What a re r Lipids? What a re r Fatty y Ac A ids?

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2010

2010 -- Beef Cattle In

Beef Cattle In--Service Training

Service Training

Inclusion of Lipids into Beef

Inclusion of Lipids into Beef

Cattle Diets

Cattle Diets

Reinaldo F. Cooke, Ph. D. Reinaldo F. Cooke, Ph. D.

Oregon State University

Oregon State University –– EOARCEOARC, Burns, Burns

What are Lipids?

What are Lipids?

•• Organic compounds

Organic compounds

– Plant and animal compoundsPlant and animal compounds –

– Insoluble in waterInsoluble in water –

– Soluble in organic solvents (Soluble in organic solvents (ii. e. ether). e. ether)

•• Several types of lipids

Several types of lipids

– VFA, triglycerides, cholesterol, fat soluble VFA, triglycerides, cholesterol, fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K)

vitamins (A, D, E, and K)

•• Major energy source

Major energy source

– Twice energy content of carbohydratesTwice energy content of carbohydrates •• Starch, sugars, and digestible fiberStarch, sugars, and digestible fiber

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What are Lipids?

What are Lipids?

•• Triglycerides

Triglycerides -- applicable for cattle nutrition

applicable for cattle nutrition

– Main component of vegetable and animal fatMain component of vegetable and animal fat –

– 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids

What are Fatty Acids?

What are Fatty Acids?

•• Chain

Chain--molecules containing C, H, O

molecules containing C, H, O

– Backbone of lipid nutritionBackbone of lipid nutrition

•• Mainly classified according to

Mainly classified according to

– Chain length (number of carbons)Chain length (number of carbons) –

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What are Fatty Acids?

What are Fatty Acids?

•• Classified according to number of carbons

Classified according to number of carbons

– ShortShort--chain FA = Less than 6 carbonschain FA = Less than 6 carbons •• VFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate)VFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate) –

– MediumMedium--chain FA = 6 to 12 carbonschain FA = 6 to 12 carbons –

– LongLong--chain FA = more than 12 carbonschain FA = more than 12 carbons •• Energy reserves in plants and animal tissuesEnergy reserves in plants and animal tissues

Acetate (2 carbons)

Acetate (2 carbons) PalmiticPalmitic acid (16 carbons)acid (16 carbons)

What are Fatty Acids?

What are Fatty Acids?

•• Classified according to hydrogenation

Classified according to hydrogenation

– Presence of double bonds in chainPresence of double bonds in chain –

– Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturatedSaturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated Stearic

Stearic acid (18:0)acid (18:0)

saturated saturated Oleic acid (18:1) Oleic acid (18:1) monounsaturated monounsaturated Linoleic acid (18:2) Linoleic acid (18:2) polyunsaturared polyunsaturared

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What are Fatty Acids?

What are Fatty Acids?

•• Classified according to hydrogenation

Classified according to hydrogenation

– Within mono and polyunsaturatedWithin mono and polyunsaturated

•• Classification according location of first double bondClassification according location of first double bond Oleic acid (18:1) Oleic acid (18:1) Omega Omega -- 99 Linoleic acid (18:2) Linoleic acid (18:2) Omega Omega -- 66 Linolenic acid (18:3) Linolenic acid (18:3) Omega Omega -- 33

What are Fatty Acids?

What are Fatty Acids?

•• Essential fatty acids

Essential fatty acids

– Not synthesized by body tissuesNot synthesized by body tissues •• Nutritional requirements still unknowNutritional requirements still unknow

•• Required for many physiological processesRequired for many physiological processes •• Must be present in the dietMust be present in the diet

Linoleic acid (18:2) Linoleic acid (18:2) Omega Omega -- 66 Linolenic acid (18:3) Linolenic acid (18:3) Omega Omega -- 33

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Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Main objective

Main objective

– Energy source, increase energy density of dietEnergy source, increase energy density of diet •• 1 g fat = 9 cal, whereas 1 g of starch/protein = 4 cal1 g fat = 9 cal, whereas 1 g of starch/protein = 4 cal

– Important for dairy and feedlot cattleImportant for dairy and feedlot cattle

•• Additional effects

Additional effects

– Individual fatty acids modulate body functionsIndividual fatty acids modulate body functions •• Reproduction, health, carcass qualityReproduction, health, carcass quality

•• Inclusion of fat sources into cattle diets

Inclusion of fat sources into cattle diets

– Enhance uptake and prevent ruminal disordersEnhance uptake and prevent ruminal disorders •• Requires evaluation of diet and fat sourcesRequires evaluation of diet and fat sources

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Common lipid sources fed to cattle

Common lipid sources fed to cattle

– Saturated fatty acidsSaturated fatty acids

•• Hydrogenated fats, yellow grease, palm oilHydrogenated fats, yellow grease, palm oil –

– Monounsaturated fatty acidsMonounsaturated fatty acids •• Canola oil, hydrolyzed tallowCanola oil, hydrolyzed tallow –

– Polyunsaturated fatty acidsPolyunsaturated fatty acids •• Linoleic acid (omega Linoleic acid (omega –– 6)6)

– Oilseeds such as cottonseed, corn, soybean and safflower Oilseeds such as cottonseed, corn, soybean and safflower

•• Linolenic acid (omega Linolenic acid (omega –– 3)3)

– Green foragesGreen forages –

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Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Sources constituted mainly by triglycerides

Sources constituted mainly by triglycerides

– Digestion occurs in mouth, rumen, abomasum, Digestion occurs in mouth, rumen, abomasum, and small intestine

and small intestine –

– Rumen = Major modification in lipidsRumen = Major modification in lipids •• HydrolysisHydrolysis

– Microbes break triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acidsMicrobes break triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids

•• FermentationFermentation

– Microbes ferment glycerol mainly into VFAMicrobes ferment glycerol mainly into VFA

•• BiohydrogenationBiohydrogenation

– Fatty acids exert antimicrobial effects, specially PUFAFatty acids exert antimicrobial effects, specially PUFA –

– Addition of H to double bonds by ruminal microbesAddition of H to double bonds by ruminal microbes –

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Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Absorption in the small intestine

Absorption in the small intestine

– Virtually identical as content that leaves rumenVirtually identical as content that leaves rumen –

– Reach circulation and are stored into tissuesReach circulation and are stored into tissues

•• Excessive intake of lipid sources

Excessive intake of lipid sources

– Accumulation of PUFA in the rumenAccumulation of PUFA in the rumen •• Incomplete biohydrogenationIncomplete biohydrogenation

•• Antimicrobial effectsAntimicrobial effects

•• Detrimental effects on digestibilityDetrimental effects on digestibility

•• Adequate inclusion to optimize utilization

Adequate inclusion to optimize utilization

and prevent harm on ruminal digestibility

and prevent harm on ruminal digestibility

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Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Supplementing fat to cattle

Supplementing fat to cattle

– Highly evaluated within highHighly evaluated within high--grain dietsgrain diets –

– Less attention to forageLess attention to forage--fed cattlefed cattle

•• Hess et al. (2008)

Hess et al. (2008) –

– JAS 86:E188

JAS 86:E188--204

204

– Fat inclusion into forageFat inclusion into forage--based dietbased diet

•• Less than 2% of DM to prevent forage substitution Less than 2% of DM to prevent forage substitution •• Less than 3% of DM to maximize diet efficiencyLess than 3% of DM to maximize diet efficiency •• Less than 4% of DM to increase diet densityLess than 4% of DM to increase diet density While preventing detriment to ruminal digestibility While preventing detriment to ruminal digestibility

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Practical examples

Practical examples

•• Beef cows (1200 lb) consuming lowBeef cows (1200 lb) consuming low--quality hayquality hay

– 2.5% of BW = 30 lbs/day of hay DM2.5% of BW = 30 lbs/day of hay DM

•• Supplemented with soybean oil (100% EE)Supplemented with soybean oil (100% EE)

OR OR

•• Supplemented with camelina meal (18% EE)Supplemented with camelina meal (18% EE) –

– Included at 3% to maximize diet efficiencyIncluded at 3% to maximize diet efficiency •• Feed 0.9 pounds of soybean oilFeed 0.9 pounds of soybean oil

OR OR

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Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Fat as additional energy source

Fat as additional energy source

– Flaxseed supplementation to cattleFlaxseed supplementation to cattle •• Grazing summer rangeGrazing summer range

•• Supplemental fat included at 3.2% of diet DMSupplemental fat included at 3.2% of diet DM

Scholljegerdes and Kronberg, 2010 Scholljegerdes and Kronberg, 2010

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Fat as nutraceutical source

Fat as nutraceutical source

– Feed that provides health benefitsFeed that provides health benefits –

– Essential fatty acids (18:2 and 18:3)Essential fatty acids (18:2 and 18:3) •• Modulate body functions and provide energyModulate body functions and provide energy

Linoleic Acid (18:2) Linoleic Acid (18:2) Arachdonic Acid Arachdonic Acid Prostaglandin Family 2 Prostaglandin Family 2 Pro

Pro--inflammatory effectsinflammatory effects CL regression + Uterine involution CL regression + Uterine involution

Linolenic Acid (18:3) Linolenic Acid (18:3)

EPA and DHA EPA and DHA

Prostaglandin Family 3 Prostaglandin Family 3 Anti Anti--inflammatoryinflammatory Pregnancy maintenance Pregnancy maintenance

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Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Essential fatty acids (18:2 and 18:3)

Essential fatty acids (18:2 and 18:3)

– Highly susceptible to ruminal biohydrogenation Highly susceptible to ruminal biohydrogenation –

– Practical examplePractical example

•• ForageForage--fed beef cows receiving:fed beef cows receiving:

– Control = no supplemental fatControl = no supplemental fat –

– 0.9 lbs/d of tallow = 100% EE, with 0.5% as 18:30.9 lbs/d of tallow = 100% EE, with 0.5% as 18:3 –

– 0.9 lbs/of flaxseed oil = 100% EE, with 56% as 18:30.9 lbs/of flaxseed oil = 100% EE, with 56% as 18:3

Control Tallow Flaxseed oil

18:3 consumed (g/d) 65.5 69.4 504.2 18:3 biohydrogenated (g/d) 61.0 63.1 428.1 18:3 reaching intestine (g/d) 4.5 6.3 76.1 % of biohydrogenation loss 93% 91% 85% 440 g 440 g 70 g 70 g

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Example: 18:3 and Pregnancy Rates to AI

Example: 18:3 and Pregnancy Rates to AI

– Study 1 = Raw flaxseedStudy 1 = Raw flaxseed –

– Study 2 = FormaldehydeStudy 2 = Formaldehyde--treated flaxseedtreated flaxseed –

– Study 3 = Rolled flaxseed Study 3 = Rolled flaxseed

P = 0.04

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Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Ruminal

Ruminal--protected fat sources

protected fat sources

– Fat (or part of it) becomes inert in the rumenFat (or part of it) becomes inert in the rumen •• Prevents antimicrobial effectsPrevents antimicrobial effects

•• Prevents biohydrogenationPrevents biohydrogenation –

– Several approachesSeveral approaches

•• Hydrogenation/saturation of fatty acidsHydrogenation/saturation of fatty acids

•• Chemical treatments (Na alginate, formaldehyde)Chemical treatments (Na alginate, formaldehyde) •• CalciumCalcium--soaps of fatty acidssoaps of fatty acids

•• Several othersSeveral others –

– Highly depended on rumen variablesHighly depended on rumen variables

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Essential fatty acids (18:2 and 18:3)

Essential fatty acids (18:2 and 18:3)

– Ruminal protected sources Ruminal protected sources –

– Practical examplePractical example

•• ForageForage--fed beef cows receiving:fed beef cows receiving:

– Control = no supplemental fatControl = no supplemental fat –

– 0.9 lbs/d of 0.9 lbs/d of rawraw soybean oil = 100% EE, with 53% as 18:2soybean oil = 100% EE, with 53% as 18:2 –

– 0.9 lbs/of 0.9 lbs/of CSFACSFA soybean oil = 85% EE, with 53% as 18:2soybean oil = 85% EE, with 53% as 18:2

Control Raw SB CSFA SB

18:2 consumed (g/d) 25.1 446.5 421.52 18:2 biohydrogenated (g/d) 19.8 355.2 200.5 18:2 reaching intestine (g/d) 5.3 91.3 241.0 % of biohydrogenation loss 79% 79% 47% 421 / 421 / 396 g396 g 86 / 86 / 235 g235 g

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Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Example: Rumen

Example: Rumen--protected PUFA source

protected PUFA source

– During preconditioning During preconditioning

•• (1.7 % inclusion, d (1.7 % inclusion, d -- 30 until d 0 = feedlot transfer)30 until d 0 = feedlot transfer)

0 5 10 15 20 0 1 3 No fat CSFA SB 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 0 1 3

Day of the study No fat CSFA SB P la sm a P U F A , m g /g P la sm a P U F A , m g /g P la sm a T N F P la sm a T N F --a , pg /m L a, pg /m L 2.50 2.55 2.60 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.80 Feedlot ADG (lbs/d) No fat CSFA SB P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P < 0.01 P = 0.06 P = 0.06

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

Lipid Nutrition in Ruminants

•• Example: Rumen

Example: Rumen--protected PUFA source

protected PUFA source

– Beef cows following fixedBeef cows following fixed--time AI or ET (0.6% inclusion)time AI or ET (0.6% inclusion)

P = 0.07 P = 0.02

No fat x CSFA SB No fat x CSFA SB

Fixed Fixed––time AItime AI

No fat x CSFA SB No fat x CSFA SB

Fixed Fixed--time ETtime ET

CSFA Palm Oil x CSFA SB CSFA Palm Oil x CSFA SB

Fixed Fixed––time AItime AI

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Proper adaptation period

Proper adaptation period

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 1 4 8 15 22 29 C e ru lo p la s m in ( m g / d L )

Day of the study

CO PF P = 0.50 P = 0.50 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 0 1 4 8 15 22 H a p to g lo b in ( a b s 4 5 0 n m x 1 0 0 )

Day of the study

CO PF

P P <<0. 010. 01

•• EFA supplementation requires adaptation

EFA supplementation requires adaptation

– Maximize intakeMaximize intake –

– Change FA profile in tissues and circulationChange FA profile in tissues and circulation

No adaptation period

No adaptation period 30 d adaptation period30 d adaptation period

Final Conclusions

Final Conclusions

•• Fat supplementation benefit performance

Fat supplementation benefit performance

– Increasing energy density of the dietIncreasing energy density of the diet –

– Nutraceutical effects of essential fatty acidsNutraceutical effects of essential fatty acids

•• Dietary inclusion should respect limits

Dietary inclusion should respect limits

– Particularly forageParticularly forage--fed cattlefed cattle –

– Prevent rumen digestibility problemsPrevent rumen digestibility problems

•• EFA should bypass biohydrogenation

EFA should bypass biohydrogenation

•• Fat sources should introduced gradually

Fat sources should introduced gradually

Figure

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