With Focus on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

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GM’s Electrification Strategy

GM s Electrification Strategy

With Focus on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

International Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology and Vehicle Development Forum

George P. Hansen

Director, Fuel Cell Commercialization Asia Pacific, General Motors

International Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology and Vehicle Development Forum Hosted by MOST and IPHE

Shanghai, China September 22, 2010


All Options in Play – The Power of “AND”

Cellulosic biomass ramps to high volume; BEVs / EREVs make 40% of VMT electric; FCEVs penetrate to 40% of parc by 2050

Goal – 80% reduction from 1990 level by 2050

– LDV parc mostly transitioned to electric drive and ZEV solutions – US grid GHG modeled at 80% lower than 2008 levels

– Hydrogen from cellulosic biomass or clean electricity

Start soon with early options

Start soon with early options


GM’s Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy

H drogen Hydrogen fuel cell-electric Battery-electric hi l /E REV Improve vehicle fuel economy Displace petroleum vehicles/E-REV Hybrid-electric vehicles (including plug-in HEV) IC engine y and emissions Electrification of the propulsion system Time g and transmission improvements

Petroleum (conventional and alternative sources)

E Alternative fuels(Ethanol, Biodiesel, CNG, LPG)

Electricity(conventional and alternative sources)

Hydrogen Energy


On-Board Energy Storage

Weight and Volume of Energy Storage System for 500 km Range Lithium Ion Battery 100 kWh electrical energy Diesel Compressed Hydrogen 700 bar

6 kg H2 = 200 kWh chemical energy

g gy g y g


System System


Fuel SystemFuel

43 kg 43 kg 830 kg 540 kg 33 kg 125 kg6 kg 46 L 46 L 670 L 360 L 37 L 260 L170 L


Application Map – the Power of “AND”, not “OR”

High Load cle Drive Cycle Duty Cy c Continuous Stop-and-go Light Load


Today’s Electrification Opportunities

Portfolio of Solutions for a Full Range of Vehicles


¾ Mild Hybrid – BAS

¾ Full Hybrid – 2-Mode

¾ PHEV 2 M d


¾ PHEV – 2-Mode

¾ EREV – Voltec

¾ BEV – EV Drive

¾ FCEV FC Propulsion System

Electricity – ZEV Fuel


¾ FCEV – FC Propulsion System







Chevrolet Volt – Electric Vehicle

with Range Extending Capability

with Range Extending Capability





Daily Mileage (Example: Germany)

25% 80% of daily driving 50 km or less 20% 50 km or less 15% 10% 5% 0-1 2-4 5-10 11-20 21-50 51-100 > 100 0% km


Propulsion System Cost












Range / km

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450


EN-V Electric Network Vehicle

For Personal Urban Mobility


Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell – Over 2,000,000 km logged

¾ GM has deployed the world’s largest fleet of fuel cell electric vehicles to date for market testing

for market testing

– 3 US locations, Europe and Asia – 119 vehicles deployed to various

customers customers

¾ Has been used for extensive testing under real driving conditions

under real driving conditions

– Cars loaned for average of 3 months at a time

– Use of OnStar for customer care and Use of OnStar for customer care and feedback

– Data will be used in next generation vehicle development


GM’s Next Generation Fuel Cell Vehicles

¾ Fully functional 4-passenger crossover vehicle

¾ Meeting US Federal Safety and ZEV requirements

¾ 0-100 km/h in 12 s, 160 km/h max speed

¾ 420-km range (latest version) ¾ Freeze durable over vehicle life ¾ Chevrolet branded


GM/SAIC EXPO FCEV Collaboration

• GM/SAIC are providing the jointly developed “Shanghai

FCV” based on SAIC’s Roewe 750 model

• Shanghai FCV is used currently as VIP shuttle at Shanghai

EXPO 2010

Vehicle uses modified Fuel Cell Propulsion System out of

• Vehicle uses modified Fuel Cell Propulsion System out of


GM’s Next Generation Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems

½ Size

½ Weight


Gen 2 Objectives

• All customer requirements with respect



to Performance and Durability are met

– Wide temperature operating range (-40ºC … +50ºC) – Product Lifetime > 10 years

• Significant product cost reductions through design



• Design supports bandwidth of vehicle applications

R d f

k t i t d ti i 2015


Gen 2 Application Bandwidth

Power Electronics Electronics Fuel Cell System Co Axial Drive Unit Integrated on cradle


Gen 2 Design Evolution

Fuel Cell System

Equinox Fuel Cell Gen 2

Net Power 93 kW 85 92kW

Net Power 93 kW 85-92kW

Max Excursion Temp 86C 95C

Durability 1500-hrs 5500-hrs

Cold Operation Start from -25C Start from -40C

Mass 240 Kg <130 Kg

Sensors/Actuators 30 ≤15

Stack Subsystem:

Plates Composite Stamped Stainless Steel

UEA 80g Platinum / FCS <30g Platinum / FCS

Air Subsystem & Humidification

Tube-style Humidifier sensor based RH control

GM designed Humidifier model based RH control


GM Fuel Cell System Durability Progression

I it lt

120,000 140,000

ility (miles

) • In-situ voltage recovery

• Start stop degradation mitigation

• Internally developed MEA • Model based

humidifica-Improvements identified for full automotive

60,000 80,000 100,000 ystem Dur ab i

tion control 10 year / 125k miles

20,000 40,000 Fu el C ell S y 0

Gen1 Upgrades to Gen1 Gen2 and 3

Field Today

Equinox Fuel Cell

Field Demonstration Identified Upgrades to Equinox Fuel Cell First Production Introduction

Proving Ground Today 2015 timeframe


GM Fuel Cell System Cost Reduction

BOP Stack m Co st • System Integration M f t i B t P ti Balance of Plant Fuel Cell Stack

l C

ell S


em • Manufacturing Best Practices

Conventional Powertrain Tech Transfer • Electrode Design for Lower Platinum • ½ the mass

• ½ the part numbers 4.4x 1.4x 1.0x 80g Pt 30g Pt <10g Pt Fu el p Gen 1 500/year Gen 2 10k/year Gen 3 100k/year Gen 3 1000k/year 80g Pt 30g Pt Project Driveway

500/year Commercial introduction 10k/year 100k/year 1000k/year

Today 2015 timeframe 2020 2022

Subsequent Generations


GM Fuel Cell System Research Initiatives

• Precious metal catalyst /electrode materials, designs and



– Target <10g of Pt per vehicle

• Low-Cost membrane materials

– Non PFSA based materials that have cost advantage at lower volumes

• Novel cell design and membrane synthesis techniques that

allow for high volume continuous processes

allow for high-volume continuous processes

• Low-cost bipolar plate materials

– Low-Nickel content stainless steels


Platinum Reduction Roadmap

5 <5 5 Platinum

Pt Alloy (e g PtNi) Key

h d l Pt N ti l Pt All Pt All Sh ll Pt-Alloy-Shell

<5 nm


nm <5 nm

>20nm Pt Alloy (e.g. PtNi)

Affordable Core

Cathode Catalyst

Technology Pt Nanoparticles (Equinox) NanoparticlesPt-Alloy NanoparticlesPt-Alloy-Shell

y Large Nanoparticles


Maturity Vehicles Stacks Single Cells Beaker

Maturity g Pt Required (gm Pt/vehicle) 80 <30 <15 5-10 Pt Cost Pt Cost ($/vehicle) $1200/troy oz Pt $3000 <$1200 <$600 $200-400

Pathways are well established to Pt levels that are cost competitive with Pathways are well established to Pt levels that are cost competitive with


Energy implications of 700 bar storage systems

350 bar 4kg Hydrogen 133 kWh 700 bar 6.2kg Hydrogen 207 kWh 133 kWh 207 kWh + 10 % compression energy 55% t t

Most compression energy is expended at

+ 55% energy content

Most compression energy is expended at lower pressures

10% additional compression energy to get from 350 bar to 700 bar…

get from 350 bar to 700 bar…


Hydrogen Storage Vessels: Type III vs. Type IV

Compared to Type III Vessels,

Type IV Vessels haveyp

•20% lower weight with

identical volumetric storage

density Vessel Cost

(@10k p a )


•higher potential regarding long term fatigue and

durability (little/no liner

(@10k p.a.)

y ( cracking)

•lower cost carbon fibers (lower modulus of elasticity)


Letter of Understanding Signed – 08SEP09

Automotive Industry Support for Battery & Fuel Cell






• Battery and fuel cell vehicles complement each other • 2015 FCEV commercialization anticipated

• Hydrogen infrastructure with sufficient density required by 2015

• Built up from metropolitan areas via corridors into area-wide coveragep p g • Stations integrated into branded conventional stations, meet

SAEJ2601 requirements, and offer hydrogen at a reasonable price to


Commercialization Scenario for FCVs and H



Japan Timing

(FCCJ Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan)

2010 2011 2015 2016 2025 2026 Phase 1 Technology Demonstration 【JHFC-2】 Phase 2 Technology & Market


【Post JHFC】 【Starting Period】

Phase 3

Early Commercialization

【Expansion Period】

Phase 4

Full Commercialization 【Profitable business Period】


r 2010 2011 2015 2016 2025 2026

•Solving technical issues and promotion of

review regulations (Verifying & reviewing development progress as needed)

•Verifying utility of FCVs

Contribute to diversity of energy sources and

reduction of CO2emissions





•Expanding production and sales of

FCVs while maintaining convenience of FCV users

•Reducing costs for H2stations and hydrogen fuel •Continuously conducting and H2stations from socio-economic viewpoint H 2 St a Approx. 1,000 H2stations* y g

technology development and review of regulations

C t f H2 t ti t ti


umber Determine specifications of Begin building

commercial type H2stations Period in which preceded Ht ti b ildi i 2

Approx. 2 million FCVs*

Costs for H2 station construction and hydrogen reach targets, making the station business viable. (FCV 2,000 units/station)

Year Note: Vertical axis indicates the relative scale between vehicle number & station number.





N commercial type Hp 2stations commercial type H2stations

Increase of FCV numbers through introduction of more vehicle models

station building is necessary


Advanced Propulsion Technology Cost Reduction

Enabled through Generational Learning




Significant cost reduction of new technology is enabled through

ti l d i b d i i


generational designs based on in-use experience



25% 50%

Cost %

Gen1 Gen2 Gen3


Time & Volume



¾ GM is committed to Advanced Propulsion Technologies

¾ No one solution - today and tomorrow – the power of “AND” • Conventional Improvements

• Conventional Improvements

• Electrification (Hybrid, PHEV, EREV, BEV, Fuel Cell EV)

¾ GM’s Next Generation program (Gen2) targets 2015 introduction

¾ Bandwidth of application optionspp p ¾ Automotive durability

¾ Significant product cost reduction through design simplifications and platinum loading reductions

¾Research initiatives to close remaining gaps on cost are underway ¾Research initiatives to close remaining gaps on cost are underway ¾With hydrogen stations according to SAE J2601A (-40ºC precooling)

refueling will be comparable to today’s gasoline vehicles.

¾Type4 70MPa compressed hydrogen storage tanks have significant

d t T 3 35MP t k f i li ti

advantages over Type3 35MPa tanks for commercialization

¾Key stakeholders need to work together aggressively to provide infrastructure, regulations and to implement incentives