Biomass energy perspectives in Mexico and Central America. Emilio de los Ríos Ibarra, Red Mexicana de Bioenergía

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Biomass energy

perspectives in

Mexico and Central

America

Emilio de los Ríos Ibarra,

Red Mexicana de Bioenergía

edelosrios@prodigy.net.mx

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Plan

Bioenergy in Mexico.

Mexico & Central America Resource use and

Sustainability

Is there a path for Sustainable Biomass energy?

Biomass energy perspectives, The case of firewood in

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Bioenergy in

Mexico

High potential, marginally used

Promising applications..

Land fill Biogas

Efficient stoves Forest by products

Energy crops

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Energy use in

Mexico

Bioenergy supplies 8% of total primary energy in México (455 de 5,690 PJ/yr)

Bioenergy supplies 8% of total primary energy in México (455 de 5,690 PJ/yr)

0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0 5000.0 6000.0 7000.0 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Año P E T AJO U L E S firewood sugar cane bagasse Wind Geothermic Hydraulic Nuclear associated gas non associated gas Condensates Crude oil Coal

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Natural Forest

38%

Manure

3%

energy crops

6%

Plantation

27%

Forest waste

2%

Agricultural by

products

19%

Agro-industrial

wastes

4%

MSW derived

1%

Total availablility : 3,000-4550 PJ/año 50-80% total energy demand

Bioenergy

Sources

in Mexico

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Global

Warming

POWER GENERATION MITIGATION POTENTIAL 2030 Gt CO2 eq/ yr

Fuel switch and plant efficiency, 1.07 Nuclear, 1.88 Hydro, 0.87 Wind, 0.93 Bio-energy, 1.22 Geothermal, 0.43 Solar PV and Concentrated Solar Power, 0.25 CCS + coal, 0.49 CCS + gas, 0.22

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Biodiesel: Experience

in México

• Waste vegetable oil plant in Monterrey

• Propalm Plant

• Michoacán state project (Jatropha)

• Comisión Bioenergéticos- Chiapas (Jatropha)

Nivel 3

Nivel 2

Nivel 1

Biodiesel pilot plant

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Biogas

• Manure management • Land fill gas

• MDG and Climate change mittigation pottential

• (CH4 21 times more GWP than el

CO2)

128 of 148 Mexican CDM approved projects for Mexico are biogás.

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Mexico’s Sugar Industry

Sugar is Mexico’s largest agricultural industry

Sugar cane fifth largest cultivated crop,

(614 000 ha) 58 sugar mills in 15 states, most obsolete.

Fossil fuel consumption 8.5 liters/ton sugar.

More than 440,000 jobs.

(cane cutters, seasonal field workers, and factory workers)

158,000 cane growers,

Mean surface per grower < 4 ha, produce 300 tons each

.

Quensland Australia 6,500 growers with 85 ha.

Mexican sugar cane industry has been in permanent crisis, as state intervention, aims job creation not labor productivity.

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Sugar cane

Ethanol

Domestic production during the 2004/2005 crop 60 million liters Domestic demand industrial ethanol 164 million liters

Imports from Guatemala, Salvador FOB mill price $372.00 Mex pesos/ ton =

Sugar Cane

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Maize production costs in Mexico $ 280.48 $ 3,034.78 1.38 $ 4,188.00 TAB PV 2005 $ 269.38 $ 2,914.67 3 $ 8,744.00 GRO OI 05-06 $ 217.03 $ 2,348.24 2.5 $ 5,870.60 E MEX PV 2005 $ 216.97 $ 2,347.62 2.1 $ 4,930.00 VER PV 2005 $ 186.97 $ 2,023.00 5.5 $11,126.50 SON OI 05-06 $ 168.24 $ 1,820.33 3 $ 5,461.00 YUC PV2005 $ 154.48 $ 1,671.50 3 $ 5,014.50 TAMPS PV 2005 $ 108.84 $ 1,177.60 5 $ 5,888.00 JALISCO PV 2005 $ 95.02 $ 1,028.15 6.5 $ 6,683.00 E MEX PV 2005 $ 88.96 $ 962.57 7 $ 6,738.00 JALISCO PV 2005 $ 75.22 $ 813.86 7 $ 5,697.00 SINALOA PV 2005 $ 56.48 $ 611.15 9.15 $ 5,592.00 SINALOA OI 05-06 USCy PESOS ton Cost/ton cost/ ton yield Cost/ha State Season

Source:www.siap.sagarpa.gob.mx.viocs CBOT price $149.6 us cy/ton

380 cents/bushell 15 nov 07

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How can maize be

produced at this cost

?

Cost per ton $ us/ton Cost per ton

pesos Yield ton/ha Cost pesos/ha state season $ 280.48 $ 269.38 $ 217.03 $ 216.97 $ 2,347.62 2.1 $ 4,930.00 VER PV 2005 $ 2,348.24 2.5 $ 5,870.60 E MEX PV 2005 $ 2,914.67 3 $ 8,744.00 GRO OI 05-06 $ 3,034.78 1.38 $ 4,188.00 TAB PV 2005

Maize in Mexico and C. America is:

Base of tortillas, the staple product for most of the population.

Specific varieties are main ingredient for delicate dishes.

And a commodity.commodity.

CBOT price $149.6 us cy / ton 380cents / bushell 15 nov 07

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Energy equiv. cost Total cost $ US / lt Feed stock cost $ us/ l $ 1.2140 $ 0.8608 $ 0.6722 TAB $ 1.1765 $ 0.8342 $ 0.6456 GRO $ 0.9996 $ 0.7088 $ 0.5201 E MEX $ 0.9994 $ 0.7086 $ 0.5200 VER $ 0.8980 $ 0.6367 $ 0.4481 SON $ 0.8347 $ 0.5919 $ 0.4032 YUC $ 0.7882 $ 0.5589 $ 0.3702 TAMPS $ 0.6339 $ 0.4495 $ 0.2608 JALISCO $ 0.5872 $ 0.4164 $ 0.2277 E MEX $ 0.5667 $ 0.4019 $ 0.2132 JALISCO $ 0.5472 Gasoline $ 0.5203 $ 0.3689 $ 0.1803 SINALOA $ 0.4570 $ 0.3240 $ 0.1354 SINALOA

Ethanol production cost maize feed stock

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Domestic wood fuel

5 millon families, use wood fuel in Mexico.

Efficient wood stoves are a true alternative

Benefit cost Ratio 7 : 1 just for health benefits.

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Environmental issues

have transboundary

Effects and need

transboundary actions

Biodiversity conservation

Bioenergy

&

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Meso America

5 Mexican states % area

Chiapas 10% Campeche 7% Tabasco 3% Yucatán 6% Quintana Roo 5% Belice 3% Costa Rica 7% Guatemala 14% Honduras 15% Nicaragua 18% El Salvador 3% Panama 10% Total area 768,543 Km2

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Biodiversity

Meso - America

bridge between North and South América. Second world’s largest reef, many different Landscapes. Mountains that reach 4,211 m. above sea level.

Rainfall from 500 mm to more than 7,000 mm/year. Mean annual temperatures from 7,5 to 32,5 0 C.

24,000 vascular plant species,

5,000 (21%) endemic. (Jatropha curcas)

521 mamalian species, 210 (40 %) endémic. 1,193 bird species

Crop center of origin:

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Socio-economic

data

51,072 Total 9,992 * 3,284 5,594 7,518 13,018 6,991 4,399 276 2006 7.4 13.9 Mexico 7.6 19.3 Panama 31.9 29 Nicaragua 22.6 36.3 Honduras 28.2 18.9 Guatemala 18.9 18.4 El Salvador 3.8 15 Costa Rica 5.3 N-D Belize 2005 2005 Year Agricultural labour % labour force

Source: CEPAL Anuario Estadístico 2006 *INEGI Recuento 2005 ( only 5 states )

Illiteracy Rate % Population >15 yr Population thousands Population density: 66.43 hab / sq km

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Economic Growth

10 636,161.3 580,791.7 Mexico 23 14,312.3 11,629.8 Panama 16 4,579.9 3,938.3 Nicaragua 19 7,180.4 6,024.6 Honduras 13 21,849.1 19,288.9 Guatemala 11 14,634.1 13,134.1 El Salvador 22 19,470.3 15,946.5 Costa Rica 31 1,085.7 831.8 Belice %change * 1 (b) 2000 (a)

Cepal Anuario estadístico 2006 * ( b/a) -1

Millions US $

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Exports

2.7     TOBACCO 5.2 4.9 4.6 4.6 2.4 PEANUT

CEPAL Anuario Estadístico 2006

50.9  57.4  39.9 71.5 53.2 TOTAL 4.6 2.8 BANANAS 4 2.9   4.2   SUGAR 5.2 4.9 3.3 3.9   CATTLE 7 12.1 5.6 18.8 13.7 SEA FOOD 14.4 15.2 12.8 8.3 10.8 MEAT 15.1 17.4 10.9 27.1 23.5 COFEE 2005 2004 2002 2000 1995

Percentage share of total value of exports

NICARAGUA MAIN EXPORTS Example

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Remitances

FDI = foreign direct investment

ODA = official development aid GDP = gross domestic product

154.0% 24888.0% 100.0% 2.5% Mexico 58.0% 1556.0% 253.0% 6.8% Belize 35.0% 6435.0% 49.0% 1.8% Panama 24.0% 7960.0% 55.0% 1.7% Costa Rica 286.0% 385.0% 582.0% 15.1% Honduras 432.0% 127.0% 310.0% 17.8% Nicaragua 756.0% 6620.0% 655.0% 16.1% El Salvador 348.0% 3052.0% 2145.0% 10.0% Guatemala Tourism ODA FDI GDP 2004 data

Migrant worker cash remitances as percentage of :

Currently main foreign currency source

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Sustainability

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Soil erosion

Source Global soil degradation. (1997). In UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. Retrieved 19:35, November 17, 2007 from http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/global_soil_degradation.

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Energy and Human

development

6.5 7.0 501.0 245.0 72.1 118 Guatemala 4.9 5.0 694.0 259.0 63.6 117 Honduras 5.5 8.7 492.0 363.0 69.3 112 Nicaragua 6.9 7.6 663.0 336.0 46.3 101 El Salvador -708.0 370.0 25.0 96 Belice 7.6 7.3 1733.0 930.0 28.5 58 Panama 5.6 5.5 2108.0 955.0 13.0 53 Mexico 9.9 10.2 1764.0 964.0 29.6 48 Costa Rica  2003 1980  2003 1980 2003 Human dev. Index Rank

GDP per energy unit 2000 PPP US$ / kg oil Per capita

electricity consumption Traditional fuels

% total energy

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Domestic Fuel Use

7.9 11.5 3.1 Other 2.5 0.8 4.8 Electricity 12.6 3.4 24.6 Charcoal 45.3 20.3 78 LPG 5.4 8.4 1.4 Kerosene 73.6 95.4 45.2 Fuelwood Global Rural Urban

Household Cooking fuels in Guatemala

ESMAP- world bank 2005

% households

Multiple fuel use

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Forest Area

Source Cifor 1996 Square km

288,000 52,000 70,000 68,000 71,000 27,000 1950 95,000 193,000 Total 21,000 31,000 Panama 10,000 60,000 Nicaragua 22,000 46,000 Honduras 29,000 42,000 Guatemala 13,000 14,000 Costa Rica Forest loss 1990 Year From 1990 to 2005 Central America lost 52,280 Km 2

more.

17 % of 1990 Forests 10 % of total area for Central America.

Deforestation

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Cattle population

1950-1992

Source Cifor 1996

Million head

4.2

0.6

1.1

0.9

1

0.6

1950

7.6

1.2

2.2

1.2

1.5

1.5

1970

10.1

1.4

2.8

1.8

2.1

2

1978

9.6

1.4

2.2

2.1

2.2

1.7

1992

Total

Panama

Nicaragua

Honduras

Guatemala

Costa Rica

Year

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Land Use

Cash crop production within a capital intensive

and export oriented sector.

Cocoa, Coffee, Sugar Cane, Bananas, Sisal, Rubber, Cotton, Soybeans, Beef, Cardamom, Oil Palm, Annato, Jatropha ??

Non sustainable forestry to extract:

Chewing gum, Mahogany and other tropical timbers, dyes (palo de tinte), Barbasco, Xate palm leaves.

According to commodity

Consequences:

Environmental degradation, poverty, political unrest.

Is bioenergy a new boom?

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Is there a path

for Sustainable

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Fao (2007) Sustainable Bioenergy a Framework for Decision Makers

FAO’s 9 key Issues, to consider

for bioenergy policy design

.

Ability of bioenergy to provide energy services for the poor.

Implications for agro industrial development and job creation.

Health and gender implications of modern bioenergy.

Implications for the structure of agriculture.

Implications for food security.

Implications for government budget.

Implications for trade, foreign exchange balances and energy security

Impacts on biodiversity and natural resource management

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How do these

issues apply in a

real context?

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Wood fuel in Yucatan

Mexico

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Yucatan population

2005

• 1, 800, 000 inhabitants

• 36% households, use fire wood

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Wood fuel

consumption

Domestic per capita comsumption 2.1 kg / day

Heat equivalent almost 10kW / hr

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Biomass

Alternative

Woodfuel estimated domestic consumption 500,000 ton/year

with efficient stoves 50 % could be saved

which means

250,000 tons / year enough to generate

292 GW/hr electric assuming 30 % efficiency

11 % current electrical consumption in Yucatan

.

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Other Uses:

Cottage industries

Wood fuel is the energy source for many cottage industries. Most can’t afford other fuels Energy efficiency it usually very low.

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Other Uses:

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Charcoal Production

Peasants produce charcoal to use wood that otherwise would be burnt, when clearing land for shifting agriculture.

Earth kilns have very low yields No cash investment,

Capital is the scarce production factor

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Charcoal marketing

chain

in Yucatan Field (Peasant) $1.30 Small Vehicle owner ½ to 3 tons

Field Agent

Wholesale Merida $1.70 retailer $2.00 Consumer $3.50 Merida Restaurant $2.00 Transport (cost $0.30) Mexico City Warehouse

(cost $1.70)

Mexico City consumer

$7.00

Mexico City Restaurant

$4.00

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Charcoal

Charcoal production transforms forest resources in wages at rural labor opportunity cost. Imperfect market.

Wholesaler has best margin.

Waste of natural capital.

Great environmental cost.

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Charcoal is:

Clear example of non sustainable resource management. Subsitence jobs It takes more than just capital flows for a change.

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Implications for the

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