Study Guide for AP FINAL Exam – Cumulative.pdf

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Mr. Carlos

AP Biology

10

th

Grade

Study Guide for FINAL Exam – Cumulative

Please make sure you have read all assigned Chapters in your textbook. All class notes and worksheets may be included in the final exam. All diagrams and pictures during class lectures may also be included in the final exam. The following information will be

included in the final exam.

PLEASE STUDY HARD! ! !

Units Included and any root words (Greek or Latin origin)

Chapter 1 – Principles of Life / Unifying Themes in Biology (starting on page 2) Chapter 2 – Chemistry and Energy of Life (starting on page 19)

Chapter 3 – Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes (starting on page 38) Chapter 4 – Cells: The Working Units of Life (staring on page 61) Chapter 5 – Cell Membranes and Signing (starting on page 83)

Chapter 6 – Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis (starting on page 106) Chapter 7 – The Cell Cycle and Cell Division (starting on page 130)

Vocabulary to know: Here are some words but many more to know.

Diversity, Symbiotic, Metabolism, Species, Evolution, Adaptation, Biology, Organism, Biodiversity, Ecosystem, Hypothesis, Theory, Homeostasis, Independent variable, Dependent variable, Catabolic, Anabolic, Respiration, Chemiosmosis, Diffusion

Chapter 1 – Principles of Life / Unifying Themes in Biology

Make sure you have read Chapter #1. Any of the concepts may be added to the final exam. You may review your AP Exam during school time. Look at Pop Quizzes.

1. Be able to define terms (vocabulary above).

2. Know the scientific method used during lab experiments. There will be a question on the scientific method. Be able to explain the steps involved. You will need to talk about the class labs.

3. Know the Levels of Organization starting with an atom and ending with the biosphere.

4. What are the four characteristics that are shared by living things on earth? Explain the characteristics. (Unifying Themes in Biology)

5. Make sure you know what is homeostasis. How do we survive in cold and warm temperatures? How does our body keep homeostasis? Give several examples.

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7. Evolution explains the diversity as well as the unity of life. Be able to explain natural selection as the main mechanism for diversity in life.

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Vocabulary to know:

Qualitative, Quantitative, Electron, Proton, Covalent Bond, Ionic Bond, Atom, Molecule, Element, Ion, Cohesion, Adhesion, Solvent, Solute, Compound, Catalyst, Reactants, Products, Carbohydrate, Lipids, Enzyme, Protein, Organic, Endothermic, Exothermic

Chapter 2 – Chemistry and Energy of Life

Make sure you have read Chapter #2. Any of the concepts may be added to the final exam. You may review your AP Exam during school time. Look at Pop Quizzes.

1. Be able to define terms (vocabulary above).

2. Draw a covalent bond with two elements. Make sure to label, electrons, protons, and neutrons. Know how to get the atomic mass for any element. Remember what each orbit has for electrons, the quantity. Know electron configuration and orbitals - s p d f. Know Bohr’s model.

First shell – max 2 Second shell – max 8 Third shell – max 18

3. Be able to explain polar and non-polar molecules. Know the properties of water (H2O). Know what are hydrogen bonds. Know hydrolysis and condensation.

4. What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?

5. What is the difference between covalent and ionic bonds? Know van der waals interaction. Know what is an isotope.

6. What is the difference between a solute and a solvent? What is a solution?

7. What are carbohydrates (mono to poly), lipids (unsaturated & saturated), and proteins? Know molecular structures and arrangement. Know the functional groups attached.

8. What are reactants and products in a chemical reaction? Know the process of condensation, hydrolysis, and dehydration.

9. Be able to explain activation energy of a catalyst (enzyme).

10. Know the enzyme and substrate complex structure. Where does a substrate bind to in a chemical reaction? What is the final result? Know the diagram.

11. Know the difference between exothermic and endothermic. Free Gibss Energy. ________________________________________________________________________

Vocabulary to know:

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Chapter 3 – Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes

Make sure you have read Chapter #3. Any of the concepts may be added to the final exam. You may review your AP Exam during school time. Look at Pop Quizzes.

1. Understand the difference between RNA and DNA. Know the difference between the sugars, nucleotide bases, and hydrogen bonds.

2. Know the functional group for protein synthesis.

3. Understand the proteins are polymers with important structural and metabolic roles in the body. Amino Acids are the building blocks for proteins.

4. Understand the roles of enzymes and activation energy.

5. Understand the regulation of metabolism through enzyme activity.

6. Identify the structures of proteins like pleated sheet and alpha helix. Understand the different levels of structure between proteins – primary and secondary and so on.

7. Understand protein confirmation and signal cascade in the cell receptors – intracellular and membrane. Understand the difference between all proteins located in or on the membrane – pumps, glycoproteins, and more.

8. Understand the lock and key model (substrate and enzyme complex).

9. Understand the activity of cell inhibitors. Know the difference and function of

allosteric site and activation site. Understand the difference between competitor and non-competitor inhibitors.

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Vocabulary to know:

Eukaryotic, Prokaryotic, Organelle, Semi-permeable, Membrane, Function, Secretion, Passive Transport, Active Transport, Diffusion, Osmosis, Facilitate, Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, Gradient, Concentration, Exocytosis,

Endocystosis, Phospholipid

Chapter 4 – Cells: The Working Units of Life

Make sure you have read Chapter #4. Any of the concepts may be added to the final exam. You may review your AP Exam during school time. Look at Pop Quizzes.

1. Be able to define terms (vocabulary above).

2. Know how to label the animal, plant, or bacteria cell. Make sure you know the organelles and their function.

3. Be able to talk about any scientist you have learned in class. How did they contribute to science?

4. Know the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. (pg. 64)

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6. How does protein synthesis happen inside the cell? Know the basic diagram. See notes.

7. Understand surface area to volume ratio between cells.

8. Phagocytosis process. (pg. 71)

9. Understand microtubules (three types) and function on cell.

10. Understand how junctions connect with adjacent cells. (three types)

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Vocabulary to know:

Passive Transport, Active Transport, Diffusion, Osmosis, Facilitate, Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, Gradient, Concentration, Exocytosis,

Endocystosis, Phospholipid

Chapter 5 – Cell Membrane and Signaling

Make sure you have read Chapter #5. Any of the concepts may be added to the final exam. You may review your AP Exam during school time. Look at Pop Quizzes.

1. Be able to draw and label a phospholipid. Identify the parts. What is hydrophilic and hydrophobic?

2. Explain why the cell membrane is important? What does it do for the cell? Be able to identify the contents in the cell membrane.

3. What is the difference between membrane and intracellular receptors?

4. What is the difference between passive transport and active transport?

5. During osmosis a solution may be isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic. Know the difference between all three solutions and offer an explanation for each. Know how to draw a cell in all three solutions.

6. What is facilitated diffusion, diffusion, and osmosis?

7. What is difference between endocytosis and exocytosis? What is phagocytosis?

8. Understand a cascade of signals that occur inside the cell. Signal transduction and signal binding to a receptor. Second messengers stimulate the cell. Remember the FRQ.

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Vocabulary to know:

ATP, NADPH, Catabolic, Anabolic, Metabolism, Energy, Chemosynthesis,

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Chapter 6 – Chemical Energy: Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Make sure you have read Chapter #6. Any of the concepts may be added to the final exam. You may review your AP Exam during school time. Look at Pop Quizzes.

1. Be able to define terms (vocabulary above).

2. There will be a question on metabolism, anabolic, and catabolic reactions. You must give an example for both anabolic and catabolic reactions. Know that a combination of both reactions will determine your metabolism.

3. Make sure you are able to explain ATP through cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Be able to explain how animals and plants make ATP. Remember animals use molecules from food and plants use sunlight to harness energy. The energy is stored in sugar.

4. Be able to identify the sugar molecule and formula C6H12O6. What food source gives you the most energy? What needs to be broken to receive the energy from sugar? Know the Food Digestion slide.

5. What is the low and high energy? Know the difference between ATP and ADP. How do you convert ADP to ATP? What happens? Be able to spell their names.

6. What is the law of conservation of energy? Explain how energy is recycled in the body. Be able to draw a diagram showing ADP converted to ATP. Know the structures of ADP and ATP.

7. Explain chemosynthesis. How does the process work? Give examples of living things that use this process.

8. What is photosynthesis? Explain the process in a simple manner. What living and non-living things use energy from the sun. Give examples.

9. Be able to label and identify a photosynthesis diagram. Give example of a photosynthetic organism.

10. Give an example of a food chain starting with a producer. Give example the levels of consumers involved.

11. How does visible light work for all living things like humans and plants?

12. Identify and label the parts in the chloroplast. What is the function of the parts? What does the chlorophyll do? Why is it important for plants to have chlorophyll?

13. Explain the light dependent reactions that take place in the thylakoids. Be able to go step by step. How do the molecules move in the membrane of the thylakoids? How are ADP, ATP, NADP, and NADPH involved?

14. Explain the light independent reactions that take place in the stroma. What is the final product? How are ADP, ATP, NADP, and NADPH involved?

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16. Why do plants use the process of photosynthesis? What is the main purpose for plants making sugars?

17. During light dependent reactions there are two molecules involved in capturing the energy of the sun. Make sure you know their names are Photosystem I and Photosystem II. We will cover the details next semester.

18. Know what it takes to make sugar. What are the molecules needed? What are the simple sugars called? What is the name of the cycle?

19. What is cellular respiration? What are the steps and processes involved with cellular respiration? Make sure to identify and draw the diagrams. (Glycolysis, Electron

Transport System, Prep Stage, and Krebs Cycle)

20. What is fermentation? What is lactic acid? How does it work?

21. Know what are REDOX reactions between NAD & FAD.

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Vocabulary to know: (THIS IS NEW MATERIAL)

Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Chromosome, Condense, Histone, Necrosis, Telomere, Chromatid, Interpahse, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis, Apoptosis, Binary Fission.

Chapter 7 – Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Cancer

Make sure you have read Chapter #7. Any of the concepts may be added to the final exam. You may review your AP Exam during school time. Look at Pop Quizzes.

1. Be able to define terms (vocabulary above).

2. Be able to explain the cell cycle. How does it work? What are the four steps?

3. What is Interphase? What is cytokinesis? Explain both steps.

4. What is mitosis? What are the steps to mitosis? Know the correct order.

5. Be able to draw the steps to mitosis. Explain what each step does inside the cell.

6. Be able to explain how chromosomes work inside the cell. Know what are histones, telomeres, and centromeres are. What are chromatins?

7. Cell Regulation and Cancer effects. Know external and Internal Factors to cancer. Know causes and treatments to cancer.

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