World War II

Full text

(1)

World War II

Chapter 14

(2)

Fascism

 -During 1930’s, many countries fall under a Totalitarian govt.

-Govt. controls every aspect of life

 -Italy follows a system called Fascism

-Nation is more important than people

 -Same as Communism except people can own their own businesses

 -No individual rights or freedoms

 -Fascism started by Benito Mussolini

 -IL Duce [The Leader]

 -Becomes Prime Minister in 1922

 -His private army was called “ The Blackshirts”

 -Uses power to rebuild Italy

 -Also gains more land by conquering Ethiopia

(3)

Mussolini

(4)

Germany Germany

 -People of Germany were unhappy with the -People of Germany were unhappy with the WWI treaty

WWI treaty

 -Gives rise to many radical movements -Gives rise to many radical movements

 -One major one gains power over all the rest -One major one gains power over all the rest

 -Called -Called National Socialist German Workers Party National Socialist German Workers Party

 -Nazi Party -Nazi Party

 -Led by Adolf Hitler -Led by Adolf Hitler

 -Nov. 1923, Hitler & party try to overthrow govt. -Nov. 1923, Hitler & party try to overthrow govt.

 -Hitler is caught and sent to jail for 5 years -Hitler is caught and sent to jail for 5 years

 -Only serves 9 months -Only serves 9 months

 -In prison, he writes his autobiography -In prison, he writes his autobiography

 -Called -Called Mein Kampf Mein Kampf

 -My Struggle -My Struggle

 -Outlines Nazi philosophy & his plans to fix Germany -Outlines Nazi philosophy & his plans to fix Germany

(5)

Hitler

(6)

Mein Kampf

(7)

Hitler Gains Power Hitler Gains Power

 -During 1920’s and 1930’s Germany in major Depression -During 1920’s and 1930’s Germany in major Depression

 -Mostly from WWI -Mostly from WWI Reparations Reparations

 -Payment by the losers to winners in a war -Payment by the losers to winners in a war

 -Hitler promised to fix Germany -Hitler promised to fix Germany

 -Gained a huge following from the desperate Germans -Gained a huge following from the desperate Germans

 -By 1933, Nazi party largest in -By 1933, Nazi party largest in Reichstag Reichstag

 -Law making body -Law making body

 -Reichstag appoints Hitler as -Reichstag appoints Hitler as Chancellor Chancellor

 -President -President

 -Gives himself the title of -Gives himself the title of Der Fuhrer Der Fuhrer

 -The Leader -The Leader

(8)

War on the Horizon War on the Horizon

 -Hitler wanted to return Germany to a world power -Hitler wanted to return Germany to a world power

 -March 9, 1936, he invades -March 9, 1936, he invades Rhineland Rhineland

 Region in W. Germany Region in W. Germany

 -Border of France & Belgium -Border of France & Belgium

 -Breaks the Treaty of Versailles -Breaks the Treaty of Versailles

 -No resistance from Britain or France -No resistance from Britain or France

 -Hitler creates an Alliance with Italy -Hitler creates an Alliance with Italy

 -Alliance is called -Alliance is called Axis Powers Axis Powers

 Germany, Italy, & Japan Germany, Italy, & Japan

 -B/c of success in Rhineland, Hitler invades Austria in -B/c of success in Rhineland, Hitler invades Austria in March 1938

March 1938

 -Britain & France protest but do nothing militarily -Britain & France protest but do nothing militarily

 -Both afraid of another world war -Both afraid of another world war

 -Several months later, Hitler invades -Several months later, Hitler invades Sudetenland Sudetenland

 Region of Czechoslovakia Region of Czechoslovakia

(9)

Pink is Rhineland

Yellow is Sudetenland

Purple is Austria

(10)

Appeasement and Appeasement and

Alliances Alliances

 -To prevent a war, Britain, France, Italy, & -To prevent a war, Britain, France, Italy, &

Germany meet Germany meet

 -Agree in Sept. 1938 to an -Agree in Sept. 1938 to an Appeasement Appeasement

-Giving in to prevent war -Giving in to prevent war

 -Britain and France agree to let Hitler keep all -Britain and France agree to let Hitler keep all new land

new land

 -Hitler agrees not to take over any more land -Hitler agrees not to take over any more land

 -Hitler breaks agreement 6 months later -Hitler breaks agreement 6 months later

 -Hitler never intends to keep his agreement -Hitler never intends to keep his agreement

 -Britain & France know this and make a secret -Britain & France know this and make a secret agreement with Poland

agreement with Poland

 -If Germany invaded Poland, Britain & France -If Germany invaded Poland, Britain & France would come to their aid

would come to their aid

 -March 31, 1939 Hitler breaks appeasement & -March 31, 1939 Hitler breaks appeasement &

conquers Czechoslovakia

conquers Czechoslovakia

(11)

 -To protect himself and prevent a 2 front war, Hitler signs Nazi-Soviet Pact

◦ Treaty btw. Germany and USSR

◦ Germany will not attack USSR

◦ USSR gets Baltic States

◦ Estonia

◦ Latvia

◦ Lithuania

 -Hitler invades Poland on Sept. 1, 1939

 -Britain & France declare war on Germany on Sept. 3, 1939

 -Begins WWII [Sept. 3, 1939]

(12)

Baltic States

(13)

War in Europe

 -Germany uses new form of warfare in attack of Poland

 -Called Blitzkrieg

-Lightning warfare

-Quick military strikes

 -Tactic helped Germany overrun Poland in 1 month

 -With Hitler focusing on Poland, France built up its military on the Maginot Line

-System of defenses along the border of Germany &

France

 -Slows down war

 -U.S. calls it “The Phony War”

 -Europe calls it ”Sitzkrieg”

 -Phony war ends on April 9, 1940

 -Germany invades Norway & Denmark

 -May 10, 1940, Hitler uses Blitzkrieg on Belgium

 -Germany takes control of all 3 areas

(14)

Maginot Line

(15)

Maginot Line Back Side

(16)

Capture of France Capture of France

 -Germany crushes Maginot Line and -Germany crushes Maginot Line and

pushes French troops to English Channel pushes French troops to English Channel

 -British rescue 340,000 French soldiers at -British rescue 340,000 French soldiers at Dunkirk

Dunkirk

 -Germany bombs France with -Germany bombs France with Luftwaffe Luftwaffe

 German Airforce German Airforce

 -June 14, 1940 German troops enter Paris -June 14, 1940 German troops enter Paris

 -France surrenders on June 17, 1940 -France surrenders on June 17, 1940

(17)

Luftwaffe

(18)

Luftwaffe

(19)

Battle of Britain Battle of Britain

 -After France, Hitler wanted to take Britain -After France, Hitler wanted to take Britain

 -Britain new leader was Winston Churchill -Britain new leader was Winston Churchill

 -Replaces Neville Chamberlain -Replaces Neville Chamberlain

 -Hitler uses Luftwaffe to bomb Britain -Hitler uses Luftwaffe to bomb Britain

 -1000 planes/day dropped bombs on Britain -1000 planes/day dropped bombs on Britain

 -Britain’s Airforce [RAF] took out many -Britain’s Airforce [RAF] took out many Luftwaffe

Luftwaffe

 -The bombing of London was called -The bombing of London was called The Blitz The Blitz

 -Dec. 1940 bombs set 1500 fires in London -Dec. 1940 bombs set 1500 fires in London

 -Forced many to bomb shelters -Forced many to bomb shelters

 -Others were forced to live in subway tunnels -Others were forced to live in subway tunnels

 -By the end of 1941, 20,000 dead & 73,000 -By the end of 1941, 20,000 dead & 73,000 injured

injured

(20)

Winston Churchill

(21)

Aiding the Allies

 -Helped Allies with Neutrality Acts of 1939

 -Allies can buy goods from U.S.

 -Next passed Lend-Lease Act

 -U.S. could aid any nation that was vital to U.S. security

 -US would lend/lease military goods to the

Allies

(22)

Japan & The U.S.

Japan & The U.S.

 -Japan is poor & needs raw materials -Japan is poor & needs raw materials

 -Conquered new land [Manchuria, -Conquered new land [Manchuria, Dutch East Indies]

Dutch East Indies]

 -Signs alliance with Axis Powers in -Signs alliance with Axis Powers in 1940 1940

 -Also signs neutrality pact with USSR -Also signs neutrality pact with USSR

 -U.S. nervous about Japan -U.S. nervous about Japan

 -FDR puts Pacific Naval Fleet in Pearl -FDR puts Pacific Naval Fleet in Pearl Harbor, HI

Harbor, HI

 -FDR could not go to war b/c -FDR could not go to war b/c

Americans wanted Isolationism

Americans wanted Isolationism

(23)

Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor

- - Japan tries to conquer Indochina [Vietnam] Japan tries to conquer Indochina [Vietnam]

 -U.S. cuts all trade with Japan [Mainly oil] -U.S. cuts all trade with Japan [Mainly oil]

 -Japan’s Prime Minister, General Hideki Tojo, wanted to -Japan’s Prime Minister, General Hideki Tojo, wanted to go to war with U.S.

go to war with U.S.

 -U.S. tells Japan to give up all gained land and U.S. will -U.S. tells Japan to give up all gained land and U.S. will re-open trade

re-open trade

 -Japan refuses -Japan refuses

 -7:00AM on Dec. 7, 1941, 180 Japanese planes bomb -7:00AM on Dec. 7, 1941, 180 Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor

 -2,400 Americans killed -2,400 Americans killed

 -300 planes and 18 ships destroyed -300 planes and 18 ships destroyed

 -U.S. declares war on Japan on Dec. 8, 1941 -U.S. declares war on Japan on Dec. 8, 1941

 -Germany & Italy declare war on U.S. on Dec. 11 -Germany & Italy declare war on U.S. on Dec. 11

 -Memorial built in Pearl Harbor around the sunken -Memorial built in Pearl Harbor around the sunken ship U.S.S. Arizona

ship U.S.S. Arizona

 -Many feel FDR knew of attack and used it as a way to -Many feel FDR knew of attack and used it as a way to get America into WWII

get America into WWII

 -No concrete facts to support this claim -No concrete facts to support this claim

(24)

Pearl Harbor

(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)

Pearl Harbor Memorial Museum

(29)
(30)

• -August 1941, the U.S. and Britain sign Atlantic Charter

– Alliance btw. U.S. & Britain

• -After Pearl Harbor, U.S. begins wartime draft

• -Thousands volunteer

• -200,000 in U.S. military before Pearl Harbor

• -16 million after

• -U.S. troops call themselves G.I.’s

– Government Issue stamped on all of their

gear

(31)

Minorities in WWII Minorities in WWII

 -Many ethnic groups fought for U.S. in WWII -Many ethnic groups fought for U.S. in WWII

 Mexican Americans Mexican Americans

 -Fought in Philippines -Fought in Philippines

 -Fought at D-Day -Fought at D-Day

 Japanese Americans Japanese Americans

 -Most were not allowed in military until 1943 -Most were not allowed in military until 1943

 - - Nisei Nisei were allowed in 1943 were allowed in 1943

 -Citizens born in U.S. of Japanese -Citizens born in U.S. of Japanese parents parents

 Women Women

 -350,000 women volunteer -350,000 women volunteer

 -Pilots, Coast Guard, Mechanics, etc. -Pilots, Coast Guard, Mechanics, etc.

 -Largest group called Womens’ Army Corps -Largest group called Womens’ Army Corps

(32)

 Native Americans Native Americans

 -Navajo created a code unbreakable by -Navajo created a code unbreakable by Japanese

Japanese

 -“Navajo Code Talkers” -“Navajo Code Talkers”

 African Americans African Americans

 -1 million drafted/volunteered -1 million drafted/volunteered

 -Segregated into all black units -Segregated into all black units

 -B/c of huge causalities, units desegregated -B/c of huge causalities, units desegregated in 1944

in 1944

 -Group of all black pilots also fought in WWII -Group of all black pilots also fought in WWII

 -Called Tuskegee Airmen -Called Tuskegee Airmen

(33)

Navajo Code Talkers

(34)

Tuskegee Airmen

(35)

Tuskegee Airmen

(36)

Operation Torch

 -August 1940 British troops are fighting in Africa

 -British troops led by Bernard Montgomery

 -German troops led by Erwin Rommel [Desert Fox]

 -May 1943, U.S. & British troops take

control of Africa

(37)

Invasion of Italy

 -July 1943 U.S. troops under George S.

Patton attack Italy

 -In 38 days Mussolini is overthrown &

killed by Italian people

 -Italian govt. surrenders in Sept. 1943

 -Germans in Italy refuse to give up

 -Germans lose key battle in Italy

 -Battle of Anzio

 -Italy formally surrenders in April 1945

(38)
(39)

Mussolini’s Death

(40)

Operation Barbarossa Operation Barbarossa

-June 1941 Germany invades USSR -June 1941 Germany invades USSR

-Push Soviet Army to city of Stalingrad -Push Soviet Army to city of Stalingrad - - Battle of Stalingrad Battle of Stalingrad becomes USSR’s becomes USSR’s

bloodiest bloodiest

-Sept. 1942-Feb.1943 -Sept. 1942-Feb.1943

-300,000 killed -300,000 killed

-USSR wins & turns tide in Eastern Front -USSR wins & turns tide in Eastern Front

(41)

D-Day D-Day

 -U.S. & Britain agree in 1943 to -U.S. & Britain agree in 1943 to attack Germany in France

attack Germany in France

 -1st step was -1st step was carpet-bombing carpet-bombing

– Large # of bombs dropped over area Large # of bombs dropped over area

 -3000 planes/day -3000 planes/day

 -U.S. used deception to fool Germany -U.S. used deception to fool Germany where invasion would occur

where invasion would occur

 -Used Fake ships, rubber planes, -Used Fake ships, rubber planes, misinformation, spies

misinformation, spies

(42)

D-Day Decoys

(43)
(44)
(45)
(46)

Enigma Machine

• -Britain steals Germany’s code machine

• -Called Enigma Machine

– Allows Allies to know Germany’s plans

– Also tells U.S. how much Hitler knows about

invasion

(47)

Enigma Machine

(48)

D-Day Begins D-Day Begins

 -Invasion site was Normandy, France -Invasion site was Normandy, France

 -Nicknamed -Nicknamed D-Day D-Day & & Operation Overlord Operation Overlord

 -Set for June 5, 1944 -Set for June 5, 1944

 -Hitler believed invasion would be later and at city called -Hitler believed invasion would be later and at city called Calais

Calais

 -Bad weather on June 5th prevents invasion -Bad weather on June 5th prevents invasion

 -Moved to June 6, 1944 -Moved to June 6, 1944

 -Leader of Allied troops at Normandy was General -Leader of Allied troops at Normandy was General Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight D. Eisenhower

 -Invasion began at dawn -Invasion began at dawn

 -1000 planes bomb coast of Normandy -1000 planes bomb coast of Normandy

 -23,000 paratroopers drop before dawn behind enemy -23,000 paratroopers drop before dawn behind enemy lines and try to work back to beach [2 fronts]

lines and try to work back to beach [2 fronts]

 -Also used men on gliders -Also used men on gliders

 -150,000 ground troops prepare to land on boats -150,000 ground troops prepare to land on boats

(49)

D-Day Beaches D-Day Beaches

-Troops hit 5 beaches:

-Troops hit 5 beaches:

1. 1. Gold Gold 4. 4. Sword Sword 2. 2. Utah Utah 5. 5. Juno Juno 3. 3. Omaha Omaha

-Fierce resistance from Germans -Fierce resistance from Germans

-Hitler believes invasion is diversion -Hitler believes invasion is diversion

-Believes real invasion will come at Calais -Believes real invasion will come at Calais

-Does not send in reinforcements -Does not send in reinforcements

-By nightfall, all 5 beaches were under Allied control -By nightfall, all 5 beaches were under Allied control

-Over 5,000 Allied troops killed -Over 5,000 Allied troops killed

-Invasion gives Allies a base in mainland Europe -Invasion gives Allies a base in mainland Europe

-By July, 2 million Allied troops in Europe -By July, 2 million Allied troops in Europe

-Begin to push Germans out of France -Begin to push Germans out of France

-Puts Germans on defense on both fronts

-Puts Germans on defense on both fronts

(50)

D-Day Beaches

(51)

Battle of the Bulge

 August 1944, Allies liberate Paris

 -Reach German border in Sept.

 -Germans launch counterattack along border in Dec.

 -Area is called Ardennes Forest

 -Known as the Battle of the Bulge

 -Battle lasts from Dec. 16 –Jan. 28

 -Largest battle in W. Europe

 -Largest land battle fought by Americans in WWII

 -80,000 U.S. soldiers killed, wounded, or missing

 -100,000 Germans

(52)
(53)
(54)

Yalta Conference

 -After Bulge, German army almost defeated

 -Allied troops surround Berlin on April 25, 1945

 -Hitler refuses to surrender

 -Kills himself on May 1st [April 30th]

 -May 8th 1945 Germany surrenders

 -Called VE Day

 -Victory in Europe Day

 -Feb. 1945 FDR, Stalin, and Churchill meet [Big 3]

 -Decide to divide Germany in half

 -Divide Berlin into 4 zones of occupation

 -Each zone controlled by U.S., Britain, France, USSR

 -All 3 agree to ally against Japan

(55)

Big 3 at Yalta

(56)

Holocaust Holocaust

 -Hitler believed that the Jews were to blame for Germany’s -Hitler believed that the Jews were to blame for Germany’s problems

problems

 -Believed the master race was -Believed the master race was Aryan Aryan

-German,white,Christian -German,white,Christian

 -Also believed in -Also believed in Anti-Semitism Anti-Semitism

 -Hatred and violence towards Jews -Hatred and violence towards Jews

 -1935 Hitler passes -1935 Hitler passes Nuremberg Laws Nuremberg Laws

 -Removed all legal rights for Jews -Removed all legal rights for Jews

 -Takes away all land & money -Takes away all land & money

 -Enforced by -Enforced by S.S. S.S .

 -Nazi Private Army -Nazi Private Army

 - - Gestapo Gestapo labeled & arrested all Jews labeled & arrested all Jews

 -Nazi secret police -Nazi secret police

(57)

Concentration Camps

• Jews were forced into Concentration Camps

– Forced labor camps – Later death camps

• -After Hitler conquers Poland, he sends in the Einsatzgruppen

– Mobile killing squad

– Killed Jews one by one using firing squads

(58)

Einsatzgruppen

(59)

Death Camps & Final Solution

 -Hitler felt that firing squads too slow

 -Creates the Final Solution

 -Hitler’s plan to kill all Europe’s Jews

 -Built 30 death camps to hold & kill Jews

 -Camps had gas chambers as method of killing

 -Used gas called Zyklon –B

 -1st day of death camps, 2,500 killed

 -Elderly, sick, young were killed on arrival to camps

 -All others put to work

 -Some sold into slavery to German companies

 -Prisoners labeled with numbered tattoos

 -Certain #s were picked to have medical “tests” by Dr. Joseph Mengele

 -Most died from these tests

(60)

Zyklon-B

(61)

Dr. Joseph Mengele

(62)

Tattooed Numbers

(63)

Mengele’s “Medical Tests”

• Dr. Mengele tried many experiments on the Jews brought to Auschwitz.

• Changing eye color by injecting ink into children’s eyes

• Amputating limbs from two different people and trying to reattach the limbs to the other.

• Trying to create conjoined twins by sewing their spines and wrists together

• Freezing experiments that forced Jews into tanks of ice water for 3 hours

• Removing bones and muscle to see if it would regenerate

• Forced sterilization and castration

• Attempts to make saltwater drinkable by forcing people to only drink it

• Injecting people with Typhus, Malaria, Yellow Fever, Small Pox

• Hiding poison in people’s food to see effects

(64)

Death Camps Death Camps

There were four major death camps:

There were four major death camps:

Auschwitz

Auschwitz [Poland] [Poland]

-Most deadly -Most deadly

-1.5 million killed [Avg. of 6000/day] -1.5 million killed [Avg. of 6000/day]

Buchenwald

Buchenwald [Germany] [Germany]

-43,000 killed -43,000 killed

Treblinka

Treblinka [Poland] [Poland]

Dachau

Dachau [Germany] [Germany]

-A total of 6 million Jews were killed in Holocaust

-A total of 6 million Jews were killed in Holocaust

(65)

Auschwitz

(66)
(67)

Dachau’s Furnace

(68)

Buchenwald’s Living Conditions

(69)

Liberation of Death Camps

 -May 1945 Allies begin to liberate camps

 -B/c of extreme nature of Holocaust, 24 Nazi leaders are put on trial for war crimes

 -Called Nuremberg Trials

 -12 out of 24 are put to death

(70)

Battle in the Pacific

 -Fighting in Pacific mainly between U.S. and Japan

 -Fighting for control of islands

 -7 major battles in the Pacific:

 1. 1st Battle of the Philippines

 -Main airbase for U.S. is Clark Field in Philippines

 -Japan hits base right after Pearl Harbor

 -U.S. troops led in Pacific by Gen. Douglas MacArthur

 -MacArthur forced to surrender on May 6, 1942

 -U.S. POW’s in Philippines become part of Bataan Death March

 -6 to 12 day forced march for 55 miles

 -At least 10,000 American POW’s die

(71)

Bataan Death March

(72)

March was

55

miles

(73)

Gen. Douglas MacArthur

(74)

2. 2. Battle of the Coral Sea Battle of the Coral Sea

• -May 1942 -May 1942

• -1st naval battle fought completely by -1st naval battle fought completely by aircraft

aircraft

• -Ends in draw, but prevents Japan from -Ends in draw, but prevents Japan from getting a new air base

getting a new air base

(75)

3. 3. Battle of Midway Battle of Midway

 -Japan’s Admiral is Yamamoto -Japan’s Admiral is Yamamoto

 -U.S. Admiral is Chester Nimitz -U.S. Admiral is Chester Nimitz

 -June 4, 1942 battle begins -June 4, 1942 battle begins

 -Midway was a stepping stone to -Midway was a stepping stone to Hawaii

Hawaii

 -U.S. planes sink 4 Japanese aircraft -U.S. planes sink 4 Japanese aircraft carriers

carriers

 -U.S. wins & prevents Japan from -U.S. wins & prevents Japan from launching any offensive attacks

launching any offensive attacks

(76)

4. Battle of Guadalcanal

 -U.S. begins offensive in Pacific

 -Marines fight in jungles of island

 -Japanese snipers kill many Marines, but are forced to give up island

 -Begins U.S. Island Hopping Campaign

 -Strategy of attacking or skipping specific Japanese-held islands

 -Campaign gives U.S. control of the Mariana Islands

 -Islands that allow U.S. to hit mainland Japan

(77)

5. 5. 2nd Battle of the Philippines 2nd Battle of the Philippines

 -Oct. 1944, MacArthur returns to -Oct. 1944, MacArthur returns to Philippines

Philippines

 -Major battle is at -Major battle is at Leyte Gulf Leyte Gulf

 -1st use of -1st use of Kamikazes Kamikazes

 -Suicide pilots -Suicide pilots

 -U.S. gains control in June 1945 -U.S. gains control in June 1945

(78)

6. Battle of Iwo Jima

 -Bloodiest battle of Pacific

 -74 days, Allies bomb island

 -Feb. 1945, Marines storm island

 -U.S. wins but lose 125,000 men

 -27 Medals of Honor awarded

 -“Flag Raising at Iwo Jima” built in D.C.

(79)

Flag Raising at Iwo Jima

(80)

Iwo Jima Memorial

(81)

7. 7. Battle of Okinawa Battle of Okinawa

 -April-June 1945 -April-June 1945

 -U.S. could use island to invade Japan -U.S. could use island to invade Japan

 -Allies win, but lose 50,000 men -Allies win, but lose 50,000 men

(82)

The Manhattan Project

 -1939 FDR receives a letter from Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein

 -Said Germany was working on “Super Bomb”

 -FDR begins a program to create an atomic bomb

 -Called Manhattan Project

(83)

Los Alamos

 -1942 scientist Enrico Fermi creates the 1

st

nuclear chain reaction at University of Chicago

 -Govt. uses his info in building bomb

 -Project located in Los Alamos, NM

 -Headed by Robert Oppenheimer

 -So top secret, VP Harry S. Truman does not know

 -July 16, 1945 the bomb was tested in New Mexico [Trinity Test]

 -Believed to have been taped and sent to Japan to force surrender

 -Japan does not reply

(84)

The Gadget The Gadget

 -Nickname of the bomb -Nickname of the bomb

 -10 feet in diameter -10 feet in diameter

 -Weighs 4 tons -Weighs 4 tons

 -When exploded, temp. reaches 572 Degrees F. -When exploded, temp. reaches 572 Degrees F.

 - - Wind Wind from blast reaches 890 miles/hour from blast reaches 890 miles/hour

 -3rd degree burns on people 56 miles away -3rd degree burns on people 56 miles away

 -550 yds. of blast = death -550 yds. of blast = death

 -8 miles = radiation cancer -8 miles = radiation cancer

 -Main ingredient was uranium -Main ingredient was uranium

 -Can be seen and felt up to 120 miles away -Can be seen and felt up to 120 miles away

 -Total cost was $2 billion -Total cost was $2 billion

(85)
(86)

Should We Use The Bomb?

Should We Use The Bomb?

 Yes Yes

 -Japanese soldiers refused to surrender -Japanese soldiers refused to surrender

 -Invasion of Japan would cause huge loss of life -Invasion of Japan would cause huge loss of life

 -U.S. wanted unconditional surrender -U.S. wanted unconditional surrender

 -Would make U.S. military superpower -Would make U.S. military superpower

 -USSR close to creating bomb -USSR close to creating bomb

 -Revenge for Pearl Harbor -Revenge for Pearl Harbor

 No No

 -Japan almost defeated -Japan almost defeated

 -Too violent & destructive -Too violent & destructive

 -Would cause arms race -Would cause arms race

 -Illegal to bomb civilians -Illegal to bomb civilians

 -Conventional bombs & invasion would have won war -Conventional bombs & invasion would have won war

 -Japan willing to surrender if could keep Emperor -Japan willing to surrender if could keep Emperor

 -U.S. blockade strangling Japan [No supplies left] -U.S. blockade strangling Japan [No supplies left]

 -War predicted to end in Sept. 1945 -War predicted to end in Sept. 1945

(87)

The Bomb Ends The War

• April 12, 1945 FDR dies

• -VP Harry S. Truman takes over as President

• -3 days later, Truman is told about Manhattan Project

• -Decision to use bomb falls on Truman

• -August 6th, 1945 B-29 bomber named

“Enola Gay” drops 1st atomic bomb on city of Hiroshima

• -Bomb nicknamed “Little Boy”

• -140,000 are killed

• -Japan still does not surrender

(88)

Fat Man

 -August 9, 1945 a second atomic bomb is dropped on city of Nagasaki by B-52 called Bockscar.

 -Nicknamed “Fat Man”

 -70,000 are killed

 -August 15, 1945 Japan agrees to surrender

 -Called VJ Day

• -Victory over Japan Day

 -Formal surrender signed on Sept. 2, 1945 on the U.S.S. Missouri

 -Ends WWII

(89)

Enola Gay

(90)
(91)

Bockscar

(92)
(93)
(94)
(95)

Figure

Updating...

Related subjects :