍ ﻦﻳﺍ

ـﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻥﺎﻨﻛﺎـﺳ ﺪـﻣﺁﺭﺩ ﻪـﻛ ﻥﺁ ﻞﻴﻟﺩ ﻪﺑ ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ

ـﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻥﺎﻨﻛﺎـﺳ ﺪـﻣﺁﺭﺩ ﻪـﻛ ﻥﺁ ﻞﻴﻟﺩ ﻪﺑ ﻪﻘﻄﻨﻣ ﻦﻳﺍ

ﻪﻪ

٤٤

ﺖـﻳﺎﻤﺣ ﻭ

ﺖـﻳﺎﻤﺣ ﻭ

ﻲﻋﺎــﻤﺘﺟﺍ

ﻲﻋﺎــﻤﺘﺟﺍ

))

ﻩﺮﻴــﺸﻋ ﻭ ﻲﻣﻮــﻗ

ﻩﺮﻴــﺸﻋ ﻭ ﻲﻣﻮــﻗ

ﻱﺍ

ﻱﺍ

( (

ﻖﻃﺎــﻨﻣ

ﻖﻃﺎــﻨﻣ

٢٢

٣٣

ﺮﺘــﺸﻴﺑ ،ﺪــﻧﺭﺍﺪﻧ ﺍﺭ

ﺮﺘــﺸﻴﺑ ،ﺪــﻧﺭﺍﺪﻧ ﺍﺭ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﻲﻣ ﻥﺎﺸﻧ ﺍﺭ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻲﻣ ﻥﺎﺸﻧ ﺍﺭ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺪﻨﻫﺩ

ﺪﻨﻫﺩ

..

ﻧﻧ

ﻪﺠﻴﺘ

ﻪﺠﻴﺘ

ﺮﻴﮔ

ﺮﻴﮔ

ﻲﻣ ﺮﻈﻧ ﻪﺑ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻥﺎﻣﺭﺩ ﺪﺳﺭ

ﺖﻓﺎﻳﺭﺩ ﺭﺎﻨﻛ ﺭﺩ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻥﺎﻣﺭﺩ

ﺵﻭﺭ ﻚﻤﻛ ﻪﺑ ،ﻲﺒﻃ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺖﺧﺎﻨﺷ ﺮﺑ ﻲﻨﺘﺒﻣ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﻱﺮﮕﻧﺎﻣﺭﺩ

ﻪﻠﻤﺟ ﺯﺍ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺵﻭﺭ ﺯﺍ ﻩﺩﺎﻔﺘﺳﺍ ،

ﺸﻴﭘ ﻱﺍﺮﺑ ﻱﺮﮕﻧﺎﻣﺭﺩ

ﺯﺍ ﻱﺮﻴﮕ

ﻪﻧﺎﺸﻧ

ﻥﺁ ﻥﺎﻣﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻦﻣﺰﻣ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺪﻨﻣﺩﻮﺳ ﺎﻫ

ﺪﺷﺎﺑ

.

ﺸﻴﭘ

ﺩﺎﻬﻨ

ﻲﻣ

ﻭ ﺪﻴﻬﺷ ﺩﺎﻴﻨﺑ ﺩﻮﺷ

ﻥﺎﻣﺭﺩ ﺮﺑ ﺰﻛﺮﻤﺗ ﺎﺑ ﻥﺍﺮﮔﺭﺎﺜﻳﺍ ﺭﻮﻣﺍ

ﻱﺎﻫ

ﺲﭘ ﻲﮔﺪﻴﻨﺗ ﻝﻼﺘﺧﺍ ﻲﻳﻭﺭﺍﺩ

ﻪﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻭ ﻲﺒﻴﺳﺁ

ﻦﻳﺍ ﻱﺮﮕﻧﺎﻣﺭﺩ

ﺪﻨﻫﺩ ﺶﻫﺎﻛ ﺍﺭ ﺕﻼﻜﺸﻣ

.

ﻲﻧﺍﺩﺭﺪﻗ ﻭ ﺮﻜﺸﺗ

ﻲﻧﺍﺩﺭﺪﻗ ﻭ ﺮﻜﺸﺗ

: :

ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﻦﻳﺍ ﻱﺍﺮﺟﺍ ﺭﺩ

ﺶﻫﻭﮋﭘ ﻦﻳﺍ ﻱﺍﺮﺟﺍ ﺭﺩ

،،

ﺩﺎﻴﻨﺑ ﻲﻟﺎﻣ ﺖﻳﺎﻤﺣ ﺯﺍ

ﺩﺎﻴﻨﺑ ﻲﻟﺎﻣ ﺖﻳﺎﻤﺣ ﺯﺍ

ﻡﺮـﺘﺤﻣ ﻥﺍﺮﮕـﺸﺳﺮﭘ ﻱﺭﺎﻜﻤﻫ ﻭ ﻢﻗ ﻥﺎﺘﺳﺍ ﻥﺍﺮﮔﺭﺎﺜﻳﺍ ﺭﻮﻣﺍ ﻭ ﺪﻴﻬﺷ

ﻡﺮـﺘﺤﻣ ﻥﺍﺮﮕـﺸﺳﺮﭘ ﻱﺭﺎﻜﻤﻫ ﻭ ﻢﻗ ﻥﺎﺘﺳﺍ ﻥﺍﺮﮔﺭﺎﺜﻳﺍ ﺭﻮﻣﺍ ﻭ ﺪﻴﻬﺷ

ﺡﺮﻃ

ﺡﺮﻃ

،،

ﻢﻧﺎﺧ

ﻢﻧﺎﺧ

ﺍ ،ﻱﻮﻠﻋ ،ﻲﻔﻳﺮﺷ ﻡﺮﻛﺍ ﺎﻫ

ﺍ ،ﻱﻮﻠﻋ ،ﻲﻔﻳﺮﺷ ﻡﺮﻛﺍ ﺎﻫ

،ﻲـﻌﻗﺮﺑ ﻡﺎـﻬﻟﺍ ،ﺭﺍﺩﺭﻮﺧﺮﺑ ﻢﻈﻋ

،ﻲـﻌﻗﺮﺑ ﻡﺎـﻬﻟﺍ ،ﺭﺍﺩﺭﻮﺧﺮﺑ ﻢﻈﻋ

ﻦﻴـﺴﺣ ﻩﺰﻤﺣ ﻪﻤﻃﺎﻓ ،ﻱﺪﻤﺣﺍ ﻪﻧﺍﺯﺮﻓ ،ﻲﻟﻮﺳﺭ ﻡﺎﻬﻟﺍ

ﻦﻴـﺴﺣ ﻩﺰﻤﺣ ﻪﻤﻃﺎﻓ ،ﻱﺪﻤﺣﺍ ﻪﻧﺍﺯﺮﻓ ،ﻲﻟﻮﺳﺭ ﻡﺎﻬﻟﺍ

ﻪـﻤﻃﺎﻓ ،ﻱﺩﺎـﺑﺁ

ﻪـﻤﻃﺎﻓ ،ﻱﺩﺎـﺑﺁ

ﻦﻴـﺴﺣ ﻪﻤﻃﺎﻓ ،ﻲﻧﺎﻫﺍﺮﻓ

ﻦﻴـﺴﺣ ﻪﻤﻃﺎﻓ ،ﻲﻧﺎﻫﺍﺮﻓ

ﻒﻴـﺳ ﻪـﻤﻃﺎﻓ ،ﺭﻮـﭘ

ﻒﻴـﺳ ﻪـﻤﻃﺎﻓ ،ﺭﻮـﭘ

،ﻲﺗﺭﺎـﺸﺑ ﻪـﻴﻧﺎﻫ ،ﻩﺩﺍﺯ

،ﻲﺗﺭﺎـﺸﺑ ﻪـﻴﻧﺎﻫ ،ﻩﺩﺍﺯ

ﻪﺳﻮﻛ ﻲﻨﻴﺴﺣ

ﻪﺳﻮﻛ ﻲﻨﻴﺴﺣ

،ﻱﺪـﺋﺎﻗ ﻪﻣﻮﺼﻌﻣ ،ﻲﺑﺎﺘﻓﺁ ﻪﻣﻮﺼﻌﻣ ،ﻱﺪﺠﻣﺍ ﻢﻳﺮﻣ ،ﺮﻟ

،ﻱﺪـﺋﺎﻗ ﻪﻣﻮﺼﻌﻣ ،ﻲﺑﺎﺘﻓﺁ ﻪﻣﻮﺼﻌﻣ ،ﻱﺪﺠﻣﺍ ﻢﻳﺮﻣ ،ﺮﻟ

ﻲﻠﻗ ﻪﻣﻮﺼﻌﻣ

ﻲﻠﻗ ﻪﻣﻮﺼﻌﻣ

ﻒﺳﻮﻳ ،ﻲﺘﻟﻭﺩ ﻩﺮﻬﻄﻣ ،ﻩﺩﺍﺯ

ﻒﺳﻮﻳ ،ﻲﺘﻟﻭﺩ ﻩﺮﻬﻄﻣ ،ﻩﺩﺍﺯ

ﺍﺮـﻫﺯ ،ﻲـﻣﻼﻏ ﺍﺮـﻫﺯ ،ﻩﺩﺍﺯ

ﺍﺮـﻫﺯ ،ﻲـﻣﻼﻏ ﺍﺮـﻫﺯ ،ﻩﺩﺍﺯ

ﻮﻳﺪﺧ

ﻮﻳﺪﺧ

ﻪﺘﺴﺟ ﺩﻮﺳ ﻥﺎﻳﺩﺎﺘﺳﺍ ﺍﺮﻫﺯ ﻭ ﻲﻧﺎﺷﺎﻛ ﻱ

ﻪﺘﺴﺟ ﺩﻮﺳ ﻥﺎﻳﺩﺎﺘﺳﺍ ﺍﺮﻫﺯ ﻭ ﻲﻧﺎﺷﺎﻛ ﻱ

ﻡﺍﻡﺍ

،،

ﻚـﻳﺎﻜﻳ ﻱﺍﺮـﺑ ﻪﻛ

ﻚـﻳﺎﻜﻳ ﻱﺍﺮـﺑ ﻪﻛ

ﻲﻣ ﺱﺎﭙﺳ ﺎﻬﻧﺁ

ﻲﻣ ﺱﺎﭙﺳ ﺎﻬﻧﺁ

ﻡﺭﺍﺬﮔ

ﻡﺭﺍﺬﮔ

..

Figure

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References