A Review on use of Waste Plastic in Road Construction

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2019)

27

A Review on use of Waste Plastic in Road Construction

Dr. Manish Varma

1

, Hitesh Teli

2

, Himmat Choudhary

3

, Akhilesh Singh Rathore

4

, Ajay Nagda

5

1

Head of civil department of Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies, Dabok, Udaipur (Raj.), India 2,3,4Civil B. tech. students of Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies, Dabok, Udaipur (Raj.), India

5Asst. prof. Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies, Dabok, Udaipur (Raj.), India

Abstract-- The use of secondary waste plastics [Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polystyrene(PS), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polymerization of vinyl chloride (PVC), Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP), etc.] were selected at their easing reduce the consumption of bitumen, proper best recycle of waste with more good engineering results Marshall stability, binding property, ductility, softening point, ductility, compressive strength, impact value, aggregate water absorption, aggregate crushing value, los angeles etc. Use of plastic in these things helps to increase it’s life time.

Keywords-- Waste plastic, PVC pipe mix, Modify Bitumen blends, Plastic tar road, Low density polyethylene, Durability.

I. INTRODUCTION

Plastic is a non-biodegradable material and according to researchers found that the material can remain on earth for 4500 years without degradation. Plastic do not compose naturally and so alternative methods needs to be implemented, in order to recycle the plastic materials in roads. The field tests withstood the stress and provided that plastic waste used after proper processing as an additive would enhance the life of the roads and also solve environment problems.

The bitumen is used mostly in the flexible kind of pavement construction. The flexible pavement may be constructed consisting of a number of layers and the top layer has to be the strongest as the highest compressive stress with mixture of aggregate and bitumen. The objective of laying a pavement is the distribution of load on layered system. The bitumen is one of the oldest known petroleum materials. The primary use (70%) of asphalt is in road construction .The world consumption of bitumen has increased rapidly, most of which was used in road construction. The current world consumption of bitumen is approximately the 122.5 million metric tonnes. Where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate and other. Due to the consumption of bitumen has increased rapidly and the industrial revolution and its large scale production plastic seemed to be a cheaper and affective raw material every vital sector of the economy starting from plastic application has been virtually revolutionized.

Asphalt is a viscous material that is derived from crude petroleum and is used in flexible pavement road. Asphalt is generally understood to include asphaltenes, resins and oils. Asphalt is characterized by their stiffness, consistency, ability to flow at different temperatures. A problem with all application that involves asphalt is the tendency for the asphalt to become brittle at low temperature and to become soft at high temperature.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

R. Vasudevan et al.[1] investigated the utilization of waste plastic in flexible road pavement. In the construction of asphalt pavement, hot bitumen was coated over hot stone aggregate and rolled. Bitumen is binding the aggregates together and helps to improve the strength and life of pavement but its resistance towards the water is poor. R. Vasudevan et al.[1] used waste plastic to modify the bitumen find better result in better utilization of waste plastic and improve strength and durability of pavement.

1.Different waste plastic used for coating over the aggregate.

2.Plastic Coated Aggregate (PCA) along with stone aggregate.

3.PCA mix with bitumen.

4.Polymer coated bitumen road scrap.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

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This observation helped to conclude the bonding of bitumen over PCA was strong. In the case of PCAs, the surface was covered by the polymer film and there were no pores. The molten polymer not only fills the voids of the aggregate and binds the aggregate together but also strongly binds with bitumen forming an organic bonding. Water could not penetrate over PCA, hence peeling out of bitumen from the PCA was nil even after 96 h, thus have better stripping value.

For an effective asphalt pavement, the flow values should be in the range 2–5 and the ratio of MSV and FV (referred to as Marshall Quotient) should be not more than 500. The results obtained for the PCA are within this range. Voids filled with bitumen (VFB) are expected around 65%. When the percentage of plastic will increases (10-25%) the binding strength increases up to 25kg and compressive strength increases up to 40 tonnes as shown in table 1.All the tests were carried out standard procedure available either with AASHTO, IRC and ASTM standards and obtain results as follows.

Table 1:

Type of plastics and variation in bending strength [1]

Type of plastic Percentage of

plastic

Binding

strength in kg

Compressive

strength(tonnes)

Polyethylene (PE)

10

20

25

325

340

350

250

270

290

Poly propylene(PP)

10

20

25

350

370

385

280

290

310

Polystyrene (PS)

10

20

25

200

210

215

155

165

170

PE foam

10

20

25

310

325

335

250

265

290

PP foam

10

20

25

340

360

360

270

290

210

Laminated plastics

10

20

25

360

385

400

290

310

335

BOPP

10

20

25

380

400

410

300

310

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2019)

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Table: 2

Aggregate technical properties [1]

Stone

aggregate

Plastic

contain

Moisture

absorption

Soundness

Aggregate

Impact

Value

Aggregate

Crushing Test

(%)

Los Angeles

Abrasion (%) Voids

(%)

Without

plastic

coating

0 4 5±1% 25.4 26 37 4

With

plastic

coating

1% 2 Nil 21.20 21 32 2.2

With

plastic

coating

2% 1.1 Nil 18.50 20 29 1

With

plastic

coating

3% Traces Nil 17.00 18 26 0

Table: 3

Results of bitumen extraction test for the bitumen mix containing the PCA [1]

Plastic

contain

(% by

wait)

Bitumen extracted

after 5 min (%)

Bitumen extracted

after

10 min (%)

Bitumen extracted

after

15 min (%)

0 96.0 98.0 99.0

0.5 63.5 88.7 92.3

0.75 63.2 86.7 90.7

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Table: 4

Marshall stability value for polymer modified bitumen [1]

Percentage

of bitumen

Percentage

of polymer

w. r. t. wt of

bitumen

Type of

polymer PMB

Marshall

value

(KN)

Flow

value

(.25mm)

Void

percentage

Marshall

quotient

(KN/mm)

4.5 5 PP PMB 14.50 3 56 4.83

4.5 10 PP PMB 17.00 3.3 62 5.15

4.5 10 PE FOAM PMB 18.00 3.4 66 5.29

4.5 5 LDPE PMB 15.00 3.3 62 4.55

4.5 10 LDPE PMB 17.00 3.5 62 4.86

Ambika Behl et al.[5] investigated the utilization of waste polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic. Ambika Behl et al. used PVC plastic as modifier up to a level of 3% and 5% of bitumen used in construction of flexible pavement. PVC could not be directly heated with aggregate at high temperature because it release dioxins when burned so PVC waste used safely when its mix homogeneously with bitumen at a temperature of 160 ºC. To make homogeneous mix waste PVC was initially treated with chemical modifier then mix with bitumen, because PVC was not compatible with bitumen. Ambika Behl et al. used shredded PVC pipe waste (2-4mm) with different percentages, 3% and 5% by weight of bitumen in 80/100 penetration grade paving bitumen. Tests were done as per BIS code IS 2386 for physical properties of bitumen with different percentages of waste PVC.

In viscosity test of bitumen binder with different percentage of PVC at different temperature found that the viscosity of modified bitumen binder was increased with increased in percentage of PVC as shown table 5. Retained stability was the measure of moisture induced striping in the mix and subsequent loss of stability due to weakened bond between aggregates and binder. The stability was determined after placing the samples in water bath at 60ºC for half an hour and 24 h and found that retained stability of bituminous increased with increase in percentages of PVC plastic as shown in fig.1[5]. Indirect tensile strength test was significant to evaluate resistance of compacted bituminous mixture to cracking as well as sensitivity of mixture to moisture damage. Ambika Behl et al. found that the indirect tensile strength of bituminous mix increased with increased in percentages of plastic as shown in fig. 2. The strength and stability of the flexible pavement increase and the resistance to permanent deformation also increased when PVC mix with bitumen.

Table: 5

Viscosity values of neat and waste PVC modified 80/100 bitumen [5]

Absolute viscosity results

Viscosity (cp)

Temperature 80/100 pen bitumen

3% PVC waste modified 80/100 bitumen

5% PVC waste modified 80/100 bitumen

90ºC 8450 12,625 31,5800

100ºC 3915 6000 11,100

120ºC 1225 1825 2520

135ºC 620 880 1150

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2019)

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Fig. 1 Retained stability result[5] Fig. 2 Indirect tensile strength result[5]

A.I. Al-Hadidy and Tan Yi-qiu [9] investigated various additives (such as styrene based polymers, polyethylene based polymers, polychloroprene, gilsonite, various oils and many others modifiers including tall oil), utilised for the purpose improving the high and low temperature characteristics of asphalt composition, as well as to improve their toughness and durability. They used low density polyethylene (LDPE) with asphalt in different percentages by weight of bitumen.

A series of Rheological tests, such as penetration (ASTND-5), ductility (ASTN D-113), softening point (ASTM D-36) etc. were carried out on modified binders according to ASTM methods to characterize the mixtures designed for different percentages of LDPE as additive. They were found that decreased in the value of penetration and ductility as increased in percentage of LDPE and increased in softening point as increased in percentages of LDPE.

Table: 6

Rheological properties of LDPE- asphalt binders [9]

III. CONCLUSION

 R. Vasudevan et al.[1] found better result in better utilization of waste plastic and improve strength and durability of pavement.

 Increasing in plastic thickness on aggregate it show better resistance to wear and tear load.[1] PE,PP,PS,LDPE,HDPE,PVC,BOPP waste could be easily used with successfully application.[1]

 Using all above kind of waste plastic, that utilized in huge amount of waste in good economical way.[1]

 By using such kind of waste in pavement it reduce the construction cost approx 30,000/km of a single lane road which directly reduce the over all mega project cost.[1]

 It reduce the percentage of bitumen in road construction.[1]

70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86

80/100 binder

3% PVC 5% pvc 76

78 80 82 84 86 88 90

80/100 binder 3% PVC 5% PVC

LDPE

(%)

Penetration

(25ºC, 100 g,

5 s, dmm

Ductility

(25ºC, 5

cm/min)

Softening

point

(ºC)

0 51 150+ 52.5

2 40.8 148.5 57

4 35.5 141.8 61.5

6 28 137 66

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 Increasing in the percentage of PVC at different temperature found that the viscosity of modified bitumen binder increased.[5]

 The using PVC they found that indirect tensile strength of bitumen mix increased with increased in percentage of plastic.[5]

 The strength and stability of flexible pavement increased as well as well as the resistance to permanent deformation also increased when PVC mix with bitumen.[5]

 Improving the high and low temperature characteristics of asphalt composition, as well as improved their toughness and durability.[9]

Acknowledgement

We respect and thank assistant professor Mr. Ajay Nagda for providing us an opportunity to do the review paper on use of waste plastic in flexible pavement and giving us all support and guidance which made us complete the review paper. We are extremely thankful to Dr.Manish Varma head of Civil department for providing such a nice support and guidance, although they had busy schedule managing the corporate affairs.

REFERENCES

[1] R. Vasudevan, R. Velkennedy, A. Ramalinga Chandra Sekar and B. Sundarakannan (2012). “Utilization of Waste Polymers for Flexible Pavement and Easy Disposal of Waste Polymers”. Construction and Building Materials 28 (2012) 311–320. [2] Vasudevan R, Rajasekaran S, Saravanavel S. July 2006.

„„Reuse of waste plastics for road laying‟‟ Indian Highways (Indian Roads Congress), vol. 34, no. 7; July 2006. p. 5–20.

[3] Bose Sunil, Jain PK, Sangita, Arya IR. “Characterization of polymer modified asphalt binders for roads and air field surfacing, polymer modified asphalt binders”. ASTM STP: 1108. American Society of Testing Materials, Philadelphia, USA, 19923. p. 331–55.

[4] Vasudevan R, Rajasekaran S, Saravanavel S. December (2003). “Utilization of plastics waste in construction of flexible pavement”. In: Proceeding of the national seminar on „„Integrated development of rural & arterial road network for socio-economic growth‟‟, P-II; December 2003. p. 243.

[5] Ambika Behl, Girish Sharma, Gajendra kumar December (2013). “A sustainable approach: Utilization of waste PVC in asphaltic of roads”. Construction and Building Materials 54 (2014) 113– 117

[6] Bhaishya Pradip, Mahanta Dimberndra kumar July (2013). “Improvised segregation of recyclable materials in Guwahati city”. India: a case study. Clarion: Int Multidiscip J 2013; 2(2):46-52. [7] Bale Anmols (2011). “Potential reuse of plastic waste in road

construction: a review”. Eco-web India 2011:22-5.

[8] Sangita, Khan TA, Sabina, Sharma DK (2011). “Effect of waste polymer modifier on properties of bituminous concrete mixes”. Construct Build Mater 2011; 25:3841–8.

[9] A.I. Al-Hadidy, Tan Yi-qiu July (2008). “Effect of polyethylene on life of flexible pavements”. Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 1456–1464

[10] Giovanni Polacco, Jiri Stastna, Dario Biondi, Federico Antonelli, Zora Vlachovicova, Ludovit Zanzotto (2004). “Rheology of asphalts modified with glycidylmethacrylate functionalized polymers. J Colloid Interf Sci 2004; 280:366-73.

[11] Al-Hadidy Al (2006). “Evaluation of pyrolysis polypropylene modified asphalt paving materials”. J Al-Rafidian Eng 2006; 14():36-50.

Figure

Table 1: Type of plastics and variation in bending strength [1]

Table 1:

Type of plastics and variation in bending strength [1] p.2

References