(2) . . . The Vocal Flute: Creative Uses of the Flutist's Voice in a Collaborative Context Marina Pereira Cyrino May 2013 Supervisors: Professor Sverker Jullander and Professor Sven-‐Erik Sandlund A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the Master Program in Music Performance Department of Arts, Communication and Education Luleå University of Technology .
(3) . . Abstract The Vocal Flute: Creative Uses of the Flutist's Voice in a Collaborative Context is a piece of artistic research that discusses the use of the flutist’s voice combined with flute playing, through performer-composer collaboration and through composition. This thesis focuses on a specific extended technique, consolidated in the 20th century. The use of the flutist’s voice is characterized by a richness of possibilities and appears in the classical repertoire, but also in improvised music: the classical avant-garde, traditional and new jazz, popular styles. The aims of the research are to explore the use of the flutist voice combined with flute playing through collaboration performer-composer and through composition, to clarify in which way collaboration can help us to understand the use of the flutist’s voice and to develop practices that facilitate the learning process of this technique. My own practice and my collaboration with two different composers are in the center of the discussion. As result of the collaborative process, three new pieces were written, performed and recorded: Floating Embers (for flute and soprano) by Olle Sundström, Keep the Night from Coming In (for solo flute) by Lisa Stenberg and Old Game (for solo flute), written by me. My own practice, rehearsals and experimentations with composers inspired me to compose Old Game, an etude for flute and flutist’s voice. The findings of the research indicate that great benefits can result from the practice of new techniques such as using the voice while playing, especially when combined with creative processes, such as collaboration or composition. The topics that emerged during the process are: analyses of the uses of the flutist’s voice while playing through literature and in each new piece based on the performer’s practice; patterns in each collaboration; impact of each collaboration on the development of flute techniques and flute practices. The artistic outcomes of this research are three new compositions for flute and recordings of the same. Keywords: flute, flutist’s voice, extended flute techniques, singing and playing, speaking and playing, collaborative performance practice, artistic research. . i .
(4) . . . Acknowledgements. I would like to express my gratitude towards: Olle Sundström and Lisa Stenberg, without their talent and time this project wouldn’t have such a creative strength. My thesis supervisor, Sverker Jullander and my flute teachers Sven-Erik Sandlund and Sara Hammarström. The sound engineers that worked with me during this project: Joel Löf, Mattias Wessel and Bernardo Brandão. Josephine Gellwar Madsen, for her talent and for taking part of this project. My dear friends Natalya Ivanova, Tiina Kaikkonen and Ana Val, for the friendship, the support and for sharing joys and challenges during these two years in Sweden. Mikael Mannberg, for the great and intense musical partnership. I would like to thank my mother, Vilma Maurer, my family and friends from across the ocean, for their love and support despite the distance. Finally, without the special help and support of Bernardo Brandão, finishing this thesis on time wouldn’t have been possible. I specially thank my father for making this winter journey possible.. . ii .
(5) . . Contents. Abstract. i. Acknowledgements. ii. Contents. iii. 1 Introduction. ................................................. 1. The restless flute. 1. ............................................. 1. 2. Aspects of collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2. 2.1. Flutists in collaboration. ..................................... 2. 2.2. Collaboration in contemporary composition and performance . . . . . . .. 2. 2.3. Creative artistic collaboration. ................................ 3. 2.4. Collaboration between composer and performer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3. 2.5. Collaboration in the context of this research. 4. 3. Methodological approaches. ..................... ...................................... 5. 3.1. Central issues of the project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5. 3.2. Action research. 6. ........................................... 3.3. Research strategies. ......................................... 4. Overview of different parts of the research. .......................... 6 9. 4.1. The projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2. Audio recording 4.3. Written thesis. . ........................................... 9. ............................................ 9. iii .
(6) . . 2 The flutist’s voice 1. Introduction. .......................................... .................................................. 2. Singing and playing. ............................................ 2.1. A general overview. ......................................... 2.2. Singing and playing: Pierre-Yves Artaud’s four categories. 10 10 11 11. .......... 12. ................. 12. ................ 13. 2.2.1. Voice pedal with flute playing: The voice sustains one note while fingers moves 2.2.2. Flute pedal with voice moving: The flute sustains one note while the voice moves. 2.2.3. Voice singing and flute playing, in parallel movement. ....... 13. .......... 13. .......................................... 13. Illustrating singing and playing, speaking and playing, and in between . . . .. 14. 2.2.4. Voice singing and flute playing: independent lines 3. Speaking and playing 4. Musical examples: 4.1. Speaking without instrument on lips. ........................... 4.2. Speaking or whispering with instrument on lips 4.3. Speaking or whispering into the instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. ..................... 16. 4.4. Singing into the instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. 4.5. Singing in unison or octave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. 4.6. Singing and playing alternately 4.7. Glissando with voice 4.8. Singing different vowels. ............................... 5. Throat Tuning 6. Reflections. ................................... 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. ................................................. 19. .................................................. 20. 3 Floating Embers 1. Introduction. 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. 4.9. Some random funny examples. ............................................ 21. .................................................. 21. 2. Floating Embers: a walk around extended flute techniques. . 15. .............. 22. 2.1. First Section: EDGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22. 2.2. Second Section: MYSTERIOSO. 25. iv . ..............................
(7) . 2.3. Third Section: INTENSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. 3. Floating Embers and the use of the flutist’s voice. .................... 4. Practicing Floating Embers: Challenges and solutions. ................ 4.1. Passage from bar 19 to 26: Voice glissando with flute pedal 4.2. Bar 37. ........ 27 29 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. 4.3. Passage from bar 47 to 52: Singing “ta ke te” in different tones . . . . . . 31 4.4. Passage from bar 55 to 66: Sing “Ta ke te” in octaves with the flute line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. 4.5. Passage from bar 67 from 72: Flute pedal with moving voice. ........ 33. .............. 34. .................................. 35. ................................................. 36. 4.6. Passage from bar 67 to 89: The complexity of singing and playing distinct lines 4.7. Passage from bar 89 to 96 5. Collaboration. 5.1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. 5.2. Collaborative patterns. ...................................... 5.3. Examples of negotiation: focus on the flutist’s voice 6. Reflections. 1. Introduction. 38. ............................... 40. .................................................. 40. 2. Keep the Night from Coming In: an overview 2.1. An open score. ....................... 41. ............................................ 41. 2.2. Open, half open, and closed embouchure 2.3. Extended flute techniques 2.4. The use of the flutist’s voice 2.4.1. The melting points. ....................... 42. ................................... 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45. 2.4.2. Consonants, vowels, syllables. .......................... 3. Keep the Night from Coming In: the seven sections. ................... 45 46. 3.1. Section A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46. 3.2. Section B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. 3.3. Section C and Section F 3.4. Section D and Section G 3.5. Section E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. .................................................. 4 Keep the Night from Coming In. 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 ................................... 48. ............................................... 48. v .
(8) . 4. Collaboration. ................................................. 4.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49. 4.2. Patters of collaborations. .................................... 4.3. Examples of negotiation during the collaboration 5. Reflections. 5 Old Game 1. Introduction. 49 49. ................ 50. .................................................. 52. ................................................ 53. ................................................ 53. 2. Old Game – The text. ........................................... 3. The use of the flutist’s voice: Speaking/ whispering and playing 4. The use of the flutist’s voice: Singing and playing 5. Other extended flute techniques. 54. . . . . . . . . . 55. ..................... 57. .................................. 58. 5.1. Whistle tones: “Is someone calling or it is just imagination?”. ........ 58. .......... 59. 5.3. Timbral Trills: Disturb the sound kindly. ....................... 59. 5.4. Discovering new effects: a tone appears!. ....................... 60. 5.5. From sh to s: don’t speak, don’t sing, venture into strange sounds . . . .. 60. 5.2. Key clicks sounds: Let’s do something with the flute when it’s not on the lips. 6. Practicing Old Game: Challenges and solutions through practice 6.1. Whisper and playing with air attack. ......... 61. ........................... 61. 6.2. Speaking without instrument on the lips 6.3. Singing one tone octave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61. .................................... 6.4. Whispering and playing in rhythmical passages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62. 6.5. Singing in parallel movement with the flute line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63. 6.6. Singing different intervals: from singing to groaning 6.7. Singing and playing: the last passage ‘it’s finished?’ 7. Reflections. 6 Discussion 1. Introduction. .............. 63. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64. .................................................. 64. ................................................. 66. .................................................. 66. 2. The use of the flutist voice: the outcomes 2.1. Floating Embers and the singing voice 2.2. Keep the Night from Coming In: . 62. ........................... 67. ......................... 67 67. vi .
(9) . transitions, boundaries, impermanence 2.3. Old Game and the speaking voice. ............................ 2.4. Practicing my own voice while playing 3. Collaboration: the outcomes. ....................... 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69. 3.1. The special agencies in musical collaboration 3.2. Collaboration across generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70. 3.3. The musical collaboration composer-performer: ............. 70. ............................................... 71. What is in between ‘Collaborative’ and ‘Integrative’? 4. Final reflections. Reference List. ............................................... 73. Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Musical Scores. .................................................. CD Recordings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76. YouTube Links. .................................................. Appendix. . ..................................................... vii . 75 76 77.
(11) . . 1. Introduction. 1. The restless flute The stimulating interaction [between a flutist and a composer] is often responsible for the emergence of positive and powerful creations. Indeed, how could one dispense with it if one has the imperious desire to go beyond admissible limits, to violate comfortable territory, to shatter this into pieces in order to recreate the instrument and its language completely? In this conquest, the flute has indeed proved the driving instrument of this century [...] (Artaud, 1994, p.141). The main focus of this research will be a specific extended technique, consolidated in the 20th century: the use of the voice while playing the flute. This technique is characterized by a richness of possibilities and appears in many pieces of the classical repertoire, but also in improvised music: the classical avant-garde, traditional and new jazz, popular styles. In the second half of the 20th century the flute became a major vehicle for experimental composers, resulting in a repertoire that made extensive use of techniques outside the instrument’s traditional performance lexicon. In order for composers to write effectively and idiomatically for the flute, collaboration with performers was often essential. (Macgregor, 2012, p.3). Edgard Varèse, in 1936, started a new period for the flute repertoire with Density 21.5 (1936). In just three minutes three centuries of tradition in which the flute was perceived as a garrulous, pastoral instrument, avowedly its principal distinguishing features from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, are called into question. In just three minutes a new instrument is revealed and an unprecedented trend among composers in which the flute is rapidly raised to the privileged rank of leader in musical creation is set. (Artaud 1994, p. 141–142). Another important work that opened the flute world to different sound perspectives is Luciano Berio’s Sequenza 1 (1958). These works were pioneers in Western art music in introducing extended flute techniques. One interesting point concerning this research is that none of the two pieces uses the voice of the flutist. The first major work that confirmed the voice of the flutist as an extended technique rich in possibilities is Voice by Toro Takemitsu (1971). The title of the piece points to a new direction where the voice of the flutist has an important role, equal to that of . 1 .
(12) . . other effects and techniques. Voice followed the 1970 World Exposition in Osaka, Japan, where Takemitsu had served as music director along with Stravinsky and Stockhausen. During this period, Takemitsu became extremely interested in European experimental techniques. Bruno Bartolozzi’s handbook New Sounds for Woodwinds had an influence on Voice. By incorporating the spoken word, Takemitsu displayed not only new aural possibilities for the flute, but attempted to capture certain gestures and articulations of traditional Japanese flutes. (Robinson, 2011, p.52) In Voice, the composer sought to unite the performer with the instrument. The performer must deliver a spoken text, speak into the instrument, hum, shout, sing, growl, and click the tongue, blending the voice and the sound of the flute. At other times, Takemitsu sought to create a distinction between the sound of the voice and the sound of the flute, separating spoken syllables and traditional flute sounds. This was combined with conventional extended flute techniques such as key tapping and a wide variety of articulations, in order to create a wide range of sounds and textures all related to the single source. (Robinson, 2011, p.52). 2. Aspects of collaboration 2.1. Flutists in collaboration Important partnerships between flutist and composer led to the main solo pieces in the modern flute repertoire. As examples we have the Italian flutist Severino Gazzelloni, a major figure in the postwar experimental music scene, and his contributions to the creation of two works: Sequenza I per flauto solo by Luciano Berio and Mei for solo flute by Kazuo Fukushima; moreover, the flutist Robert Aitken and his contributions to the genesis of Ryoanji for flute by John Cage, and Scrivo in Vento for solo flute by Elliot Carter. The instrument’s ability to produce a large and diverse arsenal of sounds not only expanded its sonic canvas to hitherto uncharted territory but could also evoke the sound worlds of other musical cultures. What resulted was a prolific repertoire that rejected the notion of the flute as a vehicle for bucolic whimsy. An instrument that was virtually ignored in the 19th century (at least in a soloist capacity) was now being embraced by key musical figures of the 20th century. With a handful of exceptions (most notably Brian Ferneyhough, who was a flutist in his student years) the development of this repertoire was, and continues to be, the result of intimate collaborations between composer and performer. (Macgregor, 2012, p.2). Macgregor (2012, p.3) details some of the prolific partnerships between flutists and composers: Salvatore Sciarrino has composed more than a dozen pieces for Roberto Fabbriciani and Mario Caroli; Karlheinz Stockhausen wrote extensively for the Dutch flutist Kathinka Pasveer; and Kaija Saariaho continues a fruitful relationship with the American flutist Camilla Hoitenga. In fact, the author argues that many of these composers owe much of their international reputations to an early compositional foundation that significantly featured works for solo flute. The strength of these pieces, from their employment of extended techniques to the graphic layouts of the scores, was largely due to dialogue with sympathetic and talented performers. Macgregor (2012, p.3). . 2 .
(13) . . 2.2. Collaboration in contemporary composition and performance According to Roe (2007, p.80), research into collaboration is a recent phenomenon with many areas yet to be explored. Detailed investigation into the process of collaboration between composer and performer are still scarce. In spite of this lack of investigation in the field of creative collaboration between composers and performers mentioned by Roe, many musicians have been focusing their research on collaboration in contemporary music in the last few years: Linda Merrik (2004), Paul Roe (2007), Stefan Östersjö (2008), Marta Castello Branco (2012), Mark Macgregor (2012), Charles Martin (2012), Gisli Grétarsson (2012), Sebastián Caldas Zeballos (2012). It’s noteworthy that the three last examples named are master’s theses published by Luleå University of Technology, in the context of the same program where I’m taking part: Master in Music Performance. An overview will be presented to help understand the function of the musical collaboration in this research. Although the focus of this research is the use of the flutist’s voice, the collaboration between performer and composers plays an important role, as a method used to explore and understand an extended flute technique. I will present briefly the subject based on literature review. 2.3. Creative artistic collaboration A number of authors have addressed particular aspects of artistic collaboration. Two categorizations of collaborative artistic practices have proved to be relevant for this research. The first is the patterns of artistic collaboration by Vera John-Steiner (2000) and the second is the patterns of collaboration between composer and performer by Hayden and Windsor (2007). John-Steiner has undertaken some of the most important theoretical work on artistic collaboration. Building on the work of Lev Vygotsky, she challenges the individualistic focus on human behaviour that has been predominant in Western culture. She argues that the possibilities for stretching the individual’s potential through collaborative works make for a strong argument to reconsider the fundamentals of our practice (Östersjö, 2008, p.20). John-Steiner’s model of artistic collaboration is also discussed in Roe (2007) and Martin (2012). John-Steiner divides general artistic collaboration into four categories. Distributed collaboration: A widespread practice that can take place in informal or organized contexts. Artists with common interests share and explore ideas that can lead to personal insights. Complementary collaboration: A widely used format of artistic collaboration based on complementary knowledge. Each artist has a clear role based on his or her expertise. Family collaboration: A format of artistic collaboration of groups that develop relationship and work very close together. In this pattern “roles are flexible and may. . 3 .
(14) . . change over time. Levels of independence, dependence or interdependence shift and develop depending on skills levels and experience.” (Roe, 2007, p.27) Integrative collaboration: A format of artistic collaboration based on the desire to transform knowledge and that can result in new practices and concepts. “These relationships require prolonged periods of committed activity and thrive on risktaking, dialogue and shared vision” (Roe, 2007, p.27). “This unions transform both artistic work and personal life” (John-Steiner, 2000, p.96). 2.4. Collaboration between composer and performer Patterns of artistic collaboration specifically applied in a musical context are discussed in Hayden and Windsor (2007) based on the work Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness by Argyris and Schön (1974). They propose the following distinct categories to understand relationships between composer and performer. Directive: The composer determines the performance through score/notation. The collaboration is limited to issues in the realisation of the score. Interactive: Involves negotiation between composer and performer, but the composer is still the author of the piece. Collaborative: “The music is developed through collective decision-making. There is no hierarchy of roles”(Roe, 2007, p.28).“The structure and context of the composition is decided through group decision making and live improvisation” (Martin, 2012, p.10). 2.5. Collaboration in the context of this research Collaborating with composers has been a part of my musician’s life for many years. In 2004 I participated in the creation of a student experimental chamber group in the town of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. During four years we worked with improvisation and collaboration with composers, focusing on classical contemporary music. These years reinforced my passion for new music and showed me the importance and benefits of working directly with composers. Since that first student chamber group, I have been working regularly with composers. I’ve premièred many pieces of Brazilian composers and participated in concerts and recordings of contemporary music almost my whole ‘flute life’. It was very natural for me to prioritize collaboration with composers when I developed the idea of this project. The flutist Mark Takeshi Macgregor, in Of Instrumental Value: Flutist-Composer Collaboration in new music (2012), shares my passion for collaboration: As a classically trained flutist I have performed music of many styles and periods, but my experiences playing the music of our time stand out as being among my career’s most thrilling highlights. Over the years these experiences have led to an interest in collaborating with composers in the creation of new pieces for my instrument. For composers this dialogue can ensure that their pieces are playable and idiomatic, while as. . 4 .
(15) . performers we have the unique and rewarding opportunity to become directly involved in the creation of new works. Performer-composer collaboration is the primary reason why I find my career as a musician so vital and exciting, to the point where the commissioning and performance of new music has become something of a mission for me. (Macgregor, p.1). For this project I had the privilege to find two very interested and committed composers, who accepted the challenge of writing a new composition in a context of collaboration, even if it had no payment involved. They participated in this project only because of their interest in music and in exploring new sound possibilities. As result of the collaborative process, two new pieces were written, performed and recorded: Floating Embers by Olle Sundström and Keep the Night from Coming In by Lisa Stenberg. I’ve met both composers in the Music School of Piteå. The collaboration with Olle Sundström will be presented and discussed in Chapter 3 and the collaboration with Lisa Stenberg in Chapter 4. A comparison and synthesis of both and a reflection around the whole process will be presented in Chapter 6. Collaboration between performer and composer will be used in this research as a method to explore and understand an extended flute technique. The models presented in this chapter will be discussed in the context of each specific collaboration. 3. Methodological approaches This research emerged in the context of artistic research, a kind of practice-based research, based on non-academic professional artistic practice. In this case, my practice as a musician, and especially as a flutist, is the heart of the thesis. The purpos of artistic research is to bring an equal status of practical knowledge within the academy, developing the artistic profession and articulating tacit knowledge. It is characterized by a methodological pluralism. The research questions are born in the artistic practice and the results intended to be applied in practice. 3.1. Central issues of the project The principal aim of the research will be to shed light on and to explore the use of the flutist’s voice combined with flute playing, through performer-composer collaboration and through composition. The main questions guiding the research are: How can the use of the flutist voice combined with flute playing be explored through collaboration? In which way can collaboration with composers help us understand the use of the flutist’s voice? How can the musician’s practice clarify the use and the learning process of this technique? Different methodologies were used to approach the research subject. In order to understand and contextualize the use of the flutist’s voice while playing, an extensive literature study using scores, flute methods, articles, dissertations, audio and video recordings was made. After contextualizing the use of the flutist’s voice while playing, I started two projects of collaboration with composers. The first project (September 2012 to May 2013) . 5 .
(16) . . with the composer Olle Sundström resulted in the piece Floating Embers. The second, with the composer Lisa Stenberg, resulted in the piece Keep the Night from Coming In (November 2012 to May 2013). 3.2. Action research The concept of action research was introduced in the early 1940’s by the social psychologist Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) in the context of the social sciences. Roe (2007, p.87) identifies the characteristics of action research according to Denscombe (2003). It’s an effective form of practice-based research characterized by dealing with ‘real world’ problems and issues; researchers have an active participation in the process; work through cyclical processes; change is an integral part of the process. This project can be understood as action research in the way that my artistic practice is a methodological tool that is used to deal with practical problems and issues. I have an active participation in the process, and I intend to introduce changes in the existing practice. According to Östersjö (2008,p.12), there are two fundamental kinds of action research, practitioner research, in which the practitioner is also the researcher, as opposed to emancipatory action research, in which the researcher takes part as researcher/subject and participators are objects. Similarly to Östersjö’s project SHUT UP ‘N’ PLAY! (2008), this research can be considered practitioner research since the project only involves a performer and composers, with no external researchers observing the project. 3.3. Research strategies The method of collaboration in both projects started in a similar way. During the process, each collaboration initiative took a different direction. The process in each project was, generally speaking: first I presented the general idea of the research project and introduced to the composers some of the material that I had gathered during the literature study. With some ideas in mind, the composers started to write sketches. During this period I introduced what I called ‘Experimentation Sessions’ (that happened more systematically with Lisa Stenberg and in a more informal way with Olle Sundström). In these sessions, I exchanged ideas and experimented with some of the composer’s sound ideas, or scores from the flute repertoire, or just improvised. This material was intended to serve as an input for the composer. After the pieces were finished, the period of practicing the piece began, which in the case of Floating Embers included rehearsals with others musicians. During the whole process I kept a reflective journal or practice journal, where I developed ideas about the practice of the pieces, the collaboration process and the composition process. Video or audio recording of rehearsals, experimentation sessions, performances and studio recordings were used to discuss and reflect upon the outcomes of the collaborations. Figure 1 shows the main methodological steps followed in this research project. . 6 .
(17) . . Literature Study -‐ Tracing the use of the voice of while playing . Meeting Olle Sundtröm Exchange of ideas, scores, audio recordings Flute experimentation, trying Virst sketches Video / Audio documentation ReVlective Journal . Meeting Lisa Stendberg Exchange of ideas, scores, audio recordings Flute experimentation,trying Virst sketches Video/ Audio documentation ReVlective Journal . Floating Embers -‐ Practice, Rehearsals, Performance, Recording . Keep the Night from Coming In -‐ Practice, Rehearsals, Performance, Recording . ReVlections around the collaboration Figure 1. Research strategies during the collaboration. When comparing the literature studies with the material used by Olle Sundström and Lisa Stenberg, I was inspired to express musically other aspects of the technique. More specifically, I had the curiosity to try to systematise different possibilities that I discovered during these two years of research. My own practice, rehearsals and experimentations with composers led me to the desire to express ideas through music. I composed the etude Old Game (2013), for flute and flutist’s voice that will be presented and discussed in Chapter 5, using a creative method.. Collaboration with Olle Sundström and Lisa Stenberg Literature Study . Practicing, experimenting and improvising on the use of the Vlutist's voice . Composing the Etude Old Game . Figure 2. Creative method: research strategies during composition. . 7 .
(18) . . A comparative method has been used for different parts of the research: between the two collaborations performer-composer; between the aspects of exploring the use of the flutist’s voice while playing; between the different approaches to the practice of the three pieces resulting from this research.. Different patterns of collaborations Lisa Stenberg Olle Sundström . Different Practice Challenges Floating Embers Keep The Night from Coming In Old Game . Comparative method . Different approches of using the voice of the Vlutist Floating Embers Keep The Night from Coming In Old Game . Figure 3. Collaborative method in the research. The structure of this research corresponds to case study process. Case study research involves the experience of real people, in real situations and provides a rich source of data. It provides detailed, authentic accounts of the phenomena in context (Roe, 2007, p.89). This research presents three different projects that can be considered three different case studies: the collaboration with Olle Sundström, the collaboration with Lisa Stenberg and my process of composing an etude. Data serving as a basis for this research include • • • • • •. Reflective journal or practice journal Audio or video recordings from the rehearsals and experimental sessions Compositional sketches Supplementary documentation: emails, informal conversations Three new compositions - scores (see Appendix) Three new compositions - recordings (see Appendix). The audio/video material was collected and analysed basing on the methodology adopted by Östersjö (2008, p.13): by means of musical interpretation and analysis (focus on the flute technique, analysis of the musical material); and by coding and analysis according to qualitative researches procedures (focus on the modes of collaboration). I adopted the same strategy of making the analysis directly from the recorded audio and video.. . 8 .
(19) . . The artistic outcomes of this research are three new compositions for flute and recordings of the same (see Appendix). 3. Overview of different parts of the research 3.1.The projects - Floating Embers by Olle Sundström, Chapter 3. - Keep the Night from Coming In by Lisa Stenberg, Chapter 4. - Old Game by Marina Pereira Cyrino, Chapter 5. 3.2. Audio recordings The audio recordings, with the score of each piece (see appendix), represent the main artistic result of this research. Floating Embers: Recorded in LTU’s School of Music - Piteå, Sweden / March 2013. Sound engineer: Mattias Wessel. Old Game: Recorded in LTU’s School of Music - Piteå, Sweden / May 2013. Sound engineer: Mattias Wessel. Keep the Night from Coming In: Recorded in Fundação de Educação Artística - Belo Horizonte, Brazil / August 2013. Sound engineer: Bernardo Brandão. 3.3. Written thesis The written text should not be understood as the only focus of this research but a part of the larger artistic research process. The function of the text is to connect the different projects and to clarify the practical knowledge of the whole process of collaborating, composing and performing.. . 9 .
(20) . . . 2. The flutist’s voice. 1. Introduction Extended techniques can be understood as the result of a research process where new sound possibilities were systematized and widespread (Castello Branco, 2012, p.21). The new flute techniques are not in conflict with the traditional technique, but present themselves as a continuous process of exploring new possibilities of the instrument. According to the flutist Robert Dick: Many composers and instrumentalists worldwide are becoming increasingly interested in the discovery and development of new instrumental sonorities, and all indications are that this trend is growing into a major branch of composition and performance. This is especially true for music for flute. Even in relatively conservative compositions written today, it is a rare piece that is not influenced by new sonorities and techniques, colors and articulations. (Dick, 1986, p.7). All the major flute methods of new techniques introduce us to the use of the flutist’s voice while playing, although most of the time this technique is explained very briefly. And although an enormous part of the flute repertoire includes different kinds of new techniques, and many flute methods are nowadays only dedicated to the extended technique of the flute, these resources are not a priority in the flute education. Many flutists go through their education without being in contact with it. Researches focusing on the practice of new techniques and the practice of new music are even less common. In this artistic research project for the degree of Master in music performance, the use of the flutist’s voice while playing will be discussed in the context of my own practice and my collaboration with two different composers. In spite of great efforts that have been put into the study of historic performance practice during a great part of the 20th Century this has no equivalent in the research into performance of new music. There exists handbooks in contemporary playing techniques, especially for wind instruments, and there are also a number of books on contemporary notation practice. Little research has been devoted however, to the performance conventions of Art Music since modernism. (Östersjö, 2008, p. 4). . 10 .
(21) . . 2. Singing and playing 2.1. A general overview Singing and playing simultaneously is one of the most popular uses of the flutist’s voice. In the flute method The Techniques of the Flute Playing, Levine (2002) explains that this effect can be produced when the vocal cords rub against one another (as speaking), while simultaneously exhaling, so that air flows out through the larynx into the flute. Levine (2002, p.20) illustrates the technique with the following figure:. Figure 4. Levine´s illustration for singing and playing the flute It is possible to produce any pitch while singing and playing; the only limitations are the natural vocal register and the tonal range of the flute. (Levine, 2002, p.20). Another flute method, The Other Flute (1989), by Robert Dick, describe more deeply the results produced by using the voice while playing. According to Dick, almost all flutists can, in some degree, create multiple sonorities by humming while playing single pitches. The intervals formed and the timbre of these multiples sonorities depends, of course on the pitch and timbre both of the note played and of the flutist’s voice. (Dick, 1989, p.143). Pierre-Yves Artaud (1995) describes four possibilities of using the voice and playing simultaneously: Flute pedal with voice singing; Voice pedal with flute playing; Voice singing and flute playing in parallel movement (it is easier to control unisons or octaves); and Voice singing and flute playing, both completely independent lines. About this last category, he says: This is extremely tricky and needs perfect control. The sound obtained can be modified using different vowels or syllables. (Artaud, 1995, p. 119). Here we have two musical examples of singing and playing, both found in Levine (2002, p.129). In Example 1, the flutist sings an Eb while playing the written notes (According to Artaud’s categories, voice pedal with flute playing): . 11 .
(22) . . Example 1. Gilbert Amy, Trois Études No. 2.. In Example 2, the flutist plays a chromatic descending scale and sings in unison with the flute line. At the same time, the flutist should sing glissando to the next note of the scale (the singing line is here written with squares; according to Artaud’s categories, flute playing and voice singing in parallel movement):. Example 2. Michaël Lévinas, Arsis et Thésis, 1980.. 2.2. Singing and playing: Pierre-Yves Artaud’s four categories As I mentioned before in this chapter, Artaud (1995) describes four possibilities of singing and playing simultaneously: 2.2.1. Voice pedal with flute playing: The voice sustains one note while the fingers move. Example 3. Kajsa Saariaho, Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).. . 12 .
(26). . . . . . . . . 2.2.2. Flute pedal with voice moving: the flute sustains one note while the voice moves. .
(27) . . . .
(28) . )
(29). ,'. . .
(30) . .
(31) . . . . . . . "
(32) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2013). Example 4. Olle Sundström, Rimfrost
(34) . -+.. *
(35) . . . . . 2.2.3.
(36) Voice singing and flute playing, in parallel movement:
(39) . . . . . . *. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(43) ,' .. +.
(45) . . . . .
(47) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. +. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(48) . . Example 5. Marina Cyrino, Old Game (2013). . . . . . +
(49) . . )
(50) . . . . " #!
(51) $ % &'(&. 2.2.4. Voice singing and flute playing: independent lines . . #. . . . the bass line (with square 6, the flutist plays the top line, while singing In Example
(52) note heads): . . . . . . . . . .
(53) . . . .
(65) . .
(74) . Example. Embers (2012). 6. Olle Sundström, Floating .
(76) . . . . 3. Speaking and playing
(84) One question
(85) comes when we start to investigate
(86) deeply all the possibilities of using the voice while playing: where are the boundaries between singing and playing and playing?
(87) and singing
(91) The limits
(93) speaking be foggy speaking and. only in this kind of research, but also in a general sense. Most of the flute not methods classify the use of the flutist voice as “singing and playing”. Levine (2002 p.37) suggests a different category than singing and playing: speaking and playing. . . . . #.
(95) . .
(96) . .
(101) . . . .
(102) . 13
(104) . / $ #. .
(105) . . . . . . .
(109) . . . . .
(110) . . He describes speaking and playing as a popular technique where the flutist speaks words or text sequences over the embouchure hole or directly into the flute, with audible voice as well as unvoiced (whispering). In Kaija Saariaho’s piece, for flute solo and optional electronics, Laconisme de l’Aile (1982), we have an example of different possibilities for speaking and playing. The piece starts with the flutist reciting a text with audible voice with the instrument down, and slowly moves the instrument towards the lips, but also changes from audible voice to whispering voice. In the first bar of the piece (Example 3) we have an example of speaking without the instrument on the lips, with audible voice.. Example 7. Kaija Saariaho, Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).. In bar 19 (Example 8), we have another example of speaking and playing, where the flutist should whisper into the instrument:. Example 8. Kaija Saariaho, Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).. 4. Musical examples: Illustrating singing and playing, speaking and playing, and in between. Even if we can assemble the use of the flutist’s voice in two main categories: speaking and playing or singing and playing, the great variety that appears in the flute repertoire is underexplored by the main flute methods. In the following examples from musical works, the flutist has to use the voice in very different ways. My intention is not to establish rigid categories, but to illustrate the large variety of technical possibilities.. . 14 .
(111) . . 4.1. Speaking without instrument on lips: In the Examples 9 and 10, the flutist speaks in a normal, audible voice, with the lips off the instrument. Example 9. Kajsa Saariaho, Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).. Example 10. Toru Takemitsu, Voice (1971).. 4.2. Speaking or whispering with instrument on lips: This technique adds a color to the voice, produced by the air sound that comes from speaking with the lips in the traditional playing position. The composer can specify the pitch or not. In this technique the voice will produce a flute air sound that will always have a pitch corresponding to the fingering position for the first octave in the flute. In Phillipe Hurel’s Eólia, for flute solo (Example 11), the flutist should speak a sequence of syllables “cha-ba-le-ge-de” in an ascendant line, but the exact pitches are not specified.. . 15 .
(112) . . Example 11. Philippe Hurel, Eólia (1984).. Example 12 is an excellent example of blurred boundaries between speaking and singing. In Terrestre (2002), by Saariaho, the flutist should speak/sing with the lips in the instrument, and the pitch is determined in the score (in unison or octave with the flute). Even if the flutist uses the vocal cords as when singing, the resulting sound is very close to the spoken voice.. Example 12. Kajsa Saariaho, Terrestre (2002).. 4.3. Speaking or whispering into the instrument: In the two following examples, the flutist should speak with audible voice or whispering voice with the mouth covering completely the embouchure hole. As result, we have a muffled, distant sound.. Example 13. Kajsa Saariaho, Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).. . 16 .
(113) . œo œ œ œ œ #˙ µ˙ nO o 3. . 2. KEEP THE NIGHT FROM COMING IN Composed for Marina Cyriano Example 14. Toru Takemitsu, Commissioned by Marina Cyriano Voice (1971).. mp. Key clicks. Voice. SOLO FLUTE. 4.4. Whispering into the instrument Performing notes. ï ñ j j ∑ ‚ ‚ ‚ >‚ > No paus between the sections should bepmade. General. Unvoiced sound. K ‚> ‚ ‚r ‚ ‚ > > > >. The piece consists out of 7 sections named A-G wich are free for the performer to play in any order. All sections has to be played at least once. All sections shall be performed from start to the end. Sections may be repeated at a maximum of three times, but shall never be played more than once in a row.. ho. Flute wo!. >‚. Kr >‚ >‚ >‚. >‚. cho. to. to. j >œ. >‚. >‚. cho. >‚. cho. ∑. ‚ ‚. ‰. œ œ. ‰ ‰. Accidentals is valid only for the specific note notated at. If nothing else i specified, the notated dynamic is valid for both flute and voice system.. to. ñ. wo!. . œ œ. p - to. p - to. Œ. pp. ï. ‚™ ‚.. s. Gradually shift from unvoiced whispering “ch” to voiced “o”. -. o. to. w.t b œ ™Singing œo inn wunison or octave is considered the easiest possibility of singing while playing b‚ by the main flute methods. pp. fz. ó #˙˙ o mp. Œ. closed embouchure.. Only air sound. Œ. Unvoiced whispering “Ch” as in Bach. t - ko. All trills shall be performed as timbral trills All glissandos shall be performed as lip glissandos if possible. 4.5. Singing in unison or octave. b˙. œ bœ. Œ. By closed embouchure, the composer means that the embouchure hole must be j Œ ‰ ‚ ‚ The broken (dashed) indicates a gradual shift covered witharrow the lips. >‚ from technique to another.. Œ. cho. w.t. ‚ b‚. ñ ï ï ‚ ‚ ‚Keep j half open embouchure ‚ ‚Stenberg, Œ The‚Night ‚From Coming Example b‚ n‚ 15.‚ Lisa ‚ ‰ In (2013). > open embouchure pp p . b‚ ‚ >‚ > >. j >œ. ‰. Shiftmf graudally from only air sound to full tone. Whistle tone w.t. o Example 16. Kajsa Saariaho, Terrestre (2002).. LISA STENBERG. . Voiced sound (sing). 17 .
(114) . . 4.6. Singing and playing alternately In the following example the flutist should sing the following pitch with a breath tone. The fingering is used to produce the marked pitch; however, the flutist does not produce the normal tone but just blows air through the instrument.. Example 17. Kajsa Saariaho, Mirrors for Flute and Cello (1997).. 4.7. Glissando with voice: One resource used very often by composers is to sing a slow glissando. In Example 18, the flutist goes from a B to an Eb with the voice, through a slow glissando. The flutist should also change the vowel sung, while the flute plays another distinct line. A great example (in a single bar!) of a complex combination shows us the fantastic diversity that this technique allows.. Example 18. Kajsa Saariaho, Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).. 4.8. Singing different vowels: Singing different vowels changes the timbre and gives movement to the voice line but also affects the color of the flute sound.. . 18 .
(115) . . Example 19. Kajsa Saariaho, Laconisme de l’Aile (1982).. 4.9. Some random funny examples:. Example 20. Fredrik Högberg, Flight of the Dragonfly (1996).. Example 21. François Rossé, Kotoko uha! Questions de Tempéraments (1997).. 5. Throat Tuning In the flute method Tone Development through Extended Techniques (1989), Robert Dick1 introduces us to the Throat Tuning: The tone begins when the air is blown across the edge of the embouchure hole, setting up an oscillation of the air stream in and out of the flute, causing the air inside the instrument to vibrate. But the vibrations pass not only forward from the embouchure into the flute, but back through the mouth, neck and chest of the flutist as well. (Dick, 1989, p. 9). 1 Robert Dick, composer and flutist, is a leading proponent of contemporary music and is know worldwide for his command of extended techniques for flute. . 19 .
(116) . . According to him, the tone of the flute is a complex combination of the flutist and the flute. The sound of the air vibrating within the flute is resonating also within the body of the flutist. Throat tuning is when the throat of the flutist is in position to resonate best. It happens when the vocal cords are brought to the correct position to sing a pitch. When the vocal cords are held in position to sing a given pitch, the throat is in position to resonate that pitch best. (Dick, 1989, p. 9). Throat tune should be an important part of the flutist’s practice and can be achieved by only singing, or by singing and playing simultaneously. Mastery of throat tune is achieved by practice of singing and simultaneously singing and playing the flute. (Dick, 1989, p. 9). 6. Reflections Why sing if you’re not a singer? Even today, extended techniques are seen as an optional appendix to the traditional technique. But by going deep into the new flute methods, we began to observe that the systematic study of new techniques brings great benefits. Instead of regarding new sonorities as “strange effects that composers write”, we could recognize the importance of introducing these techniques in the daily practice. Robert Dick (1986) maintains that working with new sonorities will greatly benefit traditional flute playing. The benefits can be the development of the strength, flexibility and sensitivity of the embouchure and breath support. The practice of new techniques can also increase the player’s range of color, dynamics and projection. Another very interesting benefit suggested by Dick is sharpening the musician’s ear. One must hear the desired pitch clearly before playing it when familiar fingerings are not used, and quartertones and smaller microtones sharpen the sense of pitch as well. (Dick, 1986, p. 7). If we take the singing while playing as an example of a new technique, the development of the inner ear is one of the most important benefits that the flutist can get through practice. To be able to sing and play different voices, the flutist needs to work with memory and inner audition, which can have great effects on traditional playing as well, such as improving the intonation, and strengthening the air support. It should be emphasized that unless the flutist is a trained singer, the vocal cords can be easily strained when singing and playing simultaneously. This specific technique of using the voice should be slowly introduced into the daily practice, always paying attention to the comfort of the vocal chords and the tension of the outside neck muscles. We’ll discuss the challenges of learning and practicing this technique in the next chapter. This will build up over time with daily work, and while caution is important, do not avoid this work – it is too important. (Dick, 1986 p. 9). . 20 .
(117) . . . 3. Floating Embers. 1. Introduction Floating Embers, by the Swedish composer Olle Sundström2, was written in 2012. The piece, a duo for flute and voice (soprano), was commissioned for my Master’s project, to explore the possibilities of using the voice of the flute player. I will present in this chapter an overview of the piece and discuss the use of the flutist’s voice in this context and my collaboration with the composer. My collaboration with Olle Sundström started in the context of this research. As a current student the same school, he heard through a friend about my project and Spark of of Imagination Flute took the initiative to contact me. From the beginning, Olle Sundström had in his mind o œ A œ œ b œ using œo œ bœ a strong idea: of the flutist. He had already composed other œ œ œ theŒ singing œ ‰ œJvoice ∑ ‰ œ Œ b˙ææ & 44 ∑ pieces using this specific flute technique (for example in Spark of Imagination, written for NEO3 in 2011) and he was interested in continuing to explore it. nœ Olle Sundström. enrgetic. q = 90. f. œ. 6. & Œ. p. bœ œ bœ œ œ œ Œ Ó œ ≈bœR Œ. œ. bœ œ Œ œ bœ ‰ Ó. œnœbœ Œ. In the following excerpt of the flute part of Spark of Imagination, composed before the beginning of our collaboration, the flutist should sing in unison with the written bœ œ . œ œ œ b œ œ œ b œ œbœ œ n œ J œn œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ ≈æJ ≈æJ ‰ Ó line: & f. 3. 10. 3. 3. 3. f. mp. bœ œ æœ bœ æ & ‰ æJ ‰ J ‰ æJ ‰ J. 2. 13. ˙ & œ. 21. p. ˙ & œ. 27. p. U & w. 33. pp. f. 2. B. mysterious tranquil sing. Ó. p. b˙. ˙. mf. Œ œ œ b˙. Œ. p. mf. œ œ Œ œ œ œ ˙. Œ. Œ œ œ b˙. Œ. œ œ Œ œ œ œ ˙. Œ bœ ˙ bœ bœ Œ œ bœ bœ ˙. Œ. mf. mf. p. p. C Slightly faster. mf. mf. 9. Ó. p. p. q = 100. b˙. ˙. mf. mf. 45. p. mf. p. ∑. 44. 2. Example 22. Olle Sundström, Spark of Imagination (2011). © Olle Sundström 2011. 2 Olle. Sundström was born in 1989 in Stockholm, Sweden. He has studied musicology, music psychology and composition at the University of Uppsala, and is currently studying composition with Professor Jan Sandström at Musikhögskolan / the School of Music, in Piteå. He has composed for different chamber music ensembles, choir, orchestra, and film.. 3. NEO - Norrbotten NEO is a Swedish ensemble, being charged with promoting contemporary art music on a national basis. The ensemble consists of seven musicians employed full-time and has Studio Acusticum in Piteå as its home base. One of my flute teachers, Sara Hammarström, is part of the ensemble.. . 21 .
(118) . . One of the main characteristics that will run through the whole collaboration between Olle Sundström and myself is his interest in the singing voice of the flutist. In Floating Embers, he explores it in many different ways.. Figure 5. Olle Sundström and Marina Cyrino in an “Experimentation Session”, Piteå, 2012.. 2. Floating Embers: a walk around extended flute techniques Floating Embers, written for flute and voice (soprano) can be considered a tripartite composition, each part with a different character: - First section: Edgy, bar 1 to 38 - Second section: Mysterioso, bar 39 to 58 - Third section: Intense, bar 59 to 104 Floating Embers requires from the flutist the use of other extended techniques besides singing and playing. These techniques will be mentioned briefly. 2.1. First Section: EDGY In the first section of Floating Embers, the voice of the flutist has no major role. The technique is used but the composer emphasises other effects. Edgy starts with flute air sounds and flutter tongue while the singer has a soft line mixing different vowels and phonemes, creating a delicate airy atmosphere. This first part of the piece explores several effects that require knowledge of extended techniques, both in the flute and the singer’s part.. . 22 .
(119) . . . . . . . . .
(123) . .
(125) . .
(126) . .
(128) . . !". . .
(134) . # The use of the flutist’s voice begins as singing voice. More precisely, it’s a flute pedal with singing line. The flutist should sing a melodic make a line that goes from Eb, Eb. glissando to F# and back to the Eb,while the fingers sustain an
(165) . . $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ .
(167) . .
(169) . . .
(170) #. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ . . . . . . . . .
(185) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ . .
(186). %&. .
(193) . . . . . . . . Example 23. Floating Embers, bar
(194) 18 to 24.
(196) - . / $ #
(209) Edgy (bar 1 – 38) starts with flute air sounds and. flutter tongue while the singer has a )* +,+ $$ * soft line mixing different vowels and phonemes, creating a delicate airy atmosphere.. . This firstpart
(210) of the piece explores several effects that require knowledge of extended
(211) techniques,!"both in the flute and the singer’s part. The extended flute techniques will . be described with examples from the score.
(212) # Frulatti or Flutter Tongue. .
(229) p. 12)
(230) flutter Levine (2002 the as one of the most popular techniques.
(232) tongue in new music. According to him, this technique has achieved the status of “classical .
(233) new technique” because of its widespread use. The flutter tongue can be obtained in two different ways, by tongue or by throat: “By wagging the tongue or by vibration of the throat” Artaud (1995, p. 19). #. In Floating Embers both tongue and throat techniques can be used. The flutter tongue is also combined with aeolian or air sound, for example in the first bar of the piece..
(234) . . . .
(236) ' ( . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(241). . !".
(242) . . . )* +,+ . Example 24. Floating Embers, bar 1. . .
(244) . .
(246) . . . . .
(247) . !". . One special characteristic of this piece is the combination of the flute flutter tongue (written as “uvular R” in bar flutter in a mysterious and the singer tongue 5), resulting.
(251) flutesound and the singer’s voice. . fusion # between the . . . . .
(253) . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . .
(254) . . . . .