Outdoor Learning Activities on the Second Year Students’ Reading Comprehension of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar

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(5) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. Alhamdulillahi Robbil Alamin. The researcher expresses his highest gratitude to the almighty Allah swt, who has given His blessing, mercy, health, and inspiration to complete this thesis. Salam and Shalawat are due to the highly chosen Prophet Muhammad saw, His families and followers until the end of the world. The researcher also considers that in writing this thesis, many people have also contributed their valuable guidance, assistance, and advices for his completion of this thesis. They are: 1. The researcher’s beloved parents Alm. Abuhasyim and Cani for their prayer, financial, motivation and sacrificed for his success, and their love sincerely and purely without time. 2. Prof. Dr. Musafir Pababbari, M.Si., as. the Rector of Alauddin State. Islamic University of Makassar. 3. Dr. H. Muhammad Amri, Lc., M.Ag., the Dean of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty of UIN Alauddin Makassar. 4. Dr. Kamsinah, M.Pd.I and Sitti Nurpahmi, S. Pd., M. Pd as the Head and Secretary of English EducationDepartment of Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty of UIN Alauddin Makassar. 5. Dr. Hj. Djuwariah Ahmad, M.Pd., M.TESOL as the first consultant and Indah miftah awaliah, S.S., M. Hum as the second consultant who have. v.

(6) given their really valuable time, patience, supported, assistance, advices and guided the researcher during this thesis writing. 6. Big thanks to Dr. Muh. Rusmin B, S.Pd.I., M.Pd.I. for the helps and supports. 7. The most profound thanks delivered to all the lecturers of English Education Department and all the staffs of Tarbiyah and Teaching Sciences faculty at Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar for their multitude of lesson, lending a hand, support and guidance during the researchers’ studies. 8. Thanks to all the second grade students of office administration department (PBI 3.4 and PBI 5.6 2016) of English Education Department at UIN Alauddin Makassar. 9. The researcher’s big family Nurhaedah S.Sos, Nurjannah, Arifin, Hasnah, Rusdi, Syamsuddin, Zainuddin, Hariani, Yolandha charisma, My aunty (Hj. Manintang and H. Mahmud), Hasrul zain, Rian andika rusman, Muh Reyhansyah Ikhzan, Anshar Nurdin, Ilham M, Hamka Barlian, A. Ashar Arsyad, Andi Fathur Rahman, Thariq khemal dan yang terakhir Muh. Agrata Razzhan who always support, motivate and help the researcher. 10. Antagonic Famz Ittong, Nombang, Hendong, yutong, and fiffong who always accompany, support, motivate, entertain, and help the researcher. 11. The researcher’s best friends for their support and solidarity Ibnu Hajar, Nurmagfirah mutmainnah, Nur intan natsir, Putri sakinah, Aulia nurul vi.

(7) adiya, Nadyatul umrana, Siti agustina, Nurfadillah Rahman, Arsyi Haruna, Nurkhalisah, Nurul azizah alnuari, Nurhasmiati, dll. 12. KKN Moncongloe’s Squad Asriadi, Mutia fitri almaidah, Mustainah, Ratnasari, Sri mulyani darwis, Nur afdhillah, Nurul hidayanti, Andi sri munniati. 13. Special thanks to researcher’s beloved classmates in PBI 1 and PBI 2 and all my friends in PBI 2014 who could not be mentioned here. Thanks for sincere friendship and assistance during the writing of this thesis 14. All of the people around the researcher’s life whom could not mention one by one by researcher who has given a big inspiration, motivation, spirit, do’a for him. The researcher realizes that the writing of this thesis is far from perfect. Remaining errors are the researcher’s own; therefore, constructive criticisms and suggestions will be highly appreciated. May all the efforts are blessed by Allah SWT. Aamiin. Makassar, The researcher,. Arizandi NIM.204004023. vii. 2018.

(8) LIST OF CONTENTS. Page TITLE PAGE ....................................................................................... i. PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN SKRIPSI.................................................. ii. PERSETUJUAN PEMBIMBING .......................................................... iii. PENGESAHAN SKRIPSI .................................................................... iv. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................................................................... v. LIST OF CONTENTS .......................................................................... ix. LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................. xi. LIST OF TABLES................................................................................ xii. LIST OF APPENDICES ....................................................................... xiii. ABSTRACT ......................................................................................... xiv. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. B. C. D. E. F.. Background .................................................................... Research Problem ............................................................ Research Objective .......................................................... Research Significance ..................................................... Research Scope .............................................................. Operational Definition of Terms ..................................... 1 4 5 5 6 6. CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Previous Studies ............................................................... B. Pertinent Ideas ................................................................. a. Definition of Reading Comprehension ....................... ..................................................................................... viii. 8 10 10.

(9) b. Definition of Genre..................................................... c. Kinds of Genre ........................................................... d. Definition of Descriptive Text ................................... e. Generic Structure of Descriptive Text ........................ f. Language Feature of Descriptive Text........................ g. Definition of Outdoor Learning…………………….. h. The Steps of Outdoor Learning ………………… ..... i. The Benefits of Outdoor Learning …………………. C. Theoretical Framework ..................................................... D. Hypothesis ......................................................................... 17 18 20 20 20 21 22 23 25 26. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD A. Research Design ............................................................. ....................................................................................... B. Variable of the Research ................................................ C. Population and Sample ........................................... ........ D. Research Instruments ....................................................... E. Procedure of Collecting Data ........................................ F. Techniques of Data Analysis ............................................. 27 29 29 30 30 33. CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS A. Findings ........................................................................... B. Discussions ....................................................................... 36 42. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions ..................................................................... B. Suggestions ....................... ................................................ 44 45. BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................... 46. APPENDICES .................................................................................. 48. CURRUCULUM VITAE .................................................................... 95. ix.

(10) LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 2.1. Theoretical Framework…………………………………....…. 25. Figure 3.1. Research Design...………………………………………...…. 27. x.

(11) LIST OF TABLES. Page Table 4.1. Table 4.2. Table 4.3. The distribution of frequency and percentage of score Experiment Class in pre-test.................................................. 37. The distribution of frequency and percentage of score Experiment Class in post-test................................................. 37. The distribution of frequency and percentage of score Experiment Class in Pre-test ................................................. 38. Table 4.4. The distribution of frequency and percentage of score Control Class in Post-test ................................................................... 39. Table 4.5. The mean score and standard deviation of Experimental Class And Control Class in pre-test and post-test .......................... 40. Table 4.6. Distribution the value of t-test and t-table ........................... xi. 41.

(12) LIST OF APPENDIX. Appendix I. Page : The students’ roll .............................................................. 49. Appendix II. : The Raw Score of the Students’ Pre-test and Post-test In Experimental Class ........................................................ 51. Appendix III. : The Raw Score of the Students’ Pre-test and Post-test in Controlled Class ............................................................ 52. Appendix IV. : The Mean Score of Experimental Class and Controlled Class ........................................................ 53. Appendix V. : Standard Deviation of Experimental Class and Controlled Class ....................................................... 54. Appendix VI. : The Significant Difference .............................................. 56. Appendix VII : Distribution of T –Table .................................................... 57 Appendix VIII : Lesson Plan ..................................................................... 58 Appendix IX Appendix X. : Research Instrument ........................................................ 73 : The Students’ Assessment in Pre-Test and Post-Test in Experimental Class and Controlled Class ........................ 86. Appendix XI. : Documentation ................................................................. 90. xii.

(13) ABSTRACT Name : Arizandi Reg. Number : 20400114023 Department/faculty : English Education / Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Title : Outdoor Learning Activities on the Second Year Students’ Reading Comprehension of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar. Consultant I : Dr. Hj. Djuwariah Ahmad, M.Pd.,M.TESOL Consultant II : Indah Miftah Awaliah, S.S., M.Hum This research aimed to determine the influence of Outdoor Learning activities on the second year students’ reading comprehension especially in descriptive text. This research had two problem statements those were “To what extent do the Outdoor Learning Activities on the second year students’ reading comprehension of English Education Department and what factors contributed to the second year students reading comprehension of English Education Department. The study was quasi Experimental Design using “Nonequivalent Control Group Design. The study involved 40 students, second year students of English education department at UIN Alauddin Makassar. The independent variable of this research was Outdoor Learning Strategy and the dependent variable was students’ reading comprehension especially in descriptive text. In this research used instruments those were tests and questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistic (frequency, mean score, and standard deviation) and inferential statistic (independent sample t-test). The research discovers that the reading comprehension of the second year students of English Education Department UIN Alauddin Makassar was not improved by using Outdoor Learning Activities. The result of the t-test also shown that the use of Outdoor Learning Activities in teaching reading especially in descriptive text was not effective in improving the students’ reading comprehension in descriptive text because the t-test, -0.39, was lower than t-table, 2.024 (-0.39 2.024). The mean score of the students also showed that there was no significant improvement after applying outdoor learning activities. It was proved by the students’ mean score. The post test mean score of the experimental class (74,25) was lower than the post test mean score of the controlled class (75.40), it meant that Outdoor Learning Activities was not improved the students reading comprehension of English Education Department UIN Alauddin Makassar. Based on the finding and discussion of the research, the researcher suggested that the students’ reading comprehension would improve by using any other activities but it is not Outdoor Learning activities.. xiii.

(14) 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background English is community language. It is used to communicate spokenly and writtenly all around the world, especially among people who had different nationally. Many countries use English as their mother language, some of them use English as their second language, and the other used English as their foreign language. In English, there are four skills that should be mastered, they are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Among the four skills, reading is considered the most crucial one. Reading is useful in leading students to get as much knowledge as they need to improve their ability in acquiring language. In other words, reading could give much knowledge and information about what have been written on text. Through reading, students are able to gain and also enhanced various vocabularies, structures, cultures, and other English aspects. Moreover, reading can also help students develop their ability in writing and also speaking due to the extensive knowledge they got from reading that can help them to share it either in spoken or written context. Therefore, the success of the students’ study depended on the greater part of their ability to read. If their reading skill was poor they were very likely to fail in their study or at least they would have difficulties in making progress. In addition, if they had a good ability in reading, they would have a better chance to succeed in their.

(15) 2. study. But in fact, some of students did not master in reading skill. The researcher got the problems of the students in reading skill, the students were shy to read because they were afraid of misspelling the words, they played with their friend because they felt bored to read, they did not understand the meaning of the words as well as the texts, and when the lecturer explained the material, they did not pay attention with their lecturer. Those problems were caused by some factors which came from the students and the teacher. First, the students’ reading skill was still low. It happened because they did not have many vocabularies, they did not understand the meaning of the text, as well as they did not know the pronunciation of word. Second, the teacher used conventional method or translation method. The teacher taught a subject in the text book and asked the students to read the text whether silently or loudly and the students had to translate it before answering the question that follow. Based on researcher’ preliminary observation at the second year students of English Education Department, the researcher occasionally found 5 problems. First, the students were difficult to decode the word on the page. Second, the students were difficult to hold the information in working memory long enough for the information to be more extensively processed. Third, the students had no adequate vocabulary, grammar and syntactical skill to organize and interpret the written message efficiently. Fourth, the students were hard to acces order thinking skill to process the written message and go beyond the surface layer of the text and infer possible meaning. Fifth, the students sometimes was getting low motivation..

(16) 3. Referring from the problems, the teacher might think about the methods that could be used to extend the information for the students, where the methods might be appropriated with the materials that would be given. Lecturer might have many ideas to make the teaching and learning process was not monotonous. The class could be successful if the teacher could choose the proportional method to give the information and materials for the students. The ability of lecturer in using teaching methods would influence the students’ achievements. By helping them to acheive reading comprehension, they would be able to read a text/book. While observed English subject in the class at the second year of English education department, some problems in reading were already detected. Consequently, when the lecturer gave assignment to the students, they were not focus on the text because they were not spirit to read the text. In addition, some students thaught that reading would be monotonous and bored if they did in the class because learning in the class was the conventional method that lecturer used in teaching. The students wanted to try the innovative and creative way to learn spesially in reading comprehension because most of students did not know what was the real meaning from the text if the lecturer did not show something real as example. Therefore, the researcher concerned to choose Outdoor learning activity to solve the students’ problem in reading Comprehension. This activity was very effective and interesting to improve the students' Reading comprehension. This activity as a method that would give the influence to apply in learning and teaching.

(17) 4. process. So that way, the researcher considered that learned English could give The influence when the lecturer using Outdoor Learning activity. Bartlet in Husamah (2013:20) Outdoor learning is one of learning that is conducted outside the room or outside the classroom. This learning process can construct the meaning, then the process through cognitive structures that will be long memorable in the memory. Outdoor learning activity was one of the creative activities in teaching which was done outside the classroom or in the area of school and centre ground. This strategy was really fun and interest because the students would learn with environment directly. To raise the students' interest in learning reading, we could use many methods, but in this chance the researcher took Outdoor Learning activities. Based on the previous explanations above the researcher interested to conduct an experimental research titled "Outdoor Learning Activities on the Second Year Students’ Reading Comprehension of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar". B. Problem Statements Based on the previous background, the researcher formulated problem statements as follows:.

(18) 5. 1. To what extent do the Outdoor Learning Activities influence the second year students’ reading comprehension of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar? 2. What factors contributed to the second year students’ reading comprehension of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar? C. Research Objectives Based on problem statements above, the aims of this research were provided in objective as follows: 1. To find out whether the Outdoor Learning Activities gave the influence on the second year students’ Reading Comprehension of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar 2. To find out the factors contributed to the second year students’ Reading Comprehension of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar. D. Research Significances The output of this research highly expected to carry out some significances of teaching and learning reading as follows: 1.. Theoretically A number of previous researchers had already proved that Outdoor Learning. activity was suitable to apply in English learning and teaching process in order to improve the students' reading comprehension as well as to encourage their interest into the class. So that way, the researcher might use one of activities named Outdoor Learning Activity..

(19) 6. 2.. Practically a. Significances for the students This method involved all of the students to love the material that the teacher. taught to them, because the applying of this method took a place at outdoor like yard of school, so that way, from this method the students got interest and motivation to learn more about the material, cause of this method was enjoyable. Furthemore, this method was really fun and could make the students easy to mastering the material specially in reading. b. Significance for lectures This research helped the lectures or guiding the students in enhancing their students' reading comprehension. In addition, the researcher expected this research's result could give enough contributions outside the classroom. After that the lecturer also easily to give controlling for their students and achieved the goals effectively. E. Research Scopes This research was limited to the use of outdoor learning activity to improve the students' reading comprehension by giving reading test about descriptive text. It was focused on the students' reading mastery. The test consists of 15 multiple choice questions. F. Operational Definition of Terms The title of this research was “ The Influence of Outdoor Learning Activities on the Second Year Students’ Reading Comprehension of English Education.

(20) 7. Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar”. In understanding this research easily, the researcher would like to present the operational definition of terms, those were: 1. Outdoor Learning Outdoor Learning was one of activities in teaching English which was done outside the classroom. The researcher used outdoor learning activity in teaching reading. The aim of using this activity was to make the students enjoy in learning process. Outdoor learning was the real learning where the students could see, hear, touch,and smell the real thing in the natural environments. 2. Reading comprehension Reading comprehension was the process constructing meaning from the text. The goal of all reading instruction was ultimately targeted at helping a reader comprehend text. Reading comprehension involved two people: the reader and the writer. The process of comprehending involves decoding the writer’s words and then used background knowledge to construct an approximate understanding of the writer’s point of view..

(21) 8. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Previous Studies The outdoor learning activities had been conducted by some researchers in teaching English skill, for instance reading, speaking and writing. Therefore, the researcher had reviewed some findings which motivate the researcher to do this research. Wirmandi Kantaprawira (2012) in his thesis "Teaching Reading Comprehension Using Communicative Approach Through Songs And Games To The Eigth Year Students Of SMP Brawijaya, Kepung". He wanted to get information and explanation about how the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya, Kepung followed Reading Comprehension subject through communicative approach in class. In this thesis, therefore the writer choosed the title' Teaching Reading Comprehension with communicative approach through sings and games to the eight year students of SMP Brawijaya, Kepung had general and special objectives. Andi Arman Ardiansyah (2017) in his thesis “The use of Outdoor Learning Strategy in teaching writing at the second grade students of SMK Negeri Benteng Selayar”. Stated that using Outdoor Learning Strategy could improve writing ability of the second grade students of SMK Negeri 1 Benteng Selayar. Outdoor Learning Strategy was effective to use. By using this strategy the students would enjoy and anthusiastic in learning process..

(22) 9. Najamuddin (2017) in his thesis “The effectiveness of Outdoor Learning Method to improve the second grade students’ speaking ability at MTS Izzatul Ma’arif tappina Kab. Polewali Mandar ” found that using Outdoor Learning Method was effective to improve the students’speaking ability. Concluded that the students’ speaking ability improved by using Outdoor Learning Method. Rahmayanti (2015) in her thesis “Penerapan Outdoor Learning Process Berbantu Puzzle Blocks Materi Ekosistem Untuk Meningkatkan Aktivitas Belajar dan Sikap Peduli Lingkungan” found that using Outdoor learning with Puzzle blocks could improve the students’ care to the environment, and through both of the method the students also could easy to understood the lesson about ecosystem. Albihar (2013) in his thesis “Outdoor Study Terhadap Pemahaman Konsep Bagian Tumbuhan Beserta Fungsinya Untuk Anak Tunanetra”. Found that there was a significance influence for anak tunanetra, so they could understand the part of plant by using Outdoor Study method. The whole previous researches strongly motivated the researcher in also conducting outdoor learning activities in teaching English, exactly in reading comprehension. In point of fact, the five researchers had outlined the benefits of outdoor learning activities. Hence, the researcher considers that kinds of research had to be sustainable in the future research..

(23) 10. The researcher in this research focused on the second year students’ reading comprehension by using outdoor learning activities. It was different from the researcher above. The difference between the researcher’s research with the researcher above was on the language skill. In the researcher’s research only focus on reading, specially reading comprehension while in the research above the focus skills were writing and speaking. B. Some pertinent idea 1. Definition of reading comprehension Reading comprehension it was necessary to define the word reading and comprehension. Hornby (1974:11) explains that reading is the act of one who reads ; knowledge, ESP, of books : the ways in which something is interpreted, while comprehension is the act of understanding, the ability of the mind to understand. Thinker (1975:5) states that reading comprehension is not just reading with a loud voice but also to establish and understand the meaning of words, sentence, and paragraph sense the relationship among the ideas. As it is, if a student just read loudly, but could not understand the content of the passages, it meant he/she failed in comprehending the passage. Ophelia (1989:5) states that reading comprehension is understanding evaluating and utilizing of information between author and reader. It sounded like the author and the reader could communicate one other. It meant that a reader in this case, tries to understand what he was saying..

(24) 11. Smith and Dale (980:7) states that reading comprehension means understanding, evaluating, utilizing of information and gaining through an interaction between reader and author. Reading comprehension was such a kind of dialogue between reader and author in which the written language became the medium that cause the dialogue happened when the two persons communicated through the medium of print reading comprehension refered to reading with comprehension. Thus reading comprehension was reading by comprehension the meaning of a passage or what was or had been read. One who read something by understanding it could be said that he did a reading comprehension. Alexander (1993:6) states that comprehension is a special kind of thinking process. The reader comprehends by actively constructing meaning internally from interacting with the material that is read. Successful comprehension involves the reader who can discovery the meaning. It might be finding a particular piece of information, solving a problem through reading, working to understand an idea or following a set of directions. From the point of view given above, it could be concluded that reading is an active thinking process where the reader tries to gain information given by the author and understands what actually the purpose of author. The following are levels of reading comprehension according to Smith and Carnine: a. Levels of reading comprehension according to Smith (1969:7) are: 1. Literal comprehension; that is the skill of getting primary direct literal meaning of a word, idea, or sentence in context..

(25) 12. 2. Interpretation; that is to identify ideal and meaning that are not explicitly stated in the written text. 3. Critical reading; that is to evaluate what is read, and examines critically the thought of the writer. 4. Creative reading; that is to apply ideas from the text to new situations and to recombine author’s ideas with other ideas to from new concepts or to expand old ones. b. Levels of reading comprehension Carnine in Carnine (1990:11) are: 1. Comprehension skill for the primary level consists of: a) Literal comprehension; that is to receive information stated in a passage b) Sequencing comprehension; that is to under several from a passage according to when they happened. c) Summarization; that is to receive information stated in a passage. c. The Strategy of Reading There are three strategies we tend to approach when we read, they are; 1. Skimming Skimming is to read text superficially a rapidly in order obtain the gist or main idea it is a skill that requires concentration. Adequate knowledge among of practice is necessary in order to skim fulfill their purposes..

(26) 13. 2. Scanning Scanning is to read a text quickly in order to locate a specific item of information it is used to design the process of locating quickly a particular word, phrase, sentence, and fact of figure with a selection. 3. Intensive reading Intensive reading is for recalling or total accuracy it is an activity in class way in using reading. It deals with the detail content and linguistic study. d. Selection of materials Teacher of English language are expected to be more creative and more innovative selecting and then presenting materials relatively and using a wide variety of resources that can enhance and motivate students to learn English. Through anecdotes, the student have entertained in reading the materials. The reading materials should be interesting; the teacher should notice that in selecting the materials he/she should be sure that they are in time of student’s interest in order towing their attention. This is important for the smooth less of the way to the students to good concentration and attitude toward reading lesson. If the materials are not interesting, the students would be passively not pay much attention to the lesson. This way means that the teacher will be difficult to attain the objective of his teaching. According to Burns (1984:23), intermediate students are interested in reading fiction, biographies adventure and stories of the past. They like suspense, action and.

(27) 14. humor. Teacher can asses student personal reading interest them. In selection reading materials, there are at least three areas that should be concern: 1. The level of linguistic difficulty reading in a foreign language tend to use a word-by-word approach while more practice readers are able to Chunk information. Based on the statement above, we can decide that the select material should be at the language level of the student. A material that is too difficult, where every word has to be explain, or which uses extremely complex grammatical construction is only likely to produce frustration similarly a material that is too easy does not extend the students knowledge. The material should be regard, sequence and varied so their linguistic content and difficulty the ability of the students. 2. Cultural content Reading materials reflect the culture perception of the writer. Therefore, many reading materials, especially non-scientific material, or culturally biased, and so can cause comprehension problems for the students. For example, Indonesian students might have difficulty with the story about an American child who gases into his teacher’s eyes in search of compassion. The opposite of true in Indonesian culture where the children show respect by not looking into their superior’s eyes..

(28) 15. 3. The interest factor The third area that should be concerned in selecting various reading materials is the interest. It is had by the students because the evidence that students’ motivation in reading is greater when material interest them. How can teacher provide various reading materials that are interesting for the students? Most students of English tale interest in book or short story in which characters are involved in learning a second language. However, teacher can also discover the kind topic that interest their reading preferences. One factor that also should be concerned is the level of the materials’ vocabulary because even though they are interested in the subject matter of material we have chosen, they will soon lose interest if they find the vocabulary too difficult. This is why teacher should decide during their lesson preparation that the meaning of the new word can be derived from the material it self when the learner reading it. Relate with how to select language learning materials. Richard (2006:4) gives specification . a) Material will allow learners to progress at their own rates of learning b) Material will allow for different styles of learning c) Material will provide opportunities independent study d) Material will provide opportunities for evaluating and progress in learning. e. Technique of Improving Reading Skill.

(29) 16. To achieve the purpose of reading one should read effectively. General in Rahman (1998:8) states that effective reading means being able to read accurately, efficiently and to understand as much of the passage as you read in order to achieve your purpose. To achieve one purpose of reading, he can apply some reading technique as follows: 1. Survey Reading Brown (1987:3) says surveying is specialized technique for getting a mountain top new of an article chapter content and it helps to give a general point of view. 2. Skimming Skimming is a kind of reading that make our eyes move quickly in order to get the main idea from the reading material. Skimming enable people to select content that want to read and to discard that which is in consequential for their purpose. 3. Scanning Scanning is reading the text quickly to answer a specific question. This technique enables people to locate specific information without reading all the material around It. Brown (1987:13) states that scanning serves two functions. It uncovers relevant information and accelerates your reading speed..

(30) 17. 4. Pre-reading Pre-reading is a technique that a reader uses before he began to read the material to improve his comprehension and recall. Whorter (1992:25) states that pre-reading involves only at those part of reading materials that will tell you what it is about or how it is organize. Further he explains the port on to look at in reading a text book chapter are: (a) Read the title (b) Read the introduction or opening paragraph (c) Read the first sentence under each heading (d) Read each boldface heading. (e) Notice any typographical aids. (f) Notice any graph or pictures. (g) Read the last paragraph or summary Grabe (1998:2) states that pre-reading activities very useful in the reading class because they have been referee to as instruments teachers can use in the class to active student’s background knowledge, it can be conduct that pre-reading is very effective because it helps a reader to give basic information about the organization and the content of the materials. 2. Definition of Genre According to Wignel, at all (1994) Genre is one of the most important and influential concept in language education. Genre can be defined as a culturally.

(31) 18. specific text type which results from using language written or spoken to help accomplish something. According to Wignell, at all (1994) The term “genre” is used to refer to particular text types. It is a type or kind of text defined in terms of its social purposes, also the level of context dealing with social purpose. Genre is a term for grouping texts together, representing how writers typically use language to respond to recurring situations. So genres are cultural specific and have associated with: particular purposes, particular stages and particular linguistic features. 3. Kinds of Genre According to Amri (2016) there were twelve kinds genre in English, which were: a.. Recount Recount is a piece of text that retells events for the purpose of Informing or. entertaining. b. Report Report is a piece of text that describes the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment. c. Discussion Discussion is a piece of text that presents (at least) two points of view about an issue..

(32) 19. d. Explanation Explanation is a piece of text that explains the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. e. Analytical Exposition Analytical Exposition is a piece of text that persuades the readers or listeners that something needs to get attention. f. Hortatory Exposition Hortatory Exposition is a piece of text that persuades the readers or listeners that something should or should not be the case. g. News Item News Item is a piece of text that informs readers, listeners, and viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. h. Anecdote Anecdote is a piece of text that shares with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident. i. Narrative Narrative is a piece of text that amuses, entertains and deals with actual and vicarious experience in different ways. Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kinds, which in turn finds a resolution. j.. Procedures Procedure is a piece of text that describes how something is accomplished. through a sequence of actions or steps..

(33) 20. k. Description Description is a piece of text that describes a particular person, place, or thing. l. Review Review is a piece of text that critiques an art work or event for a public audience. 4. Definition of Descriptive Text Descriptive text was a piece of text that describes a particular person, place, or thing. While Boardman and Jia (2002:30) state that descriptive text is a kind of text that is used to describe what something looks like. Another definition about descriptive text is based on Bima and Kurniawan (2005:15) it states that, Descriptive text is a kind of text, which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing. Descriptive text stretch out many information about certain people, things, and place clearly and detail. 5. Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Amri (2016) states that there were two generic structures of descriptive text, those were: 1. Identification (introduction): is the part of paragraph that introduces the character. 2. Description: is the part of paragraph that describes the character. 6. Language features of Descriptive Text Based on 2004 curriculum in Amri (2016) there are 8 language features of descriptive text in English subject, they are:.

(34) 21. a. Certain nouns, for example: teacher, house, my cat, etc. b. Simple Present tense c. Some adjective ( describing, numbering, classifying), for example: two strong legs d. Relating verb to give information about subject, for example: My mum is really cool, it has very thick fur etc. e. Thinking verb and feeling verb to express the writer’s perception about the subject, for example: Police believed the suspect armed, I think it is a clever animal etc. f. Action verb, for example: Our new puppy bites our shoes etc. g. Adverbial to give additional information about subject, for example: fast, at the tree house etc. h. Figurative language style, for example; simile, metaphor (John is white as a chalk) etc. 7. Definition of Outdoor Learning Sugiarti (2013) says that Outdoor learning strategy is one of strategy by the teacher to ask the students to study outside the classroom. This was to see the phenomenon directly in order for the students to get close to the environment. Teacher acted as a facilitator to guide students to study independently, active, creative and close to nature. By using this strategy, the students would take much participations in learning process because this strategy was emphasized the students.

(35) 22. to study directly with the nature so the students’ imagination will be better in learning process. In addition, Husamah (2013:22) Outdoor learning is a learning process that is designed to allow students to learn direct learning materials on the actual object, so the learning will be more obvious. The advantages of outdoor learning strategy were the students could encourage their motivate in learning with a fun learning environment, use of instructional media that concrete, using natural materials that already exist around, could foster the ability to explore and could give pleasure to the students when the study without feeling bored and tired because of lack of interest in the learning in teaching. Outdoor learning strategy could also foster the strengthening of the concept to be given to children. Based on the some of the definitions above, the researcher concluded that outdoor learning strategy was a learning strategy that was conducted outside the classroom or outside the school, such as in the area of school, school centre ground, gardens, parks and so on. Through this strategy, learning would be more interesting and exciting, because the learning process was based on the fact, the students not only imagined it, but also they could experience and involved directly in the lesson. So, the students would be easily to understand the material who presented by the teacher. 8. The Steps of Outdoor Learning Teaching and learning activities outside the classroom (Outdoor Learning Strategy) should not be done arbitrarily. Teaching should still have the concepts and steps to clear, so that it could become the main reference for a teacher who taught.

(36) 23. students outside the classroom. The activities of this method was not just mess around to refresh the mind and cure boredom, but in order. Educate students and make them understand the subject well. According to Husamah (2013:27) the steps of outdoor learning were: 1. The teacher invites the students to a location outside of class 2. The teacher invites students to gather in group 3. The teacher gives motivation 4. Teachers explain the workings of a group 5. Each group split up at the site to make observations and give it time 6. Teachers guide students during the field observations 7. Complete observations of students in order reconvened to discuss the results of their observations The teacher guides the discussion and the students are given the opportunity to present the results of their discussion each group and the other group was given time to respond From the steps above it was clear that learning outside the classroom could make students more familiar with the surrounding nature as media for student learning. The process of learning in outdoor learning strategy in general could be concluded that the method that took students out of the classroom for further study using natural media as a learning resource..

(37) 24. 9. The Benefit of Outdoor Learning Outdoor learning strategy could be applied to children of school age and adults as well. Here were the benefits of outdoor learning strategy in learning, according to some experts: 1. According to Suyadi in Husamah (2013:25) the benefits of learning outside the classroom, among others: a). The mind is widely;. b). Learning process is enjoy;. c). Learning more variety;. d). Learning more recreation;. e). Learning is more real;. f). Children are more familiar with the real world and enviroment;. g). Embedded image that the world as a class;. h) Learning place is wider; 2. According Sudjana in husamah (2013) explained, many advantages are gained from studying the environmental activities in the learning process, among other things: a). The learning activities more interesting and not makes the students feel bored to sit for hours, so that the students' motivation will be higher.. b) The nature of learning will be more meaningful because the students are faced with the situation and the real situation or natural. c) The materials that can be studied richer and more accurate factual..

(38) 25. d). The activities of student learning is more comprehensive and more active because it can be done in various ways such as observing, asking questions or interviews, to prove or demonstrate, examine the facts, and others.. e). Source sailed richer because the environment that could be studied such diverse social environment, natural environment, built environment, and others. Students can understand and appreciate the aspects of life that is available in the environment, so as to form a personal familiar with the life of the surrounding form, and can cultivate love it.. C. Theoretical framework The researcher focused on reading comprehension by using outdoor learning method. However, there were two classes which were divided into experimental class and control class. The conceptual framework of this research was as follows: Students’ Reading Comprehension. Input. Experimental class. The researcher using outdoor learning method. Controlled class. The researcher using conventional method.

(39) 26. (Output) Students’ Reading Comprehension Improvement The theoretical framework was classified as follow: a. Students reading comprehension refered to input b. Using outdoor learning and using conventional method refered to process. This process run through a treatment in teaching reading. c. Students’ reading comprehension improvement refered to output which meant the result of teaching and learning after using outdoor learning method. D. Hypothesis Based on the title of this research, the researcher formulated the result possibilities into the following hypothesis: H1: Outdoor learning gives the influence on the second year students’ Reading comprehension of English Education Department. H0: Outdoor Learning does not give the influence on the second year students’ Reading comprehension of English Education Department..

(40) 27. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD This chapter dealed with research design, research variable, population and sample, research instrument, data collecting procedures, and technique of data analysis. A. Research Design The design of this research used quasi experimental research exactly Nonequivalent group design. Nunan (1991) states that Quasi experimental research is defined as experimental design which is conducted as if it is look like the real situation. In this case, the researcher wanted to know the significant effect of Outdoor learning activity to develop students’ reading comprehension. In this experimental design, the researcher evaluated the experimental class before and after being given a treatment. Meanwhile, the other class stands as controlled class without the treatment. Finally, the researcher looked the influence of the treatment toward the experimental class.. The model of Quasi-Experimental design, is figured out as follows:.

(41) 28. Figure 2. Quasi-Experimental Design. E. O1. X. O2. ________________ C. O3. -. O4. Explanation: E. : Experimental class. C. : Control class. O1. : Pretest in experimental class. O2. : Pretest in control class. X. : Treatment for experimental class by using Contextual Guessing Technique. O3. : post test in experimental class. O4. : post test in control class Sugiyono (2015). B. Research variables This research consisted of two variables: independent and dependent variable. The independent variable of this research was outdoor learning activities and dependent variable of this research was students’ reading comprehension. C. Population and sampel 1. Population.

(42) 29. Arikunto (2013:203) states that population is the total member of research respondents, while sample is a part or representation of population that is researched. The population of this research was the second year students of English Education department which was totally 107 students. 2 . Sample Gay (2006) states that sampling is the process of selecting number of participants for a study in such a way that they represent the larger group from which they will be selected. The technique sampling technique used in this research was purposive sampling. The sample of this research were two classes from the second year students, those were PBI 3.4 as experimental class and PBI 5.6 as control class. D. Research Instruments The procedures of collecting data were performed as a follows: 1. Tests Test is a technique that the researcher used to measure the students’ knowledge and their comprehension in particular skill that is reading. There were two kinds of tests namely pre-test and post-test. The aim of the tests were to measure the second year student’s reading comprehension and to know whether this activity influence in teaching reading..

(43) 30. 2. Questionnaire Questionnaire is a technique that the researcher used to get more information about reading comprehension. The aim of questionnaire was to find out the factors that contributed to the second year students’ reading comprehension of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar. E. Procedures of collecting data the researcher collected the data using the following procedures: 1.. Pre-test The researcher gave the pre-test to experimental and controlled class. The students were asked to read a descriptive text by the researcher. The pre-test was conducted on April 03, 2018 for experimental class and April 03, 2018 for controlled class.. 2.. Treatment The activities of the experimental class were started on April 04, 2018 until April 20, 2018. The experimental class was given the treatment by using Outdoor Learning activity in teaching reading especially in descriptive text , while the activities in controlled class were started on April 05,2018 until April 20, 2018. The control class was only given conventional method without using Outdoor Learning Activities in teaching reading especially in descriptive text. The procedures of treatment were chronologically performed as follows:.

(44) 31. a. Experimental class 1. April 04,2017 July 17, 2017, the researcher did the treatment in experiment class the material given was what is descriptive text? In treatment, the researcher explained general description about descriptive text to students by using whiteboard in outdoor the classroom, the second treatment. 2. On April 06, 2018, the material given was Simple present tense in nominal sentence. 3. In the next meeting April 10, 2018, the material given was Simple Present Tense in verbal sentence. 4. On April 12, 2018, the material given was adjective for describing a things. 5. The fifth treatment on April 18, 2018, the researcher gave the students reading games about descriptive text. 6. The researcher continued the treatment on April 20, 2018. The researcher repeated all the materials and asked the students one by one. a. Control Class 1. April 05, 2018, the researcher did the treatment in experimental class the material given was what is descriptive text? In treatment, the researcher explained general description about descriptive text to students by using conventional method (lecturing), the second treatment 2. On April 11, 2018, the material given was Simple present tense in nominal sentence..

(45) 32. 3. In the next meeting April 12, 2018, the material given was Simple Present Tense in verbal sentence. 4. On April 16, 2018, the material given was adjective for describing a things. 5. The fifth treatment on April 17, 2018, the researcher gave the students reading task about descriptive text. 6. The researcher continued the treatment on April 20, 2018. The researcher repeated all the materials and asked the students one by one 3.. Post-test The post test was conducted after the treatment, the aim is to test their understanding on reading descriptive text it was held on experimental and controlled class.. F. Technique of data analysis 1. Scoring the students correct answer of pre-test and post-test.. 2. Calculating the percentage of the students score:. p. f X 100 n. April 23, 2018 in.

(46) 33. Where: P= Rate percentage F= Frequency of the correct answer N= the total number of students 3. Reading rubric SCALE. CLASSIFICATION. 80-100. Excellent. 60-79. Good. 40-59. Fairly Good. 20-39. Fair. 0-19. Poor. 4. Calculating the mean score by applying the formula. X. x N Where: X = Mean Score.  x = the sum of all score.

(47) 34. N = the total number of subjects 5. Finding out the mean of different score by using the formula:.  x  x  N. 2. 2. SD . N 1. Where: SD = Standard deviation. x. = The sum of the sequence.  x . 2. = The sequence of the sum. N = Total number of subject 6. Finding out significant difference between pre-test and post-test value of the test using the following formula: t. √(. )(. Where: t = test of significance. ).

(48) 35. x1= mean score of experimental group x2= mean score of controlled group SS1= sum square of experimental group SS2= sum square of controlled group n1= number of students of experiment group n2 = number of students of control group.

(49) 36. CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION This chapter dealed with the findings of the research and the discussions of the findings. The findings were in line with the problem statements stated in the introduction part. The findings of the research present the description of the result of data collected through reading test. In the discussions section, the researcher described further explanation of the findings given. Moreover, in this chapter, the researcher analyzed the data obtained from the students pre-test and post-test. The data consisted of the result of the pre-test and post-test. The pre-test was intended to know the ability of the students’ reading comprehension before giving treatments, while the post-test was intended to find out whether there was any improvement or not of the students’ reading comprehension after having several treatments through implementation of Outdoor Learning activity. A. Findings 1. The Classification of Students’ Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores in Experimental Class The findings of the research dealed with the rate percentage of the students’ score obtained through test, mean score, standard deviation, and test of significance..

(50) 37. Table 4.1 The distribution of frequency and percentage score of experiment class score in pre-test No. Score. Classification. Frequency. Percentage. 1. 80-100. Excellent. 8. 40%. 2. 60-79. Good. 7. 35%. 3. 40-59. Fair. 4. 20%. 4. 20-39. Poor. 1. 5%. 5. 0-29. Very Poor. -. -. 20. 100 %. Total. Table 4.1 above showed that, the rate percentage of experimental class in pre-test from 20 students, there were 8 (40%) students obtained excellent score and other students were under of it. Table 4.2 The distribution of frequency and percentage of Experiment class score in post-test No. Score. Classification. Frequency. Percentage. 1. 80-100. Excellent. 10. 50%. 2. 60-79. Good. 6. 30%. 3. 40-59. Fair. 4. 20%. 4. 20-39. Poor. -. -. 5. 0-29. Very Poor. -. -.

(51) 38. Total. 20. 100%. Table 4.2 shows the rate percentage score in experimental class in the post-test from 20 students. The students’ score were increase, there were 10 (50%) students obtained an excellent score. It meant that the score and percentages of experimental class in the post-test were better than in pre-test because in the rate percentage in the post-test was higher than the percentage in pre-test. 2. The Classification of Students’ Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores in Controlled Class. The following table showed the distribution of frequency and percentage of final score of teaching reading especially in Descriptive Text at the second year students of English Education Department in pre-test and post-test for control class. Table 4.3 The distribution of frequency and percentage score of Control class score in pre-test No. Score. Classification. Frequency. Percentage. 1. 80-100. Excellent. 6. 30%. 2. 60-79. Good. 7. 35%. 3. 40-59. Fair. 6. 30%. 4. 20-39. Poor. 1. 5%. 5. 0-19. Very Poor. -. -.

(52) 39. Total. 20. 100%. Table 4.3 above showed that, the rate percentage of experimental class in pre-test from 20 students, there were 6 (30%) students obtained excellent score and other students were under of it. Table 4.4 The distribution of frequency and percentage score of Control class score in Post-test No. Score. Classification. Frequency. Percentage. 1. 80-100. Excellent. 9. 45%. 2. 60-79. Good. 10. 50%. 3. 40-59. Fair. 1. 5%. 4. 20-39. Poor. -. -. 5. 0-19. Very Poor. -. -. Total. 20. 100%. Table 4.4 shows the rate percentage score in experimental class in the post-test from 20 students. The students’ score were increase, there were 9 (45%) students obtained an excellent score. Based on the result above, it could be concluded that the rate percentage in the post-test was different in the rate percentage in pre-test..

(53) 40. 3. The Mean Score and Standard Deviation of Experimental Class and Controlled Class After calculating the result of the students score, the mean score standard deviation or both classes be presented the following table: Table 4.5 The mean score and standard deviation of experimental class and controlled class in post-test Class Mean Score Experimental Controll. Pre-test Standard Deviation. 68.95 65.90. 15.55 18.60. Post-test Mean Score Standard Deviation 74.25 13.60 75.40 12.80. The table above showed that, the mean score of experiment class in pre-test was (68.95) and the standard deviation of experiment class was (15.55), and the mean score of control class in pre-test was (65.90) and the standard deviation of control was (18.60). While the mean score of experiment class in post-test was (74.25) and the standard deviation of experimental class was (13.60), and the mean score of controlled class in post-test was (75.40) and its standard deviation was (12.80). It can be concluded from both of the tests; the experiment class gained lower mean score in the post test than the control group. The significant score between experiment and control class could be known by using t-test. The result of t-test can be seen in table 4.6 as follows:.

(54) 41. Table 4.6 Distribution the value of t-test and t-table Variable. t-test value. t-table value. Posttest. -0.39. 2.042. Table 4.6 above indicated that the value of the t-test was lower than the value of the t-table. It indicates that there was a significant difference between the result of the students’ pre-test and post-test. The statistical analysis from the result of the students’ reading test of this research shown that the students’ reading comprehension before doing treatment through applying Outdoor Learning activity was higher. It was proved by the result of pre-test before treatments that there were 20 students, 8 (40%) students achieved excellent score, 7 (35%) students achieved good score,4 (45%) students achieved fair score and 1 student (5%) achieved poor score. On the contrary to the result of the students’ pre-test before, there was an improvement on the post-test where there were 10 students achieved (50%) excellent, 6 (30%) students achieved good score and 4 students (20%) got fair score. Based on the table of distribution the value of t-test and t-table in post-test previously, the researcher concluded that t-test value was lower than t-table ( -0.39 < 2.042), beside that, after giving treatments by using Outdoor Learning activities proved by showing the mean score of the students in post-test (74.25) was higher than mean score of the students (68.95) in pre-test in experiment class. But the mean score.

(55) 42. of control class (75.4) is higher than the mean score of experimental class (74.25). It could be concluded that the students’ reading comprehension had not improved by using outdoor learning activity. it meant that (H1) was rejected and (H0) was accepted. From the result above, we can show the difference between t-test and t-table was enough high. It can be concluded that teaching reading by using Outdoor Learning activities was not giving influence on the second year student reading comprehension especially in descriptive text. B. Discussion As it was stated in second chapter, that Outdoor learning was a learning process that was designed to allow students to learn direct learning materials on the actual object, so the learning would be more obvious. From that definition, the researcher concluded that Outdoor Learning Activities was a strategy which was very helpful in teaching especially in English, Outdoor Learning Activities could make the students more open their mind to explain any object that would be described moreover the students also enjoy the learning process and the students were not bored as long as learning English. Analysis of the mean score gap in the post-test between the experimental and controlled ensured if the technique used was effective. The mean score of the Experimental class was 74.25 and 75.40 for Controlled class. It means the gap of the students’ score of the Experimental and Controlled class was 1.15. The explanation of the gap between the two classes indicated that the Experimental class showed low improving than the Controlled class..

(56) 43. To sum up, based on the result of this study, which shows the students’ scores were much higher after the treatment in control class using the conventional method in teaching reading. Hence, the researcher put the effects when the researcher applied this activities in experimental class. The effects were: 1. The use of Outdoor Learning activity was unappropriate strategy for learning because the students need much concentration to answer the question in test. 2. The common subject was not the main priority 3. If the weather does not good, such as there are heavy rain or storm, so the teaching activity will get into trouble especially if the college does not have proper class. 4. Students would be less concentration 5. It was difficult to manage the students condition in outdoor 6. A lot of time, cost, and energy will be taken because the teacher is more intensive in guiding. 7. The study concept was sometimes contaminated by other students or other groups because of their curiousity. From the comparison of the result of post-test score between experimental and controlled group, the skill of experimental group was getting lower than control group. It meant that the treatment of using Outdoor Learning Activities to the experimental group was not successful..

(57) 44. It is also contradicted with husamah’s opinion, husamah (2013) explained that many advantages are gained from studying the environmental activities in the learning process, among other things: a. The learning activities more interesting and not makes the students feel bored to sit for hours, so that the students' motivation will be higher. b. The nature of learning will be more meaningful because the students are faced with the situation and the real situation or natural. c.. The materials that can be studied richer and more accurate factual.. d.. The activities of student learning is more comprehensive and more active because it can be done in various ways such as observing, asking questions or interviews, to prove or demonstrate, examine the facts, and others.. e.. Source sailed richer because the environment that could be studied such diverse social environment, natural environment, built environment, and others. Students can understand and appreciate the aspects of life that is available in the environment, so as to form a personal familiar with the life of the surrounding form, and can cultivate love it..

(58) 45. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION This chapter presents the conclusions as well as few suggestions of this study. Suggestions were taken based on findings and conclusions obtained in this research. A. Conclusion Based on the result of the data analysis, research findings, and discussion in the previous chapter, the researcher concluded that: The use of Outdoor Learning activities was not effective to be used in teaching reading to the second year students’ reading comprehension of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar. Using Outdoor Learning activities in teaching could not improve the students’ reading comprehension especially in descriptive text. The students’ reading comprehension before applied Outdoor Learning Activity was high. It was found in students post-test was higher than the pre-test, which proved that applying of Outdoor Learning activity in learning activity did not give contribution to the students’ reading comprehension. It was proved by the result of the mean score of control class in post test is higher than the experimental class. B. Suggestions There is a lot of learning activity or Method to be used in teaching learning progress, but, using Outdoor Learning activity was not an alternative way of teaching reading, especially in reading descriptive text. Here were some suggestions as follows:..

(59) 46. 1. In teaching reading, the teacher should not use the Outdoor Learning. Activities because it is less useful for improving students’ reading comprehension especially on the second year students of English Education Department, UIN Alauddin Makassar. 2.. In teaching reading, the teacher should choose a method that students can concentrate and focus well during learning process. Because Outdoor Learning Activities makes the students less concentrate and thir focus.. 3. The researcher hopes for the next researcher to find out more facts and references about Outdoor Learning Activities...

(60) 47. BIBLIOGRAPHY Albihar, Alief P. Ourdoor Study Terhadap Pemahaman Konsep Bagian Tumbuhan Beserta Fungsinya Untuk Anak Tunanetra. A thesis of UNESA Surabaya. 2013. Amri, Khaerul. Using Group Leadership in Improving the Students’ Speaking Ability at the Second Year Students of SMAN 1 Alla’ Kabupaten Enrekang. Makassar: a thesis of UIN Alauddin Makassar, 2013. Alyousef, Hesyam Suleiman. Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/ELF Learners. Journal of Language Learning. Vol 5 Retrieved on Thursday, 07 July 2016 at http://www.learningdomain.com/Reading.Introdu.pdf. 2005. Arikunto, Suharsimi. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta. 2006. Arikunto, Suharmisi. Prosedure Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta. 2013. Arman Ardiansyah, Andi (2017) in his thesis “The use of Outdoor Learning Strategy in teaching writing at the second grade students of SMK Negeri Benteng Selayar. A thesis of UIN Alauddin Makassar. 2017. Brown, H. Douglas. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. 1987. Burns, A., & Joyce, H. Focus on speaking. Sydney: National Center for English Language Teaching and Research. 1984. Burns, Paul Clement., Betty D. Rose,& Elmor P. Ross. Teaching reading ini today's elementary schools. Boston: Houghton mifflin .1982. Carnine, doglass., Jerry silbert, Edward J. Kameenui. Direct instruction reading 2nd edition. Ohio: merill publishing company. 1990. Gay, L.R. Education Research: Competencies for Analysis and application. 8th Edition. United State: Earson Merrill Prenfile Hall. 2006..

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(63) 50. APPENDICES.

(64) 51. APPENDIX I The students’ roll. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20. STUDENTS’ ROLL PBI 3.4 (EXPERIMENT CLASS) STUDENTS’ NAME 1 2 Muh. Aswan √ √ Arsita andini arfan √ √ Nur azisah √ √ Winda hermanto √ √ Indah zezarwati √ √ Nursalmi syahrir √ √ Devyrinasari suardi √ √ Adi dharma N √ √ Nurnisa amiruddin √ √ Arnila sumarti √ √ Usda urdani √ √ Aini nur isfani √ √ Linda malik √ √ Alfia lutfiana √ √ Rikawati √ √ Kiki fatmala √ √ Nasda √ √ Rahmat ramadhan √ √ Ardianto rumasera √ √ Reny andriani √ √. 3 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √. 4 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √. The researcher. Arizandi 20400114023. 5 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √. 6 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √.

(65) 52. THE STUDENTS’ ROLL PBI 5.6 (CONTROL CLASS) NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20. STUDENTS’ NAME Nurlatifah ramadhani Dewi kusuma ningrum St nurjannah Rifqa reskiawati Tirah suci anggraini Husnurrahmah S Murnin ayu sriningsih Nurhikmah mansyur Astuti ramadhani Dian sulasri Annisa miftahul jannah Normayanti jufri Nurtasari HT Nurul nasyiatul aisyiah Muh najamuddin MR Rezky asryatul fadhillah Fahmi satria Annisa Rahmiyanti Rosmiati. 1 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √. 2 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √. 3 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √. The Researcher. Arizandi 20400114023. 4 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √. 5 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √. 6 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √.

(66) 53. APPENDIX II The Row Score of the Students’ Pre-test and Post-test in experiment class. Pre-test No. Name. Score (X) 67. X12. Post-test X12. 4489. Score (X) 73. 5329. 1. Muh aswan. 2. Arsita andini arfan. 80. 6400. 80. 6400. 3. Nur azisah. 73. 5329. 87. 7569. 4. Winda hermanto. 73. 5329. 73. 5329. 5. Indah zezarwati. 80. 6400. 80. 6400. 6. Nursalmi syahrir. 73. 5329. 73. 5329. 7. Devyrinasari suardi. 80. 6400. 80. 6400. 8. Adi dharma N. 40. 1600. 47. 2209. 9. Nurnisa amiruddin. 80. 6400. 80. 6400. 10. Arnila sumarti. 87. 7569. 93. 8649. 11. Usda urdani. 73. 5329. 87. 7569. 12. Aini nur isfani. 80. 6400. 80. 6400. 13. Linda malik. 53. 2809. 53. 2809. 14. Alfia lutfiana. 67. 4489. 67. 4489. 15. Rikawati. 73. 5329. 73. 5329. 16. Kiki fatmala. 87. 7569. 93. 8649. 17. Nasda. 80. 6400. 87. 7569. 18. Rahmat ramadhan. 53. 2809. 73. 5329. 19. Ardianto rumasera. 47. 2209. 53. 2809. 20. Reny andriani. 33. 1089. 53. 2809. Total. 1379. 99677. 1485. 113775. Mean score. 68.95. 4983.85. 74.25. 5688.75.

(67) 54. APENDIX III The Row Score of the Students’ Pre-test and Post-test in Control Class. Pre-test No. Name. X12. Post-test X12. 1. Nurlatifah ramadhani. Score (X) 53. 2809. Score (X) 67. 4489. 2. Dewi kusuma ningrum. 60. 3600. 67. 4489. 3. St nurjannah. 87. 7569. 80. 6400. 4. Rifqa reskiawati. 67. 4489. 67. 4489. 5. Tirah suci anggraini. 67. 4489. 73. 5329. 6. Husnurrahmah S. 87. 7569. 67. 4489. 7. Murnin ayu sriningsih. 60. 3600. 67. 4489. 8. Nurhikmah mansyur. 60. 3600. 93. 8649. 9. Astuti ramadhani. 53. 2809. 67. 4489. 10. Dian sulasri. 93. 8649. 93. 8649. 11. Annisa miftahul Jannah. 93. 8649. 93. 8649. 12. Normayanti jufri. 93. 8649. 93. 8649. 13. Nurtasari HT. 80. 6400. 87. 7569. 14. Nurul nasyiatul aisyiah. 53. 2809. 73. 5329. 15. Muh najamuddin MR. 53. 2809. 60. 3600. 16. Rezky asryatul fadillah. 60. 3600. 80. 6400. 17. Fahmi satria. 73. 5329. 80. 6400. 18. Annisa. 20. 400. 47. 2209. 19. Rahmiyanti. 53. 2809. 67. 4489. 20. Rosmiati. 53. 2809. 87. 7569. Total. 1318. 93446. 1508. 116824. Mean score. 65.9. 4672.3. 75.4. 5841.2.

(68) 55. APENDIX IV The mean score of Experimental Class and Control Class. A. Experimental Class 1. Pre-test 1. 1. =. 2. Post-test. Ʃ. 1. =. = 68.95. 1. =. Ʃ. =. = 74.25. B. Control class 1. Pre-test 2=. =. 2. Ʃ. = 65.9. 2. Post-test 2=. =. 2=. Ʃ. 75.4.

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