Evaluation of the wound healing activity of an ethanolic extract of Ceylon cinnamon in mice

0
1
5
1 week ago
PDF Preview
Full text
(1)Veterinarni Medicina, 57, 2012 (1): 53–57. Original Paper. Evaluation of the wound healing activity of an ethanolic extract of Ceylon cinnamon in mice M.R. Farahpour1, M. Habibi2 1 2. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran Member of Young Researchers Club, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran. ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to verify the effect of Ceylon cinnamon on experimentally induced excision wounds in rats. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups of eight rats each. Group A received a placebo containing 1.5% of cinnamon and Group B a placebo containing 3%. Group C, as the control group, didn’t receive any treatment and finally Group D received a blank placebo as the reference standard group. Wound healing was monitored on Days 3, 6, 9 and 14 and histological evaluation was carried out on the samples. The results show that cinnamon extract served to accelerate the wound healing process and specifically increased epithelialization in treatment groups compared to the other groups. Thus, this study demonstrates that Ceylon cinnamon may be effective in stimulating the enclosure of wounds. Keywords: wound healing; Ceylon cinnamon; ethanolic extract; mice. Wounds are inescapable events of life, which arise due to physical or chemical injury or microbial infections. The healing of wounds often deviates from a normal course and under-healing, over-healing or failure of wounds to heal is common. Research on drugs that increase wound healing is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Several drugs obtained from plant sources are known to increase the healing of different types of wounds (Biswas and Mukherjee 2003). Herbal medicine has become an integral part of standard healthcare, based on a combination of time honoured traditional usage and ongoing scientific research. Medicinal plants are coming into prominence because of the overuse of conventional medicines such as antibiotics which has resulted in the development of resistance in many infectious organisms. Thus, herbal preparations can be more effective than conventional medicines and their non-toxic nature means that they can be administered over long periods (Vinothapooshan and Sundar 2010). Cinnamon has a long history of use as a spice and flavouring agent. Two types of cinnamon are commonly consumed, common cinnamon also called ‘true cinnamon’ or Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamon verum, C. zeylanicum) and its related spice, cassia. cinnamon (C. aromaticum), which is also known as Chinese cinnamon (Jellin 2006a,b). Both common cinnamon and cassia cinnamon have been thought to be generally safe when ingested; however, in recent years coumarin levels found in cassia cinnamon have been discussed as potentially harmful. While of medical value as it is a precursor to several anticoagulants, coumarin is moderately toxic to the liver and kidneys, with an LD50 of 275 mg/kg (Lungarini et al. 2008). With regard to safety, with the exception of one case report published by Westra et al. (1998), data obtained from clinical trials suggests that cinnamon, when consumed in doses used for food preparation, may be considered as safe (USFDA 2006). Cinnamon exhibits diverse biological functions including anti-inflammatory (Lee et al. 2005), anti-oxidant (Lee et al. 2003; Singh et al. 2007), anti-microbial (Matan et al., 2006; Singh et al. 2007), and anti-diabetic effects (Khan et al. 2003; Qin 2003). Recently, the anti-tumour activity of cinnamon has been shown both in vitro (Schoene et al. 2005; Singh et al. 2009) and in vivo (Kwon 2009). In addition, cinnamon is rich in essential oils and tannins which inhibit microbial growth (Mau et al. 2001; Amara 2008). The most favoured chemical constituents of cinnamon are volatile oils (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, cinnamic acid, and 53.

(2) Original Paper weitherhin), mucilage, diterpenes and proanthocyanidins (Jayaprakasha et al. 2002). In particular, eugenol is widely used and well known for its medicinal properties. It is active against oral bacteria associated with dental caries and periodontal disease (Cai and Wu 1996) and effective against a large number of other bacteria (Larhsini et al. 2001; Friedman et al. 2002; Burt and Reinders 2003; Cressy et al. 2003) and viruses (Kim et al. 2001). The aim of this study was to evaluate the wound healing activity of cinnamon and to determine the effects of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial characteristics of cinnamon’s constituents on acceleration of the wound healing process.. MATERIAL AND METHODS Preparation of the plant extract An ethanolic (20%) extract of Ceylon cinnamon was prepared from a whole plant and the extract was filter purified. Treatment extracts were then gathered and prepared to 1.5 and 3% solutions in a blank placebo (Eucerin and Vaseline).. Experimental animals Twenty-four male Wister rats (200–220 g) of approximately two months of age were used as experimental animals and were divided into four groups of six rats. The animals were housed in standard environmental conditions of temperature (22 ± 3 °C), humidity (60 ± 5%), and a 12 h light/dark cycle. During the course of the experiment the rats were administered a standard pellet diet (Pastor Institute, Iran) and water ad libitum.. Surgical procedures After induction of anaesthesia with 2% xylazine and 10% ketamine (i.m. 60 mg/kg) rats were fixed in a ventral posture on a surgery table. The dorsal area from the scapula to the ilium were then scrubbed and prepared for surgery. Two circular, full thickness surgical wounds with diameters of 7 mm, 1 cm away from both sides of the backbone, and 5 cm away from each other were made with a 7 mm biopsy punch. Using this excisional wounding method, the epidermal, dermal, hypodermal 54. Veterinarni Medicina, 57, 2012 (1): 53–57 and panniculus carnosus layers were removed completely (Luisa and DiPietro 2003).. Treatments After the making of surgical wounds, all rats were randomly coloured with a non-toxic colour and divided into three groups. To Group A, an ointment comprising 1.5% cinnamon and to Group B an ointment of 3% cinnamon were administered. Group C as the control group did not received any treatment and finally Group D as the reference standard group received the blank placebo. All rats were monitored daily for 14 days and any wound fluid or evidence of infection or other abnormalities were noted. The study was approved by the ethics committee for animal experiments.. Histopathological study Samples of healing tissue were taken on Days 3, 6, 9 and 14 from all four groups of animals and were processed for histological study. The samples were fixed in formalin and installed on slides, stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and then analysed under a light microscope. The recorded parameters were scars, inflammatory cells, angiogenesis, congestion, fibroblast collagen density, fibrin and fibroblastic aggregation.. Statistical analysis All values are reported as mean ± S.E.M. The statistical differences among groups were assessed using the Duncan multiple range test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS for Windows software.. RESULTS A: 1.5%, B: 3% C and D: control and placebo. In this study the wound healing process in the control and placebo groups proceeded almost identically. Angiogenesis, which is important factor in the first days of healing, was significantly higher in the treated group than in Group C on Day 3. Strikingly, epithelization in Group B was elevated significantly.

(3) Veterinarni Medicina, 57, 2012 (1): 53–57. Original Paper. Table 1. Effect of ethanolic extract of ceylon cinnamon on excisional wound model in mice Wound area (mm). No. Groups. Day 3. Day 6. Day 9. control. 6.94 ± 0.02. 6.81 ± 0.02. 6.21 ± 0.03. 5.2a ± 0.07. 2. placebo. 6.93 ± 0.01. 6.73b ± 0.05. 6.07b ± 0.02. 4.89b ± 0.09. 3. 1.5%. 6.92 ± 0.04. 6.69b ± 0.03. 4.95c ± 0.07. 3.52c ± 0.05. 3%. a. Day 14. 1. 4. a. c. d. 6.91 ± 0.04. 6.21 ± 0.03. 4.47 ± 0.08. 2.2d ± 0.04. ns. *. **. **. All expressed as mean and standard error mean (S.E.M). Mean in columns with different letters were significantly different (ns = not significant, *P < 0.05 **P < 0.01). at Day 3, while in the other groups the epithelization rate was negative. The remaining parameters were almost identical at Day 3. On the 6th day, epithelization in both A and B was higher than in Group C and wound healing was proceeding towards the chronic phase. However, in Group C healing was still in the acute phase. On the 9th day, there was no difference in parameters between the A and B Groups, in which wound healing was significantly better compared to Group C. Finally, the progression of wound healing on Day 14 in the B Group was better than in the A Group owing particularly to the lower levels of congestion and oedema in Group B. Overall, wound healing proceeded most effectively in Group B, in large part due to the excellent epithelization from the beginning of the wound healing process.. (1.5 and 3%) elicited a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the wound area (Table 1, Figure 1). On Day 3 there were no differences among the groups but three days later at Day 6 there were significant differences among all groups, although the placebo (6.73 ± 0.05) and 1.5% treatment (6.69 ± 0.03) groups showed no differences. On the 9th day of the study a significant difference was seen between the treatments groups (4.95 ± 0.07 and 4.47 ± .08), and the placebo (6.07 ± 0.12), and control (6.21 ± 0.03) groups. Finally, on the last day of the experiment the effectiveness of the treatment extract was completely obvious and, in particular the group administered the 3% treatment extract showed a huge contraction in wound size (2.2 ± 0.04) compared to the other groups. However, the 1.5% treatment group also had an effective impact on wound enclosure (3.52 ± 0.05).. Wound enclosure. DISCUSSION. Overall, we show here that the topical application of Ceylon cinnamon extract at different concentrations. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of cinnamon extract on the healing of exper-. 8. Control. Placebo. Cinnamon extract, 0.75%. Cinnamon extract, 1.5%. 7 6. (mm). 5 4 3 2 1 0. 3. 6. (days). 9. 14. Figure 1. Shows the wound area (mm) of different groups over a period of 14 days. 55.

(4) Original Paper imentally induced wounds in rats. Collagenation, wound contraction and epithelization are crucial phases of wound healing. The phases of inflammation, macrophagia, fibroblasia and collagenation are intimately interlinked. Thus, intervention at any one of these phases using drugs could eventually either promote or inhibit one or all phases of healing (Vinothapooshan and Sundar 2010). Herbal drugs have come to be increasingly used worldwide because of their effectiveness and safety. Cinnamon is a medicinally useful plant with many therapeutic properties Stefan et al. (2009) reported an anti-oxidant activity of cinnamon essential oil while another study indicates that ceylon cinnamon essential oil inhibits hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity in rats, and suppresses lipid peroxidation via the enhancement of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (Lee et al. 2003). These characteristic antioxidant properties of cinnamon may serve to promote healing at the wound site. It is well known that diverse mechanisms may be involved in the genesis of inflammatory reactions. Eugenol showed similar anti-inflammatory effects to a COX antagonist (indomethacin; Huss et al. 2002; Kim et al. 2003), which helps to accelerate wound healing. It has been shown that cinnamon extract, be it water or ethanol-based, as well as its marked antioxidant properties, may also exert antimicrobial effects (Anderson et al. 2004; Blomhoff 2004; Kanuri et al. 2009), which may constitute a further basis for cinnamon’s wound healing activity. Indeed, cinnamaldehyde, a bioactive constituent found in cinnamon, has been shown to possess considerable antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in in vitro experiments (Lee and Ahn 1998). Furthermore, cinnamaldehyde has also been shown to inhibit the growth of fungi, including yeast, filamentous moulds and dermatophytes as well as the eggs and adult females of human head louse (Ooi et al. 2006). These constitute yet further properties of cinnamon which may serve to accelerate wound enclosure. Thus, all these reported characteristics of cinnamon extracts promote wound healing and also more effective and faster wound contraction. In fact, anti-inflammation, antioxidant and antimicrobial are the main properties of remedies which accelerate wound healing. In conclusion, in the present study we demonstrate that cinnamon is effective in wound healing and that it improves conditions at the wound site to promote better 56. Veterinarni Medicina, 57, 2012 (1): 53–57 enclosure and healing. We think that the basis of this wound healing ability likely lies in cinnamon’s anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial functions which are mostly due to its essential oil, specially eugenol and cinnamoldeyde.. REFERENCES Amara AA, El-Masry MH, Bogdady HH (2008): Plant crude extracts could be the solution: Extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 21, 159–171. Anderson RA, Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Schmidt WF, Khan A, Flanagan VP, Schoene NW, Graves DJ (2004): Isolation and characterization of polyphenol type-A polymers from cinnamon with insulin-like biological activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, 65–70. Biswas TK, Mukherjee B (2003): Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: A review. The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds 2, 25. Blomhoff R (2004): Antioxidants and oxidative stress. Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin 124, 1643–1645. Burt SA, Reinders RD (2003): Antibacterial activity of selected plant essential oil against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Letters in Applied Microbiology 36, 162–167. Cai L, Wu CD (1996): Compounds from Syzygiumaromaticum possessing growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens. Journal of Natural Products (Lloydia) 59, 987–990. Cressy HK, Jerret AR, Osborne CM, Bremer PJ (2003): A novel method for the reduction of number of Listeria monocytogenes cells by freezing in combination with an essential oil in bacteriological media. Journal of Food Protection 66, 390–395. Friedman M, Henika PR, Mandrell RE (2002): Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Protection 65, 1545–1560. Huss U, Ringbom T, Perera P, Bohlin L, Vasange M (2002): Screening of ubiquitous plant constituents for COX-2 inhibition with a scintillation proximity based assay. Journal of Natural Products 65, 1517–1521. Jayaprakasha GK, Raom LJ Sakariah KK (2002): Chemical composition of volatile oil from Cinnamomumzeylanicum buds. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, Journal of Biosciences 57, 990–993. Jellin JM (2006a): Cinnamon bark – Monograph (online). Available from http://www.naturaldatabase.com (accessed 30 August 2006)..

(5) Veterinarni Medicina, 57, 2012 (1): 53–57 Jellin JM (2006b): Cassia cinnamon – Monograph (online). Available from http://www.naturaldatabase.com (accessed 30 August 2006). Kanuri G, Weber S, Volynets V, Spruss A, Bischof SC, Bergheim I (2009): Cinnamon extract protects against acute alcoholinduced liver steatosis in mice. Journal of Nutrition 139, 482–487. Khan A, Safdar M, Khan MMA, Khattak KN, Anderson RA (2003): Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26, 3215– 3218. Kim HJ, Lee JS, Woo ER, Kim MK, Yang BS, Yu YG, Park H, Lee YS (2001): Isolation of virus-cell fusion inhibitory components from Eugenia caryophyllata. Planta Medica 67, 277–279. Kim SS, Oh OJ, Min HY, Park EJ, Kim Y, Park HJ, Han YN, Lee SK (2003): Eugenol suppresses cyclooxygenase expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Life Science 73, 337–348. Kwon HK, Jeon WK, Hwang JS, Lee CG, So JS, Park JA, Ko BS, Im SH (2009): Cinnamon extract suppresses tumor progression by modulatingangiogenesis and the effector function of CD8+ T cells. Cancer Letters 278,174–182. Larhsini M, Oumoulid L, Lazrek HB, Wataleb S, Bousaid M, Bekkouche K, Jana M (2 001): Antibacterial activity of some Maroccan medicinal plants. Phytotherapy Research 15, 250–252. Lee JS, Jeon SM, Park EM, Huh TL, Kwon OS, Lee MK, Choi MS (2003): Cinnamate supplementation enhances hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense systems in high cholesterol-fed rats. Journal of Medicinal Food 6, 183–191. Lee HS, Ahn YJ (1998): Growth-inhibiting effects of Cinnamomum cassia bark-derived materials on human intestinal bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, 8–12. Lee SH, Lee SY, Son DJ, Lee H, Yoo HS, Song S, Oh KW, Han DC, Kwon BM,Hong JT (2005): Inhibitory effect of 20-hydroxycinnamaldehyde on nitricoxide production through inhibition of NF-[kappa]B activation in RAW264.7 cells. Biochemical Pharmacology 69, 791–799. Lungarini S, Aureli F, Coni E (2008): Coumarin and cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon marketed in Italy: A natural chemical hazard? Food Additives and Contaminants 44, 1–9. Matan N, Rimkeeree H, Mawson AJ, Chompreeda P, Haruthaithanasan V, Parker M (2006): Antimicrobial. Original Paper activity of cinnamon and clove oils under modified atmosphere conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology107, 180–185. Mau JL, Chen CP, Hsieh PC (2001): Antimicrobial effect of extracts from Chinese chive, cinnamon and cornifructiis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, 183–188. Ooi LS, Li Y, Kam SL, Wang H, Wong EY, Ooi VE (2006): Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 34, 511–522. Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y (2003): Cinnamon extract (traditional herb) potentiates in vivo insulin-regulated glucose utilization via enhancing insulin signaling in rats. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 62, 139–148. Schoene NW, Kelly MA, Polansky MM, Anderson RA (2005): Watersoluble polymeric polyphenols from cinnamon inhibit proliferation and altercell cycle distribution patterns of hematologic tumor cell lines. Cancer Letters 230, 134–140. Singh G, Maurya S, Delampasona MP, Catalan CAN (2007): A comparison of chemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of cinnamon leaf and bark volatile oils, oleoresins and their constituents. Food and Chemical Toxicology 45, 1650–1661. Singh R, Koppikar SJ, Paul P, Gilda S, Paradkar AR, KaulGhanekar R (2009): Comparative analysis of cytotoxic effect of aqueous cinnamon extract from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark with commercial cinnamaldehyde on various cell lines. Pharmaceutical Biology 47, 1174–1176. Stefan F, Zita F, Iveta P, Juraj K (2009): Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on antioxidative status in broiler chickens. Acta Veterinary Brno 78, 411–417. USFDA (2006): Everything added to food in the United States: a food additive database. Vinothapooshan G, Sundar K (2010): Wound healing effect of various extracts of Adhatoda vasica. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Science 1, 530–536. Westra WH, McMurray JS, Califano J, Flint PW, Corio RL (1998): Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue associated with cinnamon gum use: a case report. Head Neck 20, 430–433. Received: 2011–05–09 Accepted after corrections: 2012–01–31. Corresponding Author: Mohammad Reza Farahpour, Urmia Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 969, Beheshti Street, Urmia, Iran Tel. +98 441 4373676, E-mail: mr.farahpour@yahoo.com. 57.

(6)

New documents

A service oriented architecture for decision making in engineering design
Like [19] we have utilised the power of computational grids to perform distributed fitness evaluation of our objectives, but we have implemented our framework in a Service Oriented
Rb2Al2B2O7
Rb2Al2B2O7 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c and is characterized by a three-dimensional framework built from corner-sharing AlO4 tetrahedra and BO3 triangles surrounding
Defining discourses: Discourse and the organisational adaptation of information systems
The aims of the thesis were articulated around the role of discourse in organisational adaptation of information systems, by analysing perspectives on the relationship between the
Calcium sodium imino­disulphonate trihydrate, a product of flue gas desulfurization
Comment The removal of sulfur dioxide in the ¯ue gas from the Enstedvñrk power plant in Aabenraa is effected by treating the ¯ue gas with an aerated slurry containing calcium
Surface scanning with uncoded structured light sources
High-accuracy stereo depth maps using structured light, IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition CVPR 2003, Vol.. Mateos, Bayesian High-resolution
A long thin mol­ecule, 2,6 di­methyl 6 tetra­decyl 2 tetra­decyl­­oxy 1,3,6 ­dioxazocan 6 ium iodide
Data collection: SMART Bruker, 2002; cell re®nement: SMART; data reduction: SAINT Bruker, 2002; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick, 1997; programs used to re®ne
5,6 Di­phenyl 3 (pyrazin 2 yl) 1,2,4 triazine
Data collection: SMART Bruker, 1998; cell re®nement: SMART; data reduction: SAINT Bruker, 1999; programs used to solve structure: SHELXS97 Sheldrick, 1997; programs used to re®ne
Communitarian perspectives on corporate governance
Further critique is offered on individualist and communitarian approaches to corporate governance based on an argument for pluralism in business life, the promotion of intimacy within
1,3,3,4,4 Penta­phenyl β lactam
Data collection: SMART Siemens, 1996; cell re®nement: SAINT Siemens, 1996; data reduction: SAINT and SADABS; programs used to solve structure: SHELXTL Sheldrick, 1997; programs used to
Communitarian perspectives on corporate governance
Communitarian perspectives on corporate governance, therefore, reflect the social aspirations of entrepreneurs, attitudes towards unitarist and democratic organisation, and organisation

Related documents

History in the Making: A History of the People of the United States of America to 1877
Grant defeated Horatio Seymour in the presidential race february 1869 Fifteenth Amendment passed by Congress December 1869 Grant encouraged Congress to readmit
0
14
864
Guidelines for Improving the Effectiveness of Boards of Directors of Nonprofit Organizations
Guidelines for Improving the Effectiveness of Boards of Directors of Nonprofit Organizations the Role of the Balanced Score Card, Aulgur found support for use of
0
2
86
Biomechanics of corneal wound healing
LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Time Course Figure 2 Flow Chart Figure 3 Cross Section of Eye 12 Figure 4 Cross Section of Cornea 13 Figure 5 Stretch Ratio
0
0
89
Evaluation of Anti Diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Premna Corymbosa Rottl against Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide in Diabetic Rats
THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF 42 Premna corymbosa rottl ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN STZ-NICOTINAMIDE INDUCED DIABETIC RATS 4 EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF 44 Premna
0
0
85
Evaluation of Toxicity and Antiulcer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Echinopsechinatusroxb
All the above mentioned phytoconstituents are present in Echinops echinatus Roxb and hence might have contributed for anti ulcer activity.94 Echinops echinatus Roxb has significantly
0
0
99
Evaluation of Wound Healing Effect of Aqueous Stem Extract of Zanthoxylum Rhetsa (Roxb.) Dc. on Wistar Rats
LIST OF TABLES TABLENO PARTICULARS PAGENO 1 Comparison between Acute and Chronic Inflammation 4 2 Bacterial strain used for the study with NCIM 30 3 Fungal strain used for the study
0
0
103
Evaluation of in Vivo Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf of Plumeria Acutifolia on Daltons Ascites Lymphoma Induced Cancer in Mice
CERTIFICATE I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled "Evaluation of in vivo anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of leaf of plumeria acutifolia on Daltons ascites lymphoma
0
0
114
Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Barks of Sterculia Foetida.L Against Paracetamol and Ethanol Induced Liver Injury in Rats
HEPATOPROTECTIV E ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BARKS OF STERCULIA FOETIDA Diagrammatic representation of Effects of ethanolic extract of barks of Sterculia foetida.L on total
0
2
110
Evaluation of Methanolic Extract of Hypericum Mysorense Ointment for its Wound Healing Activity
List of Figures LIST OF FIGURES SL.NO PARTICULARS PAGE 1 Algorithm showing approach to diagnosis and treatment 8 2 Mechanism of Antioxidant 10 3 Zone of inhibition against Gram positive
0
0
160
A prospective study of platelet derived growth factor in wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers in Indian population
Diabetic foot ulcers in the study group had better mean % of wound contraction of 38.55% as compared to the control group which had mean % of wound contraction of 12.79 %, the
0
0
88
Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Wattakaka Volubilis Leaves on DAL Induced Lymphoma in Mice with it’s Antioxidant Effect.
The animals treated with ethanolic extract of Wattakaka volubilis at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight showed almost similar histological appearance of liver cells, except for a few
0
0
145
Wound healing activity and mechanisms of action of an antibacterial protein from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus)
E Wound control mice delayed healing F Protein CaTx-II treated mice showed significant reduction of wound area, leukocyte infiltration, re-epithelialization, angiogenesis on 16 days
0
0
16
Folic Acid Reverses the Effects of Cannabis on the Brain of New Born Wistar Rats
Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from Day 5 to 20 of pregnancy as follows: group A received 2ml of normal saline solution per os, group B received 2.0 mg /kg body weight
0
0
11
From Waste Materials Skin Friendly Nanostructured Products to Save Humans and the Environment
Wound Healing and Anti-bacterial Activities For the well known effect of N-acetyl-glucosamine to accelerate wound healing and the higher efficacy of its nanocrystal structure in
0
0
7
Wound healing activity of methanolic leaf extract of ficus carica in albino rats
Methanolic leaf extract of a Ficus carica having significant wound healing activity in albino rats in excision wound model... Key words: Ficus carica, Excision wound model, Albino rats,
0
0
5
Show more