IREX University Administration Support Program - 2006
Case Study: Alumni Relations, Fundraising and
Development in US Universities.
By Ekaterina Karpova
4. Organizational structures and responsibilities………7
6. Working methods:
• General principles……….13
• Major gifts………14
• Annual giving………...15
• Corporations and Foundations………..16
• Database and prospect research………....19
• Stewardship and recognition……….21
• Special events………....23
The main objective of the study is to find out and present development, fundraising and alumni relations practices in US universities, to identify how the work of alumni and development offices is organized and what practices can be applied in Russia. The sources for my case study are practical experience of visited universities and several other organizations, their reports and other publications. Thanks to IREX University Administration support program I had a chance to visit several universities in different parts of the USA: The Bowling Green State University (Ohio), The University of California (Berkeley) (California), the University of Toledo (Ohio). My main host institution was Bowling Green State University and most of the case study is based on their experience and practices. I had also a possibility to visit the following other organizations to find out more about development and fundraising in other US non-profits: The Toledo Museum of Art (Ohio), The United Way of Greater Toledo (Ohio), The Center Of Science an Industry (COSI) Museum, Toledo (Ohio), The Foundation Center (New York).
I would like to thank: IREX and the Carnegie Corporation of New York and Starr Foundation for a wonderful possibility to take part in this program, my host institution Bowling Green State University (BGSU) and personally Marcia Sloan Latta and J. Douglas Smith for this opportunity to come and spend two months in Bowling Green learning form a very professional experience of the development and alumni office, Michelle Banks, Vanessa Chapman, Debbie Perry, Michael Lohr and all other University advancement officers for their support, time, efforts and attention to my issue. And, finally, representatives of all other universities and organizations I visited for their time, hospitality and assistance.
US universities results in fundraising are really impressive. A great percent of university budget comes not from tuitions or state funding but from fund raising and wise investing.
There are the following several preconditions of US universities fundraising success: 1. Running university as a business enterprise
Business approach. University is considered to be a business enterprise that competes on the market and it is necessary to make it as efficient as possible to succeed. Thus a lot of management and marketing principles are used to run the University.
2. Giving and volunteering culture.
According to the statistics of National Philanthropic Trust 89% of US households give. The average annual contribution for contributors is $1,620. 55% of Americans volunteer. Of course, well-developed giving culture makes fundraising easier. At the same time US non-profits (including universities) face another problem, there are many non-profits seeking for financing and high competition on the market.
By source of contribution
Bequests 6,7% Foundations 11,5%
As you see, an amount of individual donors is huge, that’s why development offices focus in their work mostly on individuals. In Russia situation might be slightly different, so far it is easier to get support from companies and foundations. But general principles and methods of work with individuals and with companies and foundations are the same and many of them can be applied to Russia.
A university atmosphere facilitates fundraising efforts as well. When getting education it is important for students not only to study hard, but also to “be active”, to participate in university life. For example, at Bowling Green State University with its 21,000 students, there are nearly 325 student organizations. Most of them try to organize all sorts of philanthropy events to get financing for their activities. Many students volunteer. Volunteering and social activities are compulsory conditions for getting some scholarships. To get one students should not only have high grades, but also demonstrate active citizenship and potential leadership abilities. According to practical experience, if student has been active in 3 or more student organization during his studies, he is very likely to become an active donor after graduation.
University management structure already involves as a Board of Trustees people from outside (not a part of University Faculty and Administration). Board of Trustees as well as Alumni association board and university foundation board consist of volunteers. Usually they are the best university donors.
A long history of American philanthropy and civil society led to uprise of Philanthropic Foundations. According to the Foundation Center statistics there are 88,000 philanthropic foundations of different size in USA. In 2003 Foundations gave in USA over $30.0 billion, the largest share - 24.5% for Education. There are also an incredible number of corporations participating in philanthropy and providing matching gifts and amazing individual involvement.
3. A long-lasting economic and political stability.
People are ready to give because they earn enough and are sure that will earn enough tomorrow. When planning a development campaign you should take business environment into account.
Besides, the most of the money are got from alums and community members of 60 years and elder. This group of people is ready to donate both their time and money. Unfortunately in Russia fundraisers can’t rely on this group of population.
Corporative philanthropy is more developed in Russia than individual, but is also not systematic and often shows lack of donors understanding of recipient’s real needs.
Those figures show that although development and fundraising are a challenge for Russian non-profits and Universities, the situation is not hopeless. A great part of development work will be educating Russian citizens and introducing philanthropy and volunteering culture to the Russian society. But being educational institutions we can claim that educating people is what we are really good in, so we should manage it.
Development and fund raising have some differences. Development is considered to be more about building long-term, meaningful relations with donors. Fund raising is asking money, less about relationships. Thus, all the Universities try to work on development, they are interested making donors not only support them once, but to get a habit of supporting the University.
To be successful in development first of all you need to have a clear understanding of your organization’s mission, objectives and needs. Your organization mission and objectives go first as it is necessary for you to understand why you exist and what social need do you answer, then you must identify who and why should support your organization and what the contributor will get for this support. First of all you need to define your case. You will be ready to communicate it, to express it to anyone, only after you have a clear vision yourself, inside your own organization. If mission is a general focus of organization concerns, the objectives should be defined in terms that can be measured. It is considered that to be successful in development activities an organization needs:
1. Case statement: includes mission, goals, objectives, programs/services, finances (including gift needs), governance, staff, facilities, and mechanisms of service delivery, organization planning, finances, evaluation and history. You need to examine your case, to answer the questions: What do you do? Why you do it? What social needs do you satisfy? What is your mission? What are your objectives? What should you do to reach your objectives and to satisfy those social needs in the best way? What will be your results? Are you competent to do this? What resources do you have? What resources do you need? How your results can be evaluated? The case statement should be written and accepted inside the organization and by key external constituency.
2. Constituency. Who is your constituency? Who will be interested in supporting you and why? How much they are ready to support you, what is your constituency potential? 3. Committed leadership: availability of volunteers and staff willing to invest their time,
energy and financial resources (their own as their organization) in planning and implementing fund raising program.
4. Budget: allocation of the financial resources necessary to implement and sustain a development efforts
5. Record keeping system: designed to support the fund raising function by maintenance of accurate and accessible prospect/donor records and gift records.
6. Plan of action. Select a fund raising vehicle. Prepare action plan, business plan, fund raising plan, communication plan. It must include application of all management principles such as analysis, planning, execution, control and evaluation.
To answer some of the questions you can examine experience of similar organizations and your competitors. For example, you can immediately see that there are the following university constituencies (potential donors):
• Parents • Students
• Faculty members • Foundations • Corporations
But you need much more information. Not all the corporations and foundations will be ready to support you. And some alumni, community members, parents and students are more perspective than the others. So you will need much more analysis to identify your constituency.
In BGSU’s they hired an outside consulting agency to conduct research on: • Identification of financial needs.
• Analysis of giving history for the university.
• Analysis of the current donors potential and interests.
• Analysis of economic situation (business climate, income of the population) in a region. • Identification of new potential donors and their potential interests.
• Identification of the most prospective projects, which will be included into the campaign. • Setting goals for the whole campaign and each of the projects. Goals might be revised
later in many cases.
Outside professionals can get better results when interviewing current donors and identifying the most perspective projects, than university staff-members. However it’s not wise to follow their advice blindly, BGSU for example doubled a campaign goal recommended by the agency, because they thought it was too low and it turned out that they were right in their ambitions.
Universities usually plan and implement general university campaign with determined duration (4-6 years) and money goal. Advantages of this approach are the following:
• You can give prospects a “menu of projects” so they will get several opportunities to support your organization. Somebody will not be interested in supporting new theatre building but will be fascinated by the idea of creating a scholarship for students studying Nature protection. Having more options you can involve more people and get more money.
• Many prospects will be not enthusiastic about meeting with a gift officer they don’t know, but will be delighted to meet with their university professor. And university professor will be happier to help you with that if he knows that his College will probably benefit. University administration and faculty will be ready to share contacts and assist if they know it is worth it for their division. A general campaign helps the whole university to act as a team to achieve a common goal.
Good preparation is really important for the campaign. It took BGSU 3 years to prepare its development campaign for upcoming 6 years.
There is enough information on national giving in the USA that can help to plan campaign activities. For example, if we will take a well organized annual fund, there are statistics, that show 60% of the annual fund goal comes from 10% of the donors, the next 20% of the funds from 20% of the donors and 70% of the donors will help you to collect just 20% of the goal.
For example, for an annual gift campaign with goal a of $ 60,000, there will be the following statistics:
$ 250 24 72 (3:1) $ 6 000 10% of donors 60% of goal 100 120 360 (3:1) $ 12 000 20% of donors 20% of goal Under 100%, average gift $30 400 (800 (2:1) $ 12 000 70% of donors 20% of goal 580 1382 $ 60 000
It means also that to get $ 60 000 from annual gifts in the USA on average you need to contact 1382 people to ask for money, and 802 will say you “no!”, which is 58,1%, and only 580 (41,9%) will say “yes!”. And this is speaking about USA, where giving culture is much higher than in Russia, and also considering the structure of a well-organized campaign. That’s a good example of how many efforts fundraising requires.
This principle that 10% of donors make 60% of goal is a background of all the campaigns. It helps to set a correct goal and to reach it. We can compare goal scenario and actual results of BGSU “Building dreams campaign”:
$ 120 million goal
Gift level $ Prospects needed Gifts Equaling $
12,000,000 4 1 12,000,000 5,000,000 12 3 15,000,000 2,500,000 24 6 15,000,000 1,000,000 52 13 13,000,000 500,000 84 22 11,000,000 250,000 210 53 13,250,000 100,000 280 70 7,000,000 50,000 488 122 6,100,000 25,000 700 175 4,375,000 Less than 25,000 6000 1500 23,275,000 Total: 120,000,000 BGSU results as of 06/30/2006
Gift level $ Gifts Equaling $
12,000,000 0 0 5,000,000 1 6,717,603.30 2,500,000 3 12,882,604.50 1,000,000 18 24,270,394.81 500,000 22 14,023,131.81 250,000 22 7,165,935.29 100,000 49 6,950,334.12 50,000 69 4,397,911.42 25,000 114 3,722,054.26
Less than 25,000 many 18,141,377
That means that if you want to raise $ 60 000, you need to identify the 10% of your donors, 10 people that have the capacity to make a $3,000 gift, 20 that you can ask for $ 1500 and so on, then you can meet this goal. If your donor base does not have this potential, a lower goal should be considered.
A Steering Committee of the campaign can become an important fundraising tool. Steering Committee members usually become one of the most active donors themselves. The task for development & alumni office is too find right people, who can contribute to the Campaign by promoting it to others, and to get them involved.
In the USA there are 3 main parts of development campaign, all 3 are crucial for an organization’s success:
• Annual Fund: restricted and unrestricted gifts to support ongoing programs and services and occasionally new or special programs.
• Capital Fund: restricted and unrestricted gifts to support development or renovation of physical plant, including major equipment acquisition.
• Endowment Fund: restricted and unrestricted gifts which are invested by the University Foundation in order to generate income (interest and/or dividends on the investment) to support ongoing services and programs.
In addition to their designations, gifts are divided into annual and major. Each institution determines what is considered to be a major gift for this particular organization. For example BGSU considers $25,000 as a major gift. Although $ 10,000 or $ 8,000 is also a big gift, the University is ready to give some special recognition to donors who gave more than $ 12,000. On the other hand there is a donor’s perception, if he or she has to think about this gift, to consult with his lawyer or accountant or family member before giving, this is considered to be major gift. All the rest is considered to be annual giving. Universities try to cultivate donors by starting with smaller annual gifts, then to repeat the gift, to get to major giving and then to come to planned giving (planned gift from current income, from assets or an estate).
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Organizational structures involved in fundraising & development activities are:
• University administration • University foundation • Alumni Association • College Advocates Board • Other special alumni societies • Special donor societies
1. University administration:
University administration bodies involved in fundraising are usually united under the University Advancement Division. A structure of the division may vary in different universities
The system at BGSU is highly centralized. In other universities gift officers sometimes are a part of some particular College, are paid by College and work just with College problems and needs. However decentralized system seems to be less effective.
There are gift planning, major and principal gifts and annual giving officers that are called gift officers, each of them focuses on its specific task: planned giving, major gifts or some part of annual giving. In addition all gift officers are assigned to one of the Colleges and one of the geographic regions of the country. It doesn’t mean that they fundraise just for this College, if they see an interest of a prospect to any other projects, they present it to them. They have a list of prospect and current donors, they work with, approximately 150-200 names.
Besides there are alumni relations officers. Alumni relations is much more about friend raising than fund raising, they organize alumni events, develop alumni network and ensure alums communication with the University, promote Alumni Association, encourage and support Regional Chapters, work with a special scholarship established by alumni and called Laureate scholarship. Donor relations & communication officer is responsible for stewardship and recognition and special donor events, Corporate & Foundations officer for fund raising from corporations and foundation. Prospect research officers try to find strategic information about key prospects and identify new and new key prospects.
Vice President for
President & CEO
Director of alumni & development office, Campaign director
Gift Planning Alumni affairs
Corporate & Foundations Major and principal gifts
Annual Giving Donor relations & Communications
It is important to mention that the University President, Vice-Presidents and Deans participate in fundraising & development, however, that doesn’t mean that they ask for money, although sometimes they do. For example, we can compare Dean’s roles in development with Gift officers roles. Dean roles are to:
• Establish college fund raising priorities in accordance with University policies and procedures.
• Articulate the college’s vision, goals and objectives to alumni, the community, faculty, staff and students.
• Emphasize, to the college’ faculty and key constituents, the importance of private and give development high visibility within the college.
• Team with the Office of Development in the identification, cultivation and solicitation of individuals, corporations and foundations capable of contributing major gifts to the college.
• Represent the college at campus and community events and functions.
• Stay visible in the community by serving on boards and committees which strategically place him/her in contact with
Major gift officer, College liaison roles are to:
• Work with the dean to develop an annual major gift fund raising plan for the college • Team with the college in the identification, cultivation and solicitation of individuals,
corporations and foundations capable of contributing major gifts to the college. • Educate and train the college’s dean and faculty in the mechanics of development.
• Be the conduit for the college to the development team for approaching corporations and foundations, planned giving, annual fund appeals, and the accepting, managing, stewarding of all gifts.
• Develop prospect strategies that match the prospect’s interests with the college’s priorities and lead to major and/or ultimate gifts.
• Schedule the dean’s development time wisely and exercise care and selectivity in suggesting whom the dean will see and when.
• Properly prepare and brief the dean for all fund raising visits.
Advancement service is in fact like one body with development and alumni office. Advancement service staff-members are responsible for gift processing, financial budget development, records management and database maintenance. These individuals support the University foundation and work on allocating its endowment assets and other financial issues.
The Marketing & Communication office is partly involved in the development process. It has also other objectives and activities that are not connected with development directly but aimed on providing strong brand and better internal and external communication. It supports fundraising activities through marketing and communications, including printed materials, website and promoting special events, campaign goals and achievements.
In Berkeley there is more staff working in development as a result human resources office is also included into the division. More attention is paid to the work with corporations and foundations. As percent of money raised from corporations and foundations in Berkeley is amazingly high for US universities – 47% (average is below 8%). One of the explanations is that Berkeley is very research-focused institution and there are more grants from Foundations for research, than for education and businesses are often interested to support research.
An interesting part of Berkeley’s structure is an office of International Relations. They organize alumni and donor events abroad, encourage and support international alumni chapters, organize visits of international key donors to the University.
2. University foundation
The University foundation is a nonprofit organization, independent from the University. All gifts are transferred to this foundation, not to the University itself. At BGSU daily work of the Foundation is run by the University Advancement staff-members, who are employed by the University, not by the Foundation. However, this may differ from University to University. The Foundation not only gets gifts and distributes funds, but also allocates endowment assets.
The management body of the Foundation is a board of directors. It is responsible for governing the organization and ensuring that it succeeds in its mission. Board-members also facilitate the cultivation and solicitation of gifts from alumni, corporate leaders and friends on behalf of the University, when appropriate. There are 36 directors at BGSU and 3 observers: a president of undergraduate students association (elected by students), a representative of the Faculty Council and a member of the Board of Trustees. The board consists of 1 executive and 5 sectorial committees.
Development Administration and Finance Public affairs Advancement operations Finance (including UC Berkeley Foundation) Human Resources
Gift and Fund Administration
Alumni Information and Technology
Prospect development International Relations Corporate and
Gift Planning Principal and Major Gifts
Annual Programs Communications/Even ts and Ceremonies
Events and Ceremonies
Executive Committee – 5 members Committees:
• Audit - 3 members + 2 staff liaisons. • Finance - 10 members + 2 staff liaisons.
• Corporate/Foundation - 7 members + 1 staff liaison. • Major & Planned gifts - 12 members + 1 staff liaison. • Nominating - 4 members + 1 staff liaison.
All board-members work as volunteers. One person can be on the board no longer than 2 terms, 3 years each. Directors are nominated by the Nominating Committee, voted and invited to join the board. It is not very hard to find new candidates; in 75% of cases invited people are ready to donate their time.
All board-members are active University donors themselves, they should contribute financial support at a minimum level of the Presidents club (minimum $ 12,500). It is a precondition of joining the Board.
3. Alumni Association
The purpose of the Alumni Association is to support the University by fostering the spirit of loyalty among its alumni, to provide communications link between alumni and the University (to keep alumni informed about the University and the University – about its alumni), to encourage and establish activities for alumni, to foster the active interest, support and involvement of alumni in university affairs, to increase the sense of pride alumni have in their University and to provide alums as a resource to benefit the University. The Alumni association usually has a legal status of non-profit organization independent from the University. In most cases association members pay annual fees, but the first year after the graduation is usually free of charge to advertise the Association for fresh grads, so they can experience alumni events and decide if they would like to stay in the Association or not. In BGSU membership is free of charge, in UT $35 per year or lifetime $600. It is important to be careful when counting what a lifetime membership price should be, because the Association promises a number of benefits to its members and you need to calculate what their costs will be for the whole life of members. In University of California, Berkeley annual fee is $60, and there are 19 000 members. Association funds are often invested with the University Foundation.
Alumni Association can become an important tool for perspective donors’ cultivation. In the University of Toledo (UT) 60% of donors are members of Alumni Association. To fulfill its mission the Association:
• Organizes Alumni events together with development & alumni office including homecoming, reunions, regional chapter events. UT Alumni Association organizes approximately 200 events a year.
• Maintains Interactive On-line Alumni directory • Edits and spreads Alumni magazine and e-newsletter • Organizes Alumni awards.
• Provides Alumni services and benefits for Association members. For example free pass to the Student Recreation Center, free access to the University’s Internet system,
some recommendations, but mostly they brainstorm how they and other university alums and friends can support the College. The college Dean is usually a part of the board. Advocates board is an informal structure; it does not have any official legal status of non-profit organization. There are usually 8-20 members that form 3-5 Committees. Board meetings are held 2-3 times a year. Board members are active donors themselves, although there is no official requirement to be donors, they are strongly encouraged to donate. One of the arguments is: “If you try to convince people to give to university or to support it in other way, they will probably ask you are you a donor yourself. And if not, why do you try to encourage others? Your donation is not just a gift, it also shows that your really believe in the idea you support.” The Advocates Board is a good opportunity to get people involved.
5. Regional chapters, college and other special alumni societies.
The purpose of regional chapter is to bring the University to alumni living outside the University area and to bring together alums. All the other objectives are completely the same as for the Alumni Association. Regional chapters organize minimum 2 events a year for alumni living in the area. Those events can be: athletic watch parties, athletic tournaments, wine tasting parties, family picnics, watching theatre rehearsals, dinners, meetings. Family picnics are considered to be one of the best forms of bringing people together as people of different age and interests could come and bring their families. BGSU has 44 chapters in USA (14 of them are in Ohio) and 2 abroad in Canada and Japan. The University of Toledo has chapters in 34 cities in 15 states and 2 international in Malaysia and China. The Alumni and Development office assists regional chapters in the following ways: promoting chapter events through university website and newsletters, providing information for chapter leaders about alums living in their community, region liaisons often come to chapter events in their regions.
Special alumni societies are organized around a common interest. For example for those who were involved in the University newspaper activities there is a BG News Alumni society. There are 15 special alumni societies like Men's Chorus Alumni Society, Dance Marathon, Alumni Swimmers & Divers, BG News (University newspaper). They don’t only meet to organize some entertainment events for its members, but also support the University through student recruitment, career mentoring, scholarship fundraising, community service and social activities. Societies may publish newsletters and are known to host fun reunion activities around Homecoming weekend and other special gatherings throughout the year.
In the University of Toledo there are also 2 other interesting special societies: Golden Alumni Society for those who graduated more than 50 years ago and Retirees Association for retired university faculty and staff.
• Financial resources • Human resources 1. Financial resources
University expenses on fundraising, development and alumni relations.
Running (operating) and all other non-personnel costs are covered from the University Foundation budget. They can be taken from unrestricted gifts only and should be approved by the Board of the Directors.
At Bowling Green last year (June 30, 2005- June 30, 2006) fundraising operating costs were $ 885,425. personnel costs (salaries) are not included as they are paid from the University budget. For comparison in 2006 development & alumni office raised $ 15.9 million.
Alumni events are usually partly charged, partly sponsored by the Alumni Association. Donor events are usually paid by the University Foundation.
2. Human resources
In BGSU in fundraising activities are involved: • University staff-members
Development office: 23 people + 4 part-time workers Alumni office: 7 people
Marketing & communications: 16 people.
Total: 30 full-time and 4 part-time employees + 16 people assisting • Call centre employees
Students working in the telefund center (call center) are employed not by the University, but by an independent telemarketing company, which has a contract with the University. All of them, except the Call Center manager get salary per hour.
Call centre: 65 people (part-time) • Volunteers
University foundation board of directors: 36 people Alumni Association board: 20 people
Besides there are many other people who contribute to development and alumni relations as volunteers:
- University deans, president, vice-presidents and other staff-members, (those for whom fund raising is not their first responsibility, but they support it as they can as they know University will benefit).
- Students, scholarship laureates. - Regional chapter leaders. - College Advocates.
- Members of special societies. - Class gift committee members.
However, those numbers could be much bigger. The University Campaign at the University of Michigan involved approximately 400 employees.
It’s crucial for decision-making people in organization to understand the importance of development for an organization’s success. To get money you need to spend some money first. A good example is the Center Of Science an Industry (COSI) museum in Toledo, they hired just one fundraiser, as they didn’t have money to pay salaries for several people. As a result, a general development strategy was not created and although fundraising for some projects was quite successful, the only employee didn’t manage to fundraise enough money for museum operating costs, now there is a threat, that museum will be closed soon, if they do not find some solution.
You got well prepared, went through the whole circle of fundraising strategy development and are ready to act. Now it’s time to get some advice about practical working methods.
• Belief in the mission.
• Confidence in the leadership. • Personal involvement. • Example by others • Personal need
• Balances budget – good use of existing funds. Care, interest, respect and attention.
As development is about relations, you should respect your donor and care about his or her interests. Development officers serve donors exactly the same way they serve the University. They want to make the donor enthusiastic and passionate about giving to the University, because he or she is passionate about the impact it will make.
Individual approach, strategic thinking, attention and appropriate gratitude expression are key success factors.
Development professionals strongly recommend to tell donors not that their gift will help you to fix something or build something, but how it will influence people lives in a better way.
The development practical work starts with friend raising - creating among the university alumni and friends loyalty and credibility to the University.
Strategic communication in development goes through several steps:
Good ways to get people involved are:
• Volunteer opportunity: for example leading workshops and presentations for students is a good way to bring prospect to campus
• Board service • Hosting events
• Introducing to other prospects
There is the Director for Major Gifts and Constituent Relations and 5 major gift officers at BGSU. Each of them works as liaison for one of the colleges and one of the geographical regions of the country. As college liaisons they cooperate with colleges and work together with deans and staff-members to reach the college fundraising goals. As geographical regions liaisons they cultivate prospects living in that region, participate in Regional Chapter or other special events organized in the region. When they start to work they get a list of approximately 150-200 prospects from the prospect research group, some people from this list are current donors, some were never contacted before.
Gift officers have money goal (an amount of money raised, individual), visits goal (a number of visits officer should make a year, average is 210 visits), ask goal (a number of asks officer should make a year, average 40-45 asks). Besides, there are 2 general goals - Campaign goal and Annual goal.
Major gift officers’ work has the following steps: Identifying prospects-Cultivation-Asking-Closing-Stewardship. Out of 200 prospects in a list they need to identify 15-20 they are going to focus on this year. Gift officers try to organize their prospect lists and to spend time with those
Identification – Information – Awareness – Knowledge – Involvement - Commitment - Stewardship
who have the greatest potential. They should also plan whom they will visit and who will ask ask in the fiscal year. Usually gift officers make 5-8 visits to the donor before asking, although some make an ask already on the 3rd or 4th visit.
After identifying your priority prospects you need to contact them for the first time and to agree about meeting. Most of the gift officers prefer to call. Approximately 1 out of 10-12 people you will reach by phone will agree to meet. Some officers prefer to send a letter by post and to mention there that they will give a follow-up call in a few days. E-mail is considered to be the less effective way to contact prospects for the first time, but sometimes it is used as well. Usually gift officers say, that they are calling on behalf of the university and would like to meet to find out about prospect’s experience in BGSU and to know his/her life story after graduation, because it is really important for the University to know more about the alums. If the prospect made some gift in the past, the officer would thank him and said that it could be interesting to hear also how did he feel about his gift. Before the visit it is necessary to identify goal – what information do you want to get and what questions do you need to ask. Active listening and asking effective questions are important. After establishing relations and identifying motivation, right purpose – right project, right amount, timing and solicitor it is time to ask for a gift. It is strongly recommended to make the ask during personal meeting, the gift officer is advised to get one more university representative as board member, president, volunteer or another development officer. He or she should clarify all the details, talk about impact this gift will make and again listen attentively. Most of the people don’t give an immediate reply and the gift officer asks for permission to follow-up with call within 2 weeks. If donor said “no”, it is necessary to clarify the reason carefully, probably you can improve it. If he said “yes”, then it’s time to say thank you seven times and to go for stewardship and cultivation to renew the gift in the future.
The gift officers are not the only ones who works on building university relationships with donor. Major donors are contacted in many ways:
• Personal visits by gift officer and other university representatives if appropriate.
• Phone calls from gift officer, thank you calls from campaign director and other university representatives if appropriate.
• Ordinary mail: fund reports, general mailing, and greeting cards.
• Subscribing list: (At BGSU: E-ziggy (electronic newsletter) 42 000 subscribers. University news.)
• E-mail: from gift officer
• Newsletter on the latest donations and activities “The Commitment”, mailed 4 times a years.
• Booklet prepared by marketing & communications department mailed once a year. • Invitations for special events.
Annual giving. Annual giving is important as it helps prospects to start becoming philanthropic. Rarely somebody will start with donating the University several hundreds
is $ 8,000. Students are trained and given interview scenario. They call, introduce themselves, ask if they can update personal contact information in the database, say some university news, tell about some just passed university event and ask if a person had a chance to attend it, then ask if the person will find it appropriate to support annual giving. Then callers describe one of the projects it is spent for like “It will help to…” and then ask for different amounts starting with $350 ending by $10. Usually in the middle the prospect interrupts and says: “I can not do it now” or “I think I can give just $20”. Then the student explains payment opportunities and thanks for a gift. An average conversation lasts less than 8 minutes. It is not easy as quite many people say “no”, but nobody is rude. For students it is the best-paid work on campus.
Direct mail includes the “no calls” (prospects who have indicated they don’t want to receive Telefund calls).
On-line giving is an option to give on-line, using the University web-page.
Family Campaign. BGSU has a successful internal fundraising campaign designed specifically for Faculty, Staff and retirees. Last fiscal year more than $800,000 was raised and 53.55 percent of people participated in the campaign. Most departments within the University have volunteer representatives that promote the campaign internally and encourage their peers to participate.
Class gift. Gift made by a class usually for the year of class reunion. Goal of approximately $ 60 000. In 2006 BGSU launched their 50th year reunion giving with a goal of $60,000. To date, the campaign has raised $73,000. Annual giving staff is working on developing plans for the Class of 1957 campaign, which will have a similar goal.
Senior gifts. The senior gift is a way to involve seniors in supporting the University by encouraging them to make the first class gift al together to memorize their graduation. They are encouraged to form a class gift committee and to decide what their gift will be devoted for.
CORPORATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS
All basic principles of development work including good preparation, research, individual approach, cultivation are important for corporations and foundations as well as for individuals. Corporate and Foundation fund raising is just as much about relationships and relationship building as individual fund raising. It’s as, or more, important to understand the environment with corporate and foundation prospects as with individual prospects. Planning is absolutely essential.
At the same time it has some other specifics. Work with corporations and foundations has some differences.
Main features of corporate giving are:
• So goes the economy, so goes corporate philanthropy. It’s good to try to find out what is the best time to approach one company is probably when they are just entering your regional market or just start a new PR campaign and active promotion.
• Most corporations give only in communities where they have large populations of employees. It means that giving tends to focus on priority geographic regions. For example BGSU is mostly supported by corporations based in the northwest Ohio. Foundation Giving.
There are several types of foundations. Private foundations are a nonprofit corporation or a charitable trust, with a principal purpose of making grants. A grant making public charity (sometimes referred to as a "public foundation") derives its support from various members of the public. A community foundation is also a grant making public charity. Main features of foundation giving are:
• Typically limited to short-term projects or programs (rarely support endowment, “bricks and mortar”, capital campaigns, scholarships)
• Giving history reveals true (sometimes unstated) priorities. 7 Questions to answer before you ask
Program description – Provide a brief description of the program or equipment you are seeking funding for. It doesn’t have to be the entire program; it can be a program component. For example, funds to purchase a piece of equipment that would teach certain skills.
Need – This is the “why care” part. What is the need on a local, state or national level?
Why are we the best institution to fill this need – What are our strengths in this area (i.e. background of our expertise in this area, accomplishments, etc.)
Budget – How much (or what) is needed? Provide a breakdown as far as equipment supplies, staff, etc. (see example).
Collaboration – What other people or organizations are you collaborating with or have the potential to collaborate with?
Outcomes/Results – If this program is funded, what will be the results in areas such as student benefit, benefits to the local area, the state, national, the field of study, etc.?
Logic Model Components
Input Activities Outputs Outcomes
Resources necessary to provide program activities What the program does to facilitate change in program participants
The direct products of program
The benefits or changes in the participants during or after the program
-Staff -Volunteers -Facilities -Material -Curriculum -Transportation -Other Funds -Etc. -Education -Counseling -Tutoring -Skills Training -Physical Activity -Case Management -Number of participants -Number, frequency, length of sessions and/or activities -Knowledge -Skill -Attitude -Behavior -Status -Condition
Elements of a Good Budget:
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total
Existing/Continuing/Other Revenue $0 $0 $0 $0 Funder #1 $0 $0 $0 $0 Funder #2 $0 $0 $0 $0 Funder #3 $0 $0 $0 $0 Total Revenue $0 $0 $0 $0 Project Expenditures: Personnel $0 $0 $0 $0 Director $0 $0 $0 $0 Support Staff $0 $0 $0 $0
Graduate Student Support $0 $0 $0 $0
Fringe Benefits $0 $0 $0 $0
Travel $0 $0 $0 $0
Equipment $0 $0 $0 $0
Supplies and materials $0 $0 $0 $0
Communications $0 $0 $0 $0
Consultants $0 $0 $0 $0
Other $0 $0 $0 $0
Total Project Expenditures $0 $0 $0 $0
Total Unmet Need $0 $0 $0 $0
Regarding the budget, when writing grant application it is necessary to pay attention to the gifting agency’s guidelines and not include items the agency says it will not pay.
As well as when working with individuals it is important to learn about your prospects and care about their needs. You need to research grant makers first. Most grant makers have prepared guidelines and it’s impossible to follow them. You need to find out if you really can apply for
this grant, usually guidelines and giving history will help, but it is always good to call program officer if you have at least 2 specific questions to ask and there is no answer on the foundation webpage. Sometimes guidelines are very general and you really need to call before applying. If on the web it is mentioned that they ask not to call you need to send a letter of inquiry (LOI) not more than 1 or 2 pages.
With corporations it is good to find out if there are university alums in top management and who could be the right person in your university to contact them. It is good also to find out when this corporation prepares its budget for the next year. Think of what benefits can corporation get from supporting you.
When looking for potential funding you can also research other grant seekers. What are other/similar institutions receiving from?
Grant preparation is an essential part. Again you need to pay attention to the guidelines and motivation of Foundation or Corporation. Some practical advice is:
• Use short sentences, active voice, and lots of white space. • Avoid talking mainly about problems, not solutions. • Avoid describing specific problems with general solutions. • Never claim to be unique.
• Avoid jokes and sarcasm, slang, and most technical words and terms of art
• Keep the language simple and clear,,eedit for grammar, punctuation, typos, assume the reader(s) will know nothing about your topic. Attach a glossary of terms, if needed. • Keep to page restrictions.
• Make sure to enclosed all requested information. • Do not include materials that are not requested.
• Make it “easy” for the reader to forward your application within their organization. For example don’t use colored paper or scented cover letters, because it will probably not look nice when program officer will make several black and white copies and distribute them to the board.
• Write a compelling summary.
• List concrete, specific outcomes of your work. • Connect each step of your work with your goals.
• Present a budget in standard format that is legible and patently sensible.
• Get the proposal in early. Closer to deadline program officer will have thousands of applications and will pay less attention to details.
• Offer to meet. Once. It is always good to bring Foundation or Corporation to campus to show your project or just to meet with them and to present your case personally, but often it is not possible.
• Talk with successful grantees of that foundation. If they have a long term partnership, ask to introduce you, if possible.
• Find an objective party to review your proposal before you submit.
Then you need to prepare that probably grantmaker will have some additional questions. The most typical ones are:
If your application was successful it is not the end but the beginning of your work. Again you want the Foundation or Corporation to feel comfortable about their grant and your project, only then you will be able to apply again.
The most important steps of follow-up are: • Get your reports in on time.
• Provide all the information that is requested. • Put the funder on your mailing list.
• Send a thank you note.
• Show that you did what you said you would do.
• Explain why you didn’t do what you said you would do.
DATABASE AND PROSPECT SEARCH
Database is designed to support the fund raising function by maintenance of accurate and accessible prospect/donor records and gift records. Database of all alumni and friends is a very important tool of development and alumni office work. It helps to get information about prospects, to coordinate and evaluate work with them.
In BGSU at the moment in the database there are profiles of:
Alumni 153 123 145 891
Friends 113 421 110 175
Total 266 544 256 066
The database is used by development and alumni and advancement services staff as well as by Telefund and there are different access levels for different needs.
Once a year Student Affairs Division provides information about all current graduates and about parents of freshman, HR division provides information about new Faculty and Administration staff members, all this information is transferred into the database. Development officers update profiles after visits and calls. Telefund manager updates profiles daily after calling.
The database contains information about individuals and corporations. There are the following entity types:
People: Alumnus Current or Ex Student Organizations: Corporation Religious Denomination Foundation Special Group University Estate/Trust
The basic information you can find in the database can be divided into those sections: • Personal info, contact info
• Occupation and salary • Education
• University Affiliation • University giving • Other Affiliations
You can also see relationships (spouse, children and find their profile). Find out about awards and president club and alumni membership, special events attended, details about degree and past membership in student organizations. In the database is mentioned who is a liaison gift officer assigned to this prospect and it contains information about past contacts with liaison.
There is also a lot of gift information that helps to proceed the gift and to make reports, for example type of gift, amount, date, payment details, pledge payoff schedule, etc.
You can also calculate total giving amount, that will help to achieve better recognition, because sometimes a donor doesn’t know how much he has been donating for the past 10 years, and will be pleased to hear that he or she is part of special donor society now.
Many different codes are used to make quick searches for example to search for all prospects living in Atlanta area, or all prospects who were fraternity members.
There are companies that develop software for fundraising databases. But this software is probably not applicable for Russian universities, it could be good for us to have databases in Russian or in two languages in Russian and in English. We definitely need to have a possibility to submit at least such data as family and first names in Cyrillic. Microsoft Access can be used although this database will give less possibilities, than open source based specially developed database used by US universities.
When working on major gifts more information about prospects is needed, so prospect researchers start to search for more information. In the USA much more information about individual or company is public, than in Russia. You can easily find contact information, marital status, assets and estate information using special databases and Internet resources, some of them are free of charge, some require payment.
Many of the sources prospects researchers use can be used by Russian Universities to find information about their living abroad alumni. For example there is a lot of information about Russian university alumni living in Russia and abroad in Lexis-Nexis.
Prospect researchers usually create this type of profile: Name
Home Tele: (419) Email:
Education: BA, , , Bowling Green State University BGSU Affiliation:
Total giving record: $ Gift designations include Other Affiliations:
Personal Information: Wealth Indicators:
Capacity Inclination Rating:
The more information you will be able to find – the better. It will make a work of gift officers easier. The last point, capacity and inclination rating is also used in the database. It
Campaign Rating: A ($5M or higher) B ($3M to $5M) C ($1M to $3M) D ($500K to $1M) E ($250K to $500K) F ($100K to $250K) G ($50K to $100K) H ($25K to $50K) I ($10K to $25K) J (Less than $10K)
Inclination rating is based upon a donor’s past giving record, as well as their association with BGSU; i.e., are they involved in the Falcon Club or Alumni programs, do they attend BGSU-sponsored functions or athletic events, has the person established any scholarships or won any awards at BGSU, as well as any previous philanthropic activity not associated with BGSU. 1 – highest inclination to give level
2 – medium to high inclination to give level 3 – medium inclination to give level. 4 – medium to low inclination to give level
5 – designates they have no interest in giving (usually indicated by the donor)
Foundations and corporations also receive both a campaign rating and an inclination rating. Gift officers use those ratings to identify the right amount to ask for. They do not to show that such kind of research was done and never say to donor: “In your profile it is written that you have 2 children. Do they live with you? What are they doing?”.
STEWARDSHIP AND RECOGNITION
Stewardship and recognition are important to renew a gift. Donor should feel comfortable about his or her gift to get inspired to give again.
Basic steps of donors stewardship work are: • Acknowledgement
• Communication (Reporting) • Recognition
It is important to ensure that the money given by the donor is used as both parties agreed and to find ways to thank the donor quickly and in the best way.
A gift officer will be the first one to thank for a gift and he should think of who else could send a “Thank you” letter or give a call. It could be a student who gets a scholarship or a College dean or College professor.
In Berkeley 65,000 donors a year get a standard “Thank you” card from the Chancellor. Donors giving major gifts (more than $25,000) get a personalized letter from the Chancellor. The first time donors also get personalized letter from the Chancellor.
Donors get also greeting cards for Thanksgiving, New Year and Christmas from both their gift officer and the University in general. BGSU tries to send cards greeting “with upcoming holidays”, and not to mention religious holidays, because probably some of recipients don’t celebrate them.
University of California, Berkeley sends greetings for national and religious holidays for example for Chinese New Year (cards are sent to Chinese donors living in USA and abroad). Those who donated more than $100,000 get personalized birthday card from the Chancellor.
A gift officer stays in touch with the donor, probably 3 or more years will pass until you will ask a gift again, but during those years the donor should get attention, cards, phone calls, visits and of course reports on how his money were spent. It could be not only financial reports, that are obviously needed, but also activity reports. For example, if one gave money for the Student Union building, the donor gets financial and activity reports on construction and maintenance. In addition students organizations placed in the building send the donor thank you letters and describe what they managed to achieve thanks to his or her help. It’s important to make the donor feel that their gift really makes a difference for people in the University.
Recognition is provided through putting names in annual reports, booklets and magazines, membership in special donor societies and naming opportunities. In every university you can see a donor wall, it can be for campaign donors, for principal gift donors or for donors that contributed to build a specific building. Universities try to be careful with putting companies names or naming premises after the company, often if later in many years company will be involved in some scandal and will loose its reputation such tablet can bring bad associations to the campus. Usually universities suggest to put company presidents or owners name instead of the company name. Still you can see many university buildings and rooms named after a company not individual.
There is an opportunity of naming in honor of another person, for example you can create a scholarship named after your dead or alive relative, your university professor or friend. The same is with name recognition, your professor can become Presidents club member instead of you and his name will be put in all annual reports and booklets. This opportunity is widely used.
In addition, the Marketing & Communications Office often publishes interviews with major donors for booklets or university magazine. It could be a way of recognition and a positive publicity and good example for others at the same time. Usually a gift officer who works with the donor contacts him or her first and asks if their gift experience can be used as a testimonial to inspire others to make a gift.
An interesting additional idea is a research project about history of philanthropy in the University of California, Berkeley. This project called “Builders of Berkeley” took 5 years and as a result a nice booklet was published in 2003, to be in this book in one range with so many prominent businessmen and scientists could be an additional motivation.
Special donor societies:
Donor societies differ from alumni societies not only because not all the donors are alums. They don’t organize events themselves, don’t organize fundraising campaigns as alumni societies do, although their members assist in fundraising in many ways. A donor society is a way of recognition of donors input. At BGSU there are the following donor societies.
1. The Presidents club.
Consists of 6 different levels depending on the amount of financial commitment and standard level:
The president club members are invited to all donor events, a special reception for the members is organized once a year, their names and sometimes interviews are put in various publications. 2. Lifetime Giving Societies
For donors who have established a significant relationship with the University through a gift or gifts over a lifetime. These gifts include cash, gifts-in-kind and realized estate gifts which may be made to the University. There are 5 society levels:
$ 1 000 000 and above $ 500 000 - $ 999 999 $ 250 000 - $ 499 999 $ 100 000 - $ 249 999 $ 50 000 - $ 99 999 3. Heritage Society
This society recognizes individuals who have made an estate plan provision with the University Foundation as a beneficiary.
4. Leadership Circle
It is comprised of donors (corporations, foundations, individuals, estates and trusts) annual gift to the Fund for BGSU and/or unrestricted support of one of the colleges.
Receiving a gift is not the end, but the beginning of the work. And stewardship and recognition are one of the most important parts of the development, as it really helps to build good relations and to renew the gift.
Special events are another powerful instrument of development work. They help to get publicity, to have greater visibility in the community, to reward donors, to involve volunteers, to bring prospects to campus and to raise money. BGSU are organizes approximately 10-15 events a year during the fundraising campaign. When the campaign concludes there will be probably 5-6 per year.
A university homecoming is probably the biggest university event in a year. It is a weekend, usually 3 days – Friday, Saturday, Sunday when the University opens doors to all its alumni and friends, and organizes several different events for them to meet on campus and feel the university spirit. It is a traditional alumni reunion, but at the same time there are several events for students, donors and key prospects. It is usually organized in September or October and usually the dates are chosen to include into the program one of the major sports events like American football games. Almost all the Universities have stadiums and university teams that are strongly supported by students and alumni. In 2006 at BGSU 23,000 people were invited for homecoming. Events for alumni were organized by the alumni special events assistant director, events for donors by development office staff. Budget of alumni events during homecoming was $44,500. At BGSU main events of homecoming were Alumni awards dinner and reception, Class reunion, Donor Recognition Luncheon, concerts and performances, Alumni Family BBQ, Football game and Foundation Board meetings, Campus tours, Parade I had a chance to join most of the events and can say that atmosphere during homecoming is really great, very positive and friendly.
The University of California, Berkley organizes also exhibitions, tours on campus to many different museums, botanical gardens, library etc. Besides they provide several walking tours such as History walking tour, “The new and old walking tour of the campus”, Parents Campus Tour, organize homecoming carnival. Numerous faculty seminars are also a part of the program, events office tries to involve speakers that will be really interesting to the general public and not only to experts, as a result many seminars with quite serious and scientific topics get high attendance. Alums and guests can choose for themselves what events they would like to join. 2. Main donor events:
Donor recognition can be provided through:
• Donor events during homecoming. At BGSU it is a lunch for campaign donors of $10,000 and more and key prospects.
• The presidents club exclusive event. At BGSU it is organized once a year. It could be organized in form of wine tasting reception or together with some campus tour or concert or performance. The Donor Relations & Communications Officer tries to get new ideas every year and to find out what ideas are preferable to club members.
• Events for donor recognition outside the campus. Usually in their own community.
• Parent donor reception during Family weekend. Parents are invited to visit campus, usually in the end of September and there is a special event for parent donors in the program.
• Dinners for current and potential donors, hosted by one of the donors. Such events are usually organized just for a small group of key people. Number of participants depends mostly on the host can be from 10 to 60. Representatives of the university administration, probably including president as well as development office members should be present. 2. Main alumni events:
Annual Alumni Days (BGSU example)
100% entertainment: pre-event gathering and hockey or basketball game.
Participants: last year 800 were invited by targeted mailing, 150-200 came. Invitations were sent just to past years alumni days participants, local sport club members, parents of hockey players etc. It was not taken into consideration if they participate in charity or not.
Expenses: $2855. $19.03 per person. Including printing & design, postage, transportation, premises décor, food & beverage, entertainment, advertising, miscellaneous.
Financial sources: Sponsored by Alumni association.
Human resources: Alumni relations officers engage professional companies to take care of premises décor, food & beverage, printing & design are usually done by Marketing & Communications office, but sometimes services of independent companies are also used.
Besides some others events are organized during the year, for example athletic events, retires event events.
The main purpose of Alumni awards is Alumni recognition. It’s a wonderful way to bring alumni back to campus and to make them feel good about their Alma Mater.
The ceremony takes place at Alumni awards dinner during the homecoming. All past award recipients are invited.
The University of California, Berkeley also practices an interesting idea of a Business leader award, this award is not an alumni award, as it could be given to alumni or prominent business leader in the community, but is also a good way to bring university friends to campus and make them feel good about the University.
Most of US universities organize celebration of the 50-years of graduation called a “class reunion”. Sometimes reunions for 40, 30, 20, 10 and even 5 years of graduation are organized as well, but it depends on the university and if there are many alums interested in such event or not. At BGSU attendance of the 30 year reunion was rather low and it was decided that, probably, it could be more efficient to organize college reunions in the future. Especially because people graduate in different years and often most of their friends were not among their classmates.
A class reunion takes place during homecoming and is often organized in form of class reunion breakfast, where classmates have a chance to communicate. Average number of participants at BGSU is 400-500 people. A good idea to make event more interesting is a slide-show with pictures of the University buildings and social life and modern pictures of the campus. A good way to thank them for coming is small class awards in such nominations as: the longest travel to get to homecoming, the most number of years spent in the University, the most number of degrees, the most number of children and grandchildren, the most number of degrees from this in one family. Students, who got Leadership scholarship, development and alumni officers are also present to meet with potential donors.
Two committees are usually formed to contribute to the class reunion, Class Reunion Organizing Committee which focuses on organizing and Class Reunion Gift Committee that focuses on fundraising money as a class gift for the University. Both Committees members are class alums, they are support by Annual fund gift officer who works with class gifts, by alumni relations office and by the previous year class reunion committees’ members. There are approximately 15 members in one committee. The Committees start their work well in advance, a year before the event. In the University of Toledo instead of 2 Committees there is Golden Alumni Society in framework of Alumni Association.
BGSU received a National award for the best university development campaign in 2005. Building dreams: The Centennial Campaign for BGSU reached $ 100 million mark in August 2006. The campaign, which started in 2003 and will end in December 2008, has a goal of $ 120 million to support scholarship, faculty development, programs and facilities.
In 2006 BGSU raised $ 15,9 million.
High alumni involvement has been achieved around 15%. Average level of alumni involvement for state universities is below 20%, for private it can be higher above 20% and even 30% and in very rare cases achieve 40+%.
More than 100 scholarships were established by BGSU alums.
At the same time Community members involvement level is also very high - 35 % of campaign donors are non-grads, an average level for such types of universities is 20-25%.
Faculty and staff continue to show support for the Family Campaign, with more than 53% participating in 2005-06 and over $800,000 raised.
Development activities do not only support the University financially, but help individuals to become more philanthropic, to do something good in their lives and to support the ideas they are fascinated about. American civil society efforts and individual involvement into philanthropy are really amazing. We don’t have such giving and volunteering culture in Russia, but there appear some positive examples, and many US practices can be applied in Russia as well.
How to start our work in development with zero? At Russian universities we can start our work with companies and foundations and at the same time begin to build relations with former alumni and community members, to cultivate giving culture. Great ideas for any University are to establish alumni association and to try to organize homecoming, parents week and alumni awards.
But careful and wise strategy development should be the first step. An approach “Let’s try to start with something first and then we will see how it goes and will decide what to do” is not worth. Whenever you challenge to organize general university campaign or just want to try to raise money for some particular university project, you need to:
1. Examine your case and prepare a draft case statement.
2. Define your constituency, human and financial resources you have and you need, plan of action, record keeping system.
3. Present it to decision-making people in your university, to show them what potential does fund raising have for your institution at the moment, and what resources do you need to start development. Be realistic. Get their approval and support.
4. Come back to your case statement. Meet with all other parties involved: university staff, external constituency, get their comments and ideas. If there are several projects, in addition examine each case separately. Take your time to prepare carefully.
5. Get case statement, budget and action plan written, agree it with all other parties involved, and ensure they support it.
6. Start to work. Follow the basic development principles.
I will be happy to share with Russian colleagues other electronic and printed materials that I’ve got during this program on proposal writing, grant search, prospect research, major gifts and case statement development, as of course it was impossible to include all the information in my case study.
The Foundation Center - http://www.foundationcenter.org/
The Center on Philanthropy at Indiana Universityhttp://www.philanthropy.iupui.edu/ Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) - http://www.case.org/ Association of Fundraising Professionals - http://www.afpnet.org/
1. Annual report on Philanthropy 2004-2005, University of California, Berkeley.
2. Board of Directors meeting materials, Bowling Green State University Foundation, Inc., October, 2006.
3. Bowling Green Sate University: Statement of Investment Policy and Guidelines, September, 2005.
4. Developing Leadership for Major Gifts, The Fund Raising School, Indiana University, Center on Philanthropy, November, 1997.
5. Dreams within reach, Bowling Green State University Foundataion, Inc., Annual Report, 2004-2005.
6. Dreams. Possibilities. Realities. Bowling Green State University Foundataion, Inc., Annual Report, 2003-05.
7. Fundamentals of Fund Raising, The Fund Raising School, Indiana University, Center on Philanthropy, May, 1997.
8. The Foundation Center's guide to proposal writing/Jane C. Geever, 2004 9. The University of Toledo Orientation manual, 2006-2007.