Cape Biology Unit 2 Paper 1 2013

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MAY/JUNE 2013

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATiON~

BIOLOGY - UNIT 2 Paper 01

1 /tour 30 minutes

( 14 JUNE 2013 (a.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

l. This test consists of 45 items. You will have I hour and 30 minutes to answer them. 2. In addition to this test booklet, you should have an answer sheet.

3.. Do not be concerned that the answer sheet provides spaces for more answers than there are - - - --iiems in this test. - - · - - - · - - - - · - - -

----4. Each item in this test has four suggested answers lettered (A), (B), (C), (D). Read each item you are about to answer and decide which choice is best.

5. On your answer sheet, find the number which corresponds to your item and shade the space having the same letter as the answer you have chosen. Look at the sample item below. Sample Item

Which of the following is NOT a fonn of energy storage? (A) (B)

(C)

(D)

ATP Lipid Alcohol Lactic acid Sample Answer

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The best answer to this item is "ATP" , so answer space (A) has been shaded.

6. Jfyou want to change your answer, erase it completely and fill in your new choice. 7. When you are told to begin, turn the page and work as quickly and as carefully as you can.

Jfyou cannot answer an item, omit it and go on to the next one. Your score will be the total number of correct answers.

8. You may do any rough work in this booklet.

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9. Figures

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not necessarily-drawn to scale. iiiiiii I 0.

;;;;;;; The use of non-programmable calculators is allowed.

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DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

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Copyright© 2011 Caribbean Examinations Council.

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All rights reserved.

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-2-Hem 1 refers to the following diagram which shows the structure of a chloroplast.

1. The photosystems are located in the structure labelled

(A) W

(B) X

. (C) y

(D) Z

2. The role of the antenna complex in Photosystems I and II is to (A) produce oxygen

(B) regenerate RuBP

(C) produce carbohydrates (D) collect light energy

Item 3 refers to the following diagram which outlines the events of the Calvin cycle.

Carbon dioxide "C02

\..._

. .

(

Ribulose bisphosphate

3. Which of the following correctly identities the compounds, X and Y?

x

(A) Phosphoglyceric acid (B) Triose phosphate (C) Simple sugars (D) Acetyl CoA

02207010/CAPB 2013

y Triose phosphate Phosphoglyceric acid Proteins Succinic acid

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4.

5.

6.

The yield of greenhouse crops is higher than that of field crops, due to increased photosynthetic activity bythe plants. Which of the following factors MOST likely contribute to this?

I. Constant application of farmyard

II.

Ill.

IV.

manure

Rotation of plants

Humid air and moist soil conditions Higher than average carbon dioxide

levels (A) I and II only (B) I and lII only ( C) II and IV only (D) III and IV only

Mitochondria in muscle have more cristae than mitochondria in skin cells. What is the-significance of.this? · - ____ _ (A) Increased surface area for

a'osorpt1on oY .Pyruvate for J\"l'P production

(B) Increased surface area for Kreb 's cycle reactions

(C) Steeper hydrogen ion concentration gradi¢nt in.the mitochondria (D) More ATP-ase for ATP production

During aerobic respiration in mammals, pyruvic acid is

(A) used in the Kreb's cycle (B) converted to lactic acid (C) used to synthesise glycogen

(D) one of the products of the Kreb's cycle

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7.

8.

Which of the following contributes MOST

electron~ to the electron transport chain? (A) Glycolysis

(B) Kreb's cycle (C) Calvin cycle (D) Fermentation

11=.8.refers to the following flow diagram which shows the pathways involved in anaerobic respiration. in yeast.

Glucose 1

i

Pyruvate 2

i

---Ethanar---3

~

Ethanol

Which of the stages, labelled l, 2 and 3, involve(s) decarboxylation?

(A) 1 only (B) 2 only (C) 1and2 only (D) 2 and 3 only

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9.

10.

-4-Item 9 refers lo the following two types of biological pyramids, labelled X and Y, which represent different parameters of a particular food chain.

D

x

y

Which of the following con-ectly ideniifies the pyramids and the appropriate FIRST trophic level?

x

Number Biomass Biomass y First Trophic Level

Biomass Evergreen tree Number Phytoplankton Number Evergreen tree

Item 11 refers to the following diagram which shows the nitrogen cycle.

Atmospheric

1 - + - - - .

4

nitrogen

I

2 3

Ammonia Nitrites Nitrates

11. At which stage.does denitrification occur? (A) (B) (C)

(D)

i

2 3 4

Item 12 refers to the following diagram which is a schematic summary of the operational processes in an ecosystem. Biomass •Phytoplankto~ · · ·

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light

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biotic ~-.::h.:.:••:;_•

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In the l9SO's,G .. F.Gause. observed that two

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coccgy species of flour beetle, Tribolium confusum ·

and Tribolium castaneum, survived well on · . their own. However, when they were put

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together, only one of the species survived.

•Motlc

Thisrestiltedin thehypothesiscalled Gause's

component

Competitive Exclusion Principle which

_.x._ _____

-1.,

states that no two species can co-exist if they occupy the same

(A) (B) (C) (D) niche habitat ecosystem environment

12. The arrow labelled X MOST likely represents

(A) energy flow (B) water.flow

(C) recycling of faecal wastes (D) positivefe~dback mechanisms

GO ON TO TaE NEXT PAGE

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13.

14.

The number and range of different species found in an ecosystem are called its (A) biotic factors

(B) abiotic factors (C) species diversity (D) community

Which of the following does NOT explain how deforestation might increase the risk of ftoodin~?

(A) The.water cycle is disrupted. (B) Tree roots. bind soil particles

together.

(C) Tree canopy prevents rain beating down on the soil.

(D) Soil 'nutrients are lost through leaching and run-off water.

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-15. Which of the following i.s NOT a conservation method used to maintain biodiversity?

(A) Sperm bank (B) Botanic garden (C) Protected reserve (D) Genetic engineering

022070 I

OICAPE 20.13

Item 16 refers to the following diagram which shows a transversesectionofa typical dicotyledonous root.

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16. The Ca,sparian strip is found in the layer labelled 17. (A) ____@) (C)

(D)

I II,,__ III JV

In a study of water. movement in plants, the cut end of a leafy shoot is placed in a dilute solution of a dye. After a few hours, deposits of the dye accumulate in the leaves. The rate. o( movement of the dye up the stem is NOT increased by

(A) (B) (C) (D) humidity wind speed temperature darkness

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6

-Item 18 refers to the following three-dimensional diagram of part of a plant stem.

18. Which labelled part contains rough endoplasmic reticulum?

(A) I (B) II (C) III (D) IV

19. Which of the following statements is true according to the mass (pressure) flow hypothesis? (A) Sucrose moves in th.e phloem against a concentration gradient.

(B) The loading of sugars into the phloem in the leafis achieved by osmosis.

(C) A source is a site where sugars are utilized, while a sink is a site where sugars.are produced. (D) Water is actively transp01ted from the intercellular spaces into the c.ell sap at the root end

of the system.

20. The tunica externa found in the walls of arteries and veins is made up of MAINLY (A) ~lastic fibres

(B) collagen fibres (C) smooth muscle (D) squamous epithelium

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Item 21 refers to the following graph which shows changes in blood pressure in the left ventricle <luring the cardiac cycle.

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-Blood 8 pressure

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(kPa) 6

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21. Valves open and close due to changes in pressure. Which of the following labels, I, II, III and IV, correctly identifies the point on the graph when the aortic valve closes?

(A)

Lfil

(C) (0) II Ill IV

Item 22 refers to the following diagram of the heart and associated blood vessels.

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- / . - - - - I V

22. The inferior vena cava is. represented by (A) I

(B) II

(C) III

(0) IV

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23.

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8

-Which of the following structures must be stimulated to increase heart rate?

(A) (B) (C) (0) Vena cava Cardiac muscle Sino-atrial node Atria-ventricular node

Item 24referstothe following graph which shows the sigmoid (S-shaped) dissociation curve for haemoglobin of a human adu.lt.

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24. 20 / / /

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. 0 0 I 2 l 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Partial pressure of oxygen (kPa)

During cycling, the partial.pressure of oxy-gen found in the pulmonary vein leaving the lungs and in a vein leaving a muscle is MOST likely

p02 (kPa) in p01 {kPa) in Pulmonary Vein. Vein Leaving Leaving Lungs M.uscle

(A) 0 12 (B) 2 12 (C) 6 6 (D) 12 2

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25. 26.

Which of the following is an example of positiye feedback? (A) (B) (C) (D) Temperature regulation Blood glucose regulation

Generation of an action potential Regulation of water levels in the

bodybyADH

When a decrease in normal blood glucose concentration is detected, Hormone X is secreted. What iS Hormone X and precisely where is it produced?

Hormone Location Produced

x

(A) Insulin a. cells in pancreas

(B) Insulin ~ cells in pancreas

EL

Glucal!Q!!___

_a.

cells in pancreas

(D)

Glucagon ~ cells in pancreas

Item 27 refers to the following diagram of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule of a nephron.

x

>

>

27. lfthe diameter of the blood vessel is made smaller at X, a possible outcome is that (A) the rate of ultrafiltration will

increase

(B) the rate of ultrafiltration will

(C)

(D)

decrease

water re-absorption will decrease the rate of urine .production will

decrease

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28.

29.

Item

28

refers to the following illustration of a section of a kidney nephron, drawn by a student.

The drawing above MOST likely represents the

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

proximal convoluted tubule distal. convoluted tubule loop of Henle

collecting duct

!tern 29 refers to the following diagram.

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8.

I -701-"--II III

Diffusion of sodium ions into the axon occurs at (A) (B) (C)

(D)

I II III IV

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30. 31.

Item 30 refers to the following diagram of a neurone. ,,,

.

....

...

101 I

.

I II o

....

1v---4'l/\~,._

Which region assists in speeding up the conduction of nerve. impulses?

(A) I (B) II (C) III (D) IV AIDS is caused by a (A) (B)

(C)

(D) retrovirus rhinovirus bacterium protozoan

32. A disease that develops slowly and persists for a long time is BEST described as

(A) (B)

(C)

(D) acute chronic degenerative self-inflicted

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33.

34.

35.

36.

10

-A highly malignant tumour linked to ultraviolet radiation is a

(A) sarcoma

(B) melanoma (C) lymphoma (D) papilloma

Which of the following types of lymp-hocytes do NOT release lymphcikines when stimulated?

(A) Killer T-cells (B) Helper T-cells (C) MemoryT-cells (D) Suppressor T-cel!s

The monomers that make up the heavy and light chains of an antibody molecule are joined by

(A) peptide bonds (B) hydrogen bonds ( C) g!ycosidic bonds (D) disulphide bonds

Which of the following statements BEST describes the term 'immune response'? (A) Formation of blood clots to limit

the entry of foreign organisms (B) Production of cells and substances

which recognize and eliminate foreign organisms

(C) Secretion of mucus to trap foreign organisms at the skin

(D) Recognition and protection ofself-cells

02207010/CAPE 2013

37.

38.

Which of the following is true

for

mast cells?

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

They are found in lymph nodes only.

They .are the smallest circulating granulocytes.

They are large gr;muloctyes which engulf pathogens ..

They contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin.

A key feat1lre of monoclonal antibodies is. that they are manufactured by

(A) mast cells (B) cancer cells (C) one type of B-cell (D) one type ofT-cell

3::t<9LJc.''WN'hhich ofthefollawingisNW aneMmple -of the use -ofmonoclonal antibodies?

40.

(A) Locating tumours (B) Detec.ting•.pregnancy (C)

HJ,agnosjng•AlDS

(D) D\~gnos'irig.dengue fever

Body Mass Index (BM!) may be used as an indicator .for obesity. Which of the following BMl values BEST reflects that ofan obe~ individual'!

(A) 25

(B) 27

(C) 29

(D) 31

41. Injectingvi111Santjgens into the body results in (A) (B) (C) (D) natural immunity artificial 'immunity an antigenic drift . an antigenic shift

GO.ONTO, THB.NEXT'PAOE

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42.

43.

Which of the following BEST describes the disease atherosclerosis?

(A) (B)

(C)

(D)

Extensive damage to the endothelial lining of the atteries

Formation of large blood clots in arteries

Build-up of plaque in the walls of arteries

Calcification of the walls of arteries

Item 43 refers to the following table which shows .the number of cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever (per I 00 000 inhabitants) reported in the Americas for 2001 and 2002.

Which of the following represents the incidence rate for the period 200 I to 2002'? (A) 0.05 (B) 0.10 (C) 0.15 (D) 0.20 44. 45.

END OF TEST

It is believed that tar in cigarette smoke causes

(A) (B)

(C) (D)

the blood platelets to becqme sticky more adrenaline to be released into

the blood

blockage in blood vessels, resulting in less oxygen being transported increased secretion of mucus from

goblet cells in the epithelium

Which two stages ofalcoholic liver disease are reversible?

(A) Liver cells are replaced by fibrous scar tissue, and the liver becomes swollen and fatty.

(B) Liver becomes swollen and fatty, and inflammation of the liver. (C) Liver cells are replaced by fibrous

--scat"-tissue,-arnl-infla=atio~l'- -the liver.

(D) Liver becomes swollen and fatty, and liver cirrhosis.

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

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